Three-dimensional climate models with a fully interactive representation of stratospheric ozone chemistry otherwise known as stratosphere-resolving chemistry-climate models (CCMs) are key tools for the attribution and prediction of stratospheric ozone changes arising from the combined effects of changes in the amounts of greenhouse gases (GHG) and ozone-depleting substances (ODS). These models can also be used to infer potential effects of stratospheric changes on the climate of the troposphere. In order to know how much confidence can be placed in the results from the CCMs, both individually and collectively, it is necessary to assess their performance by comparison with observations and known physical constraints.
Chemistry Climate Models and Scenarios, Radiation, Stratospheric Dynamics, Transport, Stratospheric Chemistry, Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere, Natural Variability of Stratospheric Ozone, Long-term projections of stratospheric ozone, Effects of the stratosphere on the troposphere
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