World Meteorological Organization (WMO); National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) ; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) ; European Commission
It has been recognized since the 1970s that a number of compounds emitted by human activities deplete stratospheric ozone. The montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone layer was adopted in 1987 to protect global ozone and, consequently, protect life from increased ultraviolet (UV) radiation at Earth’s surface. Chlorine- and brominecontaining substances that are controlled by the montreal Protocol are known as ozone-depleting substances (ODSs).
ODSs are responsible for the depletion of stratospheric ozone observed in polar regions (for example, the “ozone hole” above Antarctica) and in middle latitudes. The severe depletion of stratospheric ozone observed in the Antarctic has increased UV at the surface and affected climate at southern high latitudes.
The montreal Protocol and its Amendments and Adjustments have successfully controlled the global production and consumption of ODSs over the last two decades, and the atmospheric abundances of nearly all major ODSs that were initially controlled are declining. Nevertheless, ozone depletion will continue for many more decades because several key ODSs last a long time in the atmosphere after emissions end.