Instruments and Observing Methods (IOM) Report No. 131
WMO Solid Precipitation Intercomparison Experiment (SPICE) (2012 - 2015)
The Solid Precipitation Intercomparison Experiment (SPICE) was conducted as an internationally coordinated project, initiated and guided by the Commission for Instruments and Methods of Observation (CIMO) of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The SPICE field experiments took place between 2013 and 2015, with a preparatory stage during the winter of 2012/13. SPICE was carried out as a major international effort, and has been remarkable for the diversity of organizations which hosted SPICE tests, contributed with instruments, and were engaged in the data analysis and the derivation of results. In addition to National Meteorological and Hydrological Services, research organizations, academia, and the private sector played active roles and made unique contributions. Field experiments were conducted at twenty sites located in fifteen countries, on all continents except Africa and Antarctica, as outlined in Section 2 of this report. The instrument manufacturing community made a significant contribution to SPICE, as more than twenty instrument manufacturers provided instruments measuring precipitation amount, snow depth, and snow water equivalent. Each instrument model was tested on one or more sites in different climate regimes and over a large range of environmental conditions, providing a solid foundation for the results presented in this report.