This chapter examines vertical transport of heat, moisture, momentum, trace gases, and aerosols, including the role of tropical deep convection and turbulence. Diurnal and seasonal variations in surface fluxes and boundary layer depth are examined. The boundary layer is compared over the ocean, humid, and dry tropics, including its role in dispersing chemicals and aerosols. Boundary layer clouds are examined in terms of their connection to sub-cloud layer properties. Comparisons are made between heat and moisture transport under a variety of convective modes such as mesoscale convective systems and shallow convection. The trade wind inversion, its maintenance, and east-west structure are presented. The final sections focus on how the tropical sub-cloud layer, clouds, and transport processes are represented in numerical models.
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