The development project objective (DPO) of the First Climate Change Development Policy Operation Program is to support the Government of Vietnam (GoV) in its efforts to address climate change by adopting policies and strengthening institutional capacity to promote climate resilient and lower carbon intensity development. Vietnam is one of the most vulnerable countries to the effects of climate change, in particular to floods, storms, and sea-level rise. Climate change represents a significant threat to economic and human development, and the environment in Vietnam. Overall, the policy and institutional development program under the DPO aims to increase the GoV's capacity to respond to climate change and to increase Vietnam's preparedness to engage in international climate partnerships. This includes the development of a low carbon reference scenario, which will support the GoV in the formulation of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) and the completion of an adaptation prioritization methodology that could feed into the drafting of a National Adaptation Plan (NAP) under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Both undertakings will provide the GoV with a much needed scientific and methodological base to plan and target no-regret and no-harm climate action under uncertainty.