World Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; International Maritime Organization ; Food and Agriculture Organization (Rome, Italia) ; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization ; Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission ; International Atomic Energy Agency (Vienna, Austria) ; United Nations ; United Nations Environment Programme ; United Nations Development ProgrammePublished by: WMO ; 2012
The atmospheric input of chemicals to the ocean is closely related to a number of important global change issues. The increasing input of atmospheric anthropogenic nitrogen species to much of the ocean may cause a low level fertilization of the ocean that could result in an increase in marine 'new' productivity of up to ~3% and thus impact carbon drawdown from the atmosphere. However, the increase in nitrogen inputs are also likely to increase the formation of nitrous oxide in the ocean. The increased emission of this powerful greenhouse gas will partially offset the climate forcing impact resulting from the increase in carbon dioxide drawdown produced by N fertilization. Similarly, much of the oceanic iron, which is a limiting nutrient in many areas of the ocean, originates from the atmospheric input of minerals as a result of the long-range transport of mineral dust from continental regions. The increased supply of soluble phosphorus from atmospheric anthropogenic sources (through large-scale use in fertilizers) may also have a significant impact on surface-ocean biogeochemistry, but estimates are highly uncertain. While it is possible that the inputs of sulphur and nitrogen oxides from the atmosphere can add to the rates of ocean acidification occurring due to rising levels of carbon dioxide, there is too little information on these processes to assess the potential impact. These inputs may be particularly critical in heavily trafficked shipping lanes and in ocean regions proximate to highly industrialized land areas. Other atmospheric substances may also have an impact on the ocean, in particular lead, cadmium, and POPs. GESAMP initiated Working Group 38, The Atmospheric Input of Chemicals to the Ocean, to address these issues.
Collection(s) and Series: GAW Report- No. 203
Format: Digital (Free), Hard copy
Tags: Oceans ; Atmospheric chemistry ; Ocean-atmosphere interaction ; Global Atmosphere Watch Programme (GAW) ; GESAMP 84 Add tag