in Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters > Volume 3 Number 5 (16 September 2010) . - p.277-282
A numerical ensemble-mean approach was employed to solve a nonlinear barotropic model with stochastic basic flows to analyze the nonlinear effects in the formation of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The nonlinear response to external forcing was more similar to the NAO mode than the linear response was, indicating the importance of nonlinearity. With increasing external forcing and enhanced low-frequency anomalies, the effect of nonlinearity increased. Therefore, for strong NAO events, nonlinearity should be considered.
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