WMO Manuals and Guides
WMO Manuals and Guides
This booklet is a simple guide to the aeronautical meteorological codes, METAR, SPECI and TAF, applicable on 4 November 2021, updated as a result of the alignment of the Technical Regulations (WMO-No. 49), Volume II – Meteorological Service for International Air Navigation, Parts I and II, with Amendment 80 to Annex 3 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation. It is aimed at a wide range of users such as pilots, flight dispatchers, air traffic control staff and meteorological observers at smaller aerodromes where sophisticated automated instruments are not available. Although the reade ...
Published by: WMO ; 2022 (2022 edition)
This booklet is a simple guide to the aeronautical meteorological codes, METAR, SPECI and TAF, applicable on 4 November 2021, updated as a result of the alignment of the Technical Regulations (WMO-No. 49), Volume II – Meteorological Service for International Air Navigation, Parts I and II, with Amendment 80 to Annex 3 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation. It is aimed at a wide range of users such as pilots, flight dispatchers, air traffic control staff and meteorological observers at smaller aerodromes where sophisticated automated instruments are not available. Although the readers of this handbook may not be professional meteorologists, it is assumed that they have some formal meteorological training.
Collection(s) and Series: WMO- No. 782
Language(s): English; Other Languages: French, Russian, Spanish
Format: Digital (Free)
ISBN (or other code): 978-92-63-10782-4
Archives access: 2008-[...]Volume I contains WMO international codes for meteorological data and other geophysical data relating to meteorology. The relevant regulations are given for each code form.
Published by: WMO ; 2021 (2019 edition, updated in 2021)
Manual on Codes - International Codes, Volume I.2, Annex II to the WMO Technical Regulations: Part B – Binary Codes, Part C – Common Features to Binary and Alphanumeric Codes
Volume I contains WMO international codes for meteorological data and other geophysical data relating to meteorology. The relevant regulations are given for each code form.
Collection(s) and Series: WMO- No. 306
Language(s): English; Other Languages: French, Russian, Spanish
Format: Digital (Free)
ISBN (or other code): 978-92-63-10306-2
Archives access: 2001-[...]
Tags: Automated Weather Observing System (AWOS) ; WMO Integrated Global Observing System (WIGOS) ; Manual ; Observations ; Information management ; OBS - Personnel performing meteorological observations ; Instruments and Methods of Observation Programme (IMOP) ; WMO Data Management ; Technical Publications Add tagThis is the first edition of the Manual on the WMO Integrated Global Observing System (WMO-No. 1160), developed following the decision of the Sixteenth World Meteorological Congress to proceed with the implementation of that System (WIGOS). It was approved by the Seventeenth World Meteorological Congress.
The Manual was developed by the Executive Council through its Inter-Commission Coordination Group on WIGOS, specifically its Task Team on WIGOS Regulatory Material. It is the result of a collaborative approach involving all interested technical commissions under the leadership of the C ...
Published by: WMO ; 2021 (2021 edition)
Manual on the WMO Integrated Global Observing System (WMO-No. 1160): Annex VIII to the WMO Technical Regulations
This is the first edition of the Manual on the WMO Integrated Global Observing System (WMO-No. 1160), developed following the decision of the Sixteenth World Meteorological Congress to proceed with the implementation of that System (WIGOS). It was approved by the Seventeenth World Meteorological Congress.
The Manual was developed by the Executive Council through its Inter-Commission Coordination Group on WIGOS, specifically its Task Team on WIGOS Regulatory Material. It is the result of a collaborative approach involving all interested technical commissions under the leadership of the Commission for Basic Systems (CBS) and the Commission for Instruments and Methods of Observation (CIMO).
The Manual is designed: (a) To specify the obligations of Members in the implementation and operation of WIGOS; (b) To facilitate cooperation in observations between Members; (c) To ensure adequate uniformity and standardization in the practices and procedures employed in achieving (a) and (b) above.
Collection(s) and Series: WMO- No. 1160
Language(s): English; Other Languages: French, Spanish, Russian, Arabic, Chinese, Japanese
Format: Digital (Free)
ISBN (or other code): 978-92-63-11160-9
Tags: Observations ; Meteorological instrument ; Hydrometeorological instrument ; Automated Weather Observing System (AWOS) ; Global Space-based Inter-Calibration System (GSICS) ; WMO Integrated Global Observing System (WIGOS) ; Manual ; OBS - Personnel installing and maintaining instrumentation ; OBS - Personnel managing observing programmes and networks ; OBS - Personnel performing instrument calibrations ; OBS - Personnel performing meteorological observations ; Technical Publications Add tagThis publication is the outcome of the revision, expansion, and up-dating of the 1998 Guide to Wave Analysis and Forecasting. It is designed to enhance the provision of up-to-date information and guidance material on all aspects of the ocean-related activities of National Meteorological Services.
