The chapter begins with a review of the general principles of atmospheric motion including scale analysis of tropical motions. An overview of the general circulation of the atmosphere and ocean is presented including stratospheric general circulation. Special emphasis is given to the Hadley circulation including its maintenance, seasonal migration, northern and southern hemispheric differences, and the contrast between tropical and midlatitude wind systems. Tropical circulations are examined in a theoretical framework as responses to heating at the equator. Regional monsoons, their conceptual models, seasonal evolution, and variability are explored. Modeling of the general circulation is examined in a focus section.
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