This 2018 (3rd edition) represents the latest updates, taking into account the dramatic improvements in wave modelling and observational capability over the last two decades. It also contains a web-based Dynamic part, describing operational wave models, also available on the WMO website ...
Published by: WMO ; 2020 (2018 edition)
This publication is the outcome of the revision, expansion, and up-dating of the 1998 Guide to Wave Analysis and Forecasting. It is designed to enhance the provision of up-to-date information and guidance material on all aspects of the ocean-related activities of National Meteorological Services.
This 2018 (3rd edition) represents the latest updates, taking into account the dramatic improvements in wave modelling and observational capability over the last two decades. It also contains a web-based Dynamic part, describing operational wave models, also available on the WMO website at https://community.wmo.int/activity-areas/Marine/Pubs/WMO702DynamicPart
The former JCOMM Expert Team on Waves and Coastal Hazards led the revision.
Collection(s) and Series: WMO- No. 702
Language(s): English; Other Languages: French, Russian, Spanish, Chinese
Format: Digital (Free), Hard copy (ill., charts, maps)
ISBN (or other code): 978-92-63-10702-2
Archives access: 1988-[...]In conjunction with the Manual on the WMO Information System (Manual on WIS) (WMO-No. 1060), the Guide to the WMO Information System (Guide to WIS) is designed to ensure adequate uniformity and standardization in the data, information and communication practices, procedures and specifications employed among WMO Members in the operation of the WMO Information System (WIS) as it supports the mission of WMO. The Manual on WIS, Annex VII to the WMO Technical Regulations (WMO-No. 49), contains standard and recommended practices, procedures and specifications. The Guide to WIS contains additional in ...
Published by: WMO ; 2019 (Updated in 2021)
In conjunction with the Manual on the WMO Information System (Manual on WIS) (WMO-No. 1060), the Guide to the WMO Information System (Guide to WIS) is designed to ensure adequate uniformity and standardization in the data, information and communication practices, procedures and specifications employed among WMO Members in the operation of the WMO Information System (WIS) as it supports the mission of WMO. The Manual on WIS, Annex VII to the WMO Technical Regulations (WMO-No. 49), contains standard and recommended practices, procedures and specifications. The Guide to WIS contains additional information concerning practices, procedures and specifications which Members are invited to follow or implement in establishing and conducting their arrangements in compliance with the WMO Technical Regulations and in developing meteorological and hydrological services.
Collection(s) and Series: WMO- No. 1061
Language(s): English; Other Languages: Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian, Spanish
Format: Digital (Free)
ISBN (or other code): 978-92-63-11061-9
Archives access: 2013-[...]Part D – Representations derived from data models consists of the specification of the list of standard representations derived from data models, including those using extensible markup language (XML), with their specifications and associated code tables. This is the first edition of Volume I.3 of the Manual on Codes and introduces the use of XML.
PermalinkThis manual is designed to facilitate cooperation in data-processing and forecasting among Members; to specify obligations of Members in the implementation of the World Weather Watch (WWW) Global Data-processing and Forecasting System (GDPFS); and to ensure adequate uniformity and standardization in the practices and procedures employed in achieving these.
PermalinkThe Manual on the WMO Information System (WMO-No. 1060) is designed to ensure adequate uniformity and standardization of data, information and communications practices, procedures and specifications employed among World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Members in the operation of the WMO Information System (WIS) as it supports the mission of the Organization.
PermalinkThis publication is designed to provide Members of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) with guidance and assistance in developing national activities linked to climate information and services.
PermalinkThe first edition of this guide was published in 1950.
PermalinkInternationally agreed methods of providing services to the marine community around the world are described in the Manual on Marine Meteorological Services (WMO-No. 558), Volume I. The purpose of this Guide is to complement the Manual by:
(a) Describing the requirements for the various types of service;
(b) Explaining the rationale for the agreed methods of providing services;
(c) Giving guidance on how to set up and maintain marine meteorological services.
It follows the same structure as the Manual on Marine Meteorological Services.
PermalinkThis publication is an Annex to Chapter 9 of the Guide to the WMO Integrated Global Observing System (WMO, 2018). It provides detailed technical guidance for Regional WMO Integrated Global Observing System (WIGOS) Centres (RWCs) to run the operational activities related to the WIGOS Data Quality Monitoring System (WDQMS), specifically for the surface stations of the Global Observing System (GOS) located on land (on the territories of WMO Regional Association (RA) Members). These guidelines describe the three main functions of WDQMS (monitoring, evaluation and incident management), as well as t ...
PermalinkThe purpose of this Guide is to define the minimum technical specifications and procedures applicable to the Direct Broadcast Network for Near-real-time Relay of Low Earth Orbit Satellite Data (DBNet) and to provide guidance for implementing these specifications and procedures.
In the present Guide, the term “shall” is used when referring to the technical specifications and procedures that have to be applied for DBNet to work properly, and the term “should” when referring to those that would enhance the proper functioning of DBNet. The DBNet technical specifications are applica ...
PermalinkThe objective of this publication is to provide guidance to WMO Members on how to develop and implement a quality management system (QMS). The Guide details the steps required to obtain certification of compliance with the ISO standard ISO 9001:2015, Quality Management System – Requirements (ISO, 2015c)It also provides the steps for transition from ISO standard ISO 9001:2008 (ISO, 2008) to standard ISO 9001:2015 (ISO, 2015c). It is especially focused on WMO Member National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs). However, it could be successfully utilized by other service providers, ...
PermalinkThis publication responds to the recommendations made in the review of the future roles and operation of RTCs, which was carried out by the Executive Council Panel of Experts on Education and Training from 2012 to 2014. The review and recommendations were approved by the WMO Executive Council at its sixty-sixth session in 2014. The review underlined the importance and usefulness of the RTCs to WMO Members. However, it also noted that, for Members to get even more value from such centres, the criteria for designation and reconfirmation of RTCs needed to be improved and that Directors of RTCs wo ...
PermalinkThis Atlas describes the classification system for clouds and meteorological phenomena used by all WMO Members. The classifications also describe meteorological meteors other than clouds – hydrometeors, lithometeors, photometeors, and electrometeors.
The Atlas provides a common language to communicate cloud observations, and ensures consistency in reporting by observers around the world. It serves as a training tool for meteorologists, as well as for those working in aeronautical and maritime environments, and it has become popular with weather enthusiasts and cloud spotters.
PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA); United States Agency for International Development (USAID); et al. - WMO, 2016Flash Flood Guidance System with global coverage (Res 21, Cg-XV) enhances early warning capabilities of the NMHSs, currently covers fifty two (52) countries and more than two billion people around the world saving lives and decreasing economic losses.
PermalinkThe purpose of this handbook is to cover some of the most commonly used drought indicators/indices that are being applied across drought-prone regions, with the goal of advancing monitoring, early warning and information delivery systems in support of risk-based drought management policies and preparedness plans. These concepts and indicators/indices are outlined below in what is considered to be a living document that will evolve and integrate new indicators and indices as they come to light and are applied in the future. The handbook is aimed at those who want to generate indicators and indi ...
PermalinkIt is not enough to assert—to an elected official, a regulator, a donor organization or the taxpayer—that one’s organization is doing an effective job of flood management. One also has to be able to provide a credible answer to the question: “How do you know?” 2 There is a multiplicity of flood management activities that can be pursued by a plethora of government jurisdictions, government agencies, NGOs, private and volunteer groups— independently, in cooperation, in competition. These activities may include: constructing flood prevention infrastructure; rebuilding houses, buildings and infras ...
PermalinkThe purpose of this publication is to facilitate a common understanding of the basic qualifications required of individuals who are to be recognized either as Meteorologists or as Meteorological Technicians, as defined by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), while assisting National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) in establishing their respective personnel classification systems and training programmes to satisfactorily meet international standards.
PermalinkThis Guide provides the general description of the main ITU processes related to radio-frequency coordination, regional structure and regulatory framework that govern the use of the radio-frequency spectrum globally2 and guide the national management of the radiofrequency spectrum as well as management of satellite orbits. More detailed information on which frequencies are important to meteorology and related activities is available in the joint WMO/ITU publication entitled Use of Radio Spectrum for Meteorology: Weather, Water and Climate Monitoring and Prediction
PermalinkThis Guide explains the World Meteorological Organization procedures and practices, and is designed to serve as a ready reference for Permanent Representatives of Members with WMO, and for the senior staff of NMHSs, especially those dealing with international affairs.
PermalinkThe Operational Manual consists of the text and the appendices. Items included in the text relate to the Typhoon Committee agreement, in particular, basic information for executing meteorological operation, whilst the appendices contain national practices and procedures (it is felt that the Member concerned should have the right to be able to change without having to get prior formal agreement of the Typhoon Committee) together with detailed and technical information for meteorological operation. Information described in WMO official publications such as Manuals is only referred to and not i ...
PermalinkThis Guide presents some of the observing systems currently available to meet the stated operational requirements in aeronautical meteorology and provides guidance on the ones deemed most appropriate under different circumstances. Where applicable, the Guide encourages the adoption of WMO/International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) standards. An important issue considered is the cost of the provision of observations in relation to the expected measurable benefits to be derived from a particular application.
PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) - WMO, 2014 (2011 edition updated in 2014; WMO-No. 1001)This publication was deemed obsolete by the Commission for Aeronautical Meteorology at its sixteenth session (CAeM-16) (24–27 July 2018) and has therefore been discontinued.
PermalinkThis tool sets out to provide for the operational level a lead-in on available concepts and methods to assess flood losses for three major purposes: the activation and facilitation of local and external help, the formulation of recovery plans, and long-term development planning and policy reform in the realm of flood management. The second edition of the Tool incorporates recent developments in flood loss assessment and techniques across the world, such as examples of practiced assessment case studies from Czech Republic, Japan, Madagascar and Nepal.
PermalinkThis tool provides flood management practitioners a generic approach for integrating environmental considerations into the decision-making processes in basin flood management on project as well as strategic levels. As such, it provides generic approaches for conducting Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEA) at the basin flood management planning stage and Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) at the project design and implementation stage.
PermalinkFlood managers have traditionally focused on structural interventions that, in the majority of cases have succeeded only in shifting impacts downstream or upstream. Meanwhile, however, the analytical tools for flood risk assessment and risk management practices offer a far greater variety of options. The Tool introduces the topic based on a judicious combination of measures that address risk reduction, risk retention and risk transfer through a strategic mix of structural and non-structural measures for flood preparedness, response and recovery. Risk reduction options also include the question ...
PermalinkCoastal flood hazards are diverse (storm surges, tsunamis, tropical storms, seiches etc.) and are highly unpredictable. A profound understanding of these hazards, their mechanisms and potential impacts is therefore indispensable in order to derive an appropriate risk management response.
Such response should be selected from the widest range of measures and policies possible, taking due account of the inherent uncertainties both with respect to the probability of hazard and evolving socioeconomic developments.
This Tool paper aims at providing practical guidance to flood ...
PermalinkAs floods do not recognize borders, transboundary flood risk management is imperative in shared river basins, involving both Governments – as borders are involved – and their people – as risk is involved. However, transboundary flood management is not easy to implement, as joint monitoring, forecasting and early warning, coordinated risk assessment and joint planning of measures, and appropriate legal and institutional frameworks are all necessary. The tool on transboundary aspects of flood management focuses on common problems, objectives and approaches of flood management in transboundary ba ...
PermalinkFlood forecasting and early warning is carried out to reduce risks in flood prone areas. This tool is tailored for use when decision‐makers need to establish an effective overview of the flood situation, provide timely and accurate early warnings and flood forecasting services to a variety of users. Many countries have already integrated flood forecasting and early warning measures into their local and national emergency planning systems. This tool provides a concise overview of concepts and approaches in flood forecasting and early warning that help flood managers and practitioners to develop ...
PermalinkFlood Maps are tools to visualize flood information for decision makers and the general public. These maps form the basis for developing flood risk scenarios based on land use, various environmental and climate conditions and including social and economic conditions. Flood maps in their various formats and scales are the basis for the planning and implementation of development alternatives. In addition to the general objective of a flood map, special uses require specific information including maps that depict exposure to floods of various recurrence periods, flood risks, vulnerability and res ...
PermalinkThis GCOS (Global Climate Observing System) Reference Upper‐Air Network (GRUAN) Manual describes mandatory operating protocols (distinguished by use of the words “must” or “shall”) which describe what is expected of participating sites, the GRUAN Lead Centre, and the Working Group on GRUAN (WG‐GRUAN) to achieve the goals of GRUAN. These protocols have the status of requirements in a technical resolution, which sites within GRUAN are expected to follow or implement.
PermalinkThe tool aims at assisting practitioners mainly through reviewing and describing options for conservation and restoration of rivers and floodplains that can potentially assist flood management practitioners in addressing various flood management objectives, and providing an overview of current practices that could help flood management practitioners in identifying and establishing the values of ecosystem services generated under different conservation, restoration and flood management scenarios.
PermalinkThe main thrust of this tool is to examine major aspects of urban flood management through in the context of climate change. This document deals with the “management” process and less about the technical, structural, and capital-intensive strategies usually pursued in coping with urban floods. It also explores the vital interaction and necessary overlap of urban flood management with land use management, urban planning, socio-economic development, and public awareness and participation. All of these issues lie at the core of planning for and carrying out strategies for climate change adaptatio ...
PermalinkThis tool aims to provide various options of flood proofing measures, not exclusively limited to structural measures or building protections, with a target of practitioners responsible for flood management. The tool covers two aspects of flood management: flood resistance and flood resilience. The flood resistance keeps out flood water to prevent flood damages, while flood resilience minimizes the impacts of floods once flooding occurs.
PermalinkThis tool provides an overview of approaches and practical actions to reduce disaster risks associated with flash floods. Flood forecasting and warning are expected to play an important role in flash flood management though there are scientific and technical limits to provide accurate and timely warnings. Spatial planning and flood proofing can also reduce risk of exposure. These require flood hazard mapping to assess the risk of flash floods and an appropriate legal framework to integrate (flash) flood management planning and spatial planning. Participatory approach can identify areas at risk ...
PermalinkThe 2010 Edition of this guide has been completely revised and updated. It provides information regarding the most important practices and procedures in agricultural meteorology.
PermalinkThis manual is designed to facilitate cooperation in respect of the international coordination of marine meteorological services (MMS); to specify obligations of Members in the implementation of MMS; and to ensure uniformity in the practices and procedures employed in achieving these. It also aims to facilitate the development of adequate support from World Weather Watch (WWW) to MMS.
PermalinkOver the years, there has been much discussion on what drought indices should be used in a particular climate and for what application. Many drought definitions and indices have been developed and attempts have been made to provide some guidance on this issue.
We hope that this user guide on the Standardized Precipitation Index will help countries and institutions to understand how to calculate and use the SPI in order to develop or further enhance their own drought monitoring and early warning capabilities.
PermalinkOn 27 May 2008, the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) successfully launched the FY-3 polar orbiting meteorological satellite through its partners. While making the Earth observations, FY-3 continuously broadcasts within its coverage the raw MPT data (from MERSI instrument), which is packed in CCSDS format and raw HRPT data from all its payload instruments (with only exception of MERSI instrument) via both X and L transmission bands. To extensively share the FY-3 data, the National Satellite Meteorological Center/CMA has released 2 software packages oriented to Linux users: (1) FY3L0pp ...
PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) - WMO, 2011
PermalinkThis tool aims to provide guidance for reservoir operations and managing flows that optimize the benefits from ecosystems in the flood plains and socio-economic activities on those. It provides guidance on the issues that need to be addressed in designing and operating reservoirs to meet the requirements of various users and uses along with the ecological needs . The tool highlights various aspects of reservoir operation and discusses possibilities how flows can be managed successfully to minimize their adverse impacts. As this tool exists in the second edition, it has been revised in order to ...
PermalinkThis Tool introduces strategies for climate change adaption and implementation of the strategies in the context of flood management. Nine case studies are extracted from the following countries and a regional organization, namely US, UK, France, Germany, Netherlands, Japan, China, South Korea, and EU. The adaptation strategies are described especially from the point of flood risk assessment. Based on the projected impacts of climate change, each country formulates their own adaption measures and designates responsible agencies for their implementation.
PermalinkThis tool provides basic information on preparation and implementation of flood emergency management, which breaks down into three stages: preparedness, response, and recovery. By reducing exposure to flooding at each stage, flood emergency management contributes to flood risk reduction, which is an important objective of Integrated Flood Management. To this end, flood hazard maps help users understand hazard information through the process of planning, preparing and responding to flood. Emergency exercises (e.g. role playing drill) also strengthen stakeholders’ capacity to smoothly conduct em ...
PermalinkThe National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) of an increasing number of maritime countries are actively engaged in the provision of storm surge forecast services for a wide range of maritime and coastal activities, in particular for coastal defense, shipping, fisheries, offshore mining, commerce, coastal engineering, construction and recreation. This guide draws attention to vulnerabilities in coastal areas exposed to storm surges by focusing on risk forecasting, in addition to hazard forecasting.
PermalinkVolume I contains WMO international codes for meteorological data and other geophysical data relating to meteorology; it constitutes Annex II of the WMO Technical Regulations and, therefore, has the status of a Technical Regulation. It is issued in two volumes: Volume I.1, containing Part A, and Volume I.2, containing Part B and Part C.