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La finalidad de la presente Guía es proporcionar orientación a las organizaciones de los Miembros que están elaborando, aplicando o manteniendo programas de formación y de evaluación basados en competencias a partir de los marcos de competencias de la Organización Meteorológica Mundial (OMM) establecidos en el Reglamento Técnico, Volumen I (OMM-Nº 49).
Este material de orientación contiene ejemplos de algunas de las mejores prácticas de los Miembros para facilitar la transferencia tanto de conocimientos como de experiencia, y así permitir que las organizaciones cumplan con los requisito ...Published by: OMM ; 2019 (Edición de 2018)
La finalidad de la presente Guía es proporcionar orientación a las organizaciones de los Miembros que están elaborando, aplicando o manteniendo programas de formación y de evaluación basados en competencias a partir de los marcos de competencias de la Organización Meteorológica Mundial (OMM) establecidos en el Reglamento Técnico, Volumen I (OMM-Nº 49).
Este material de orientación contiene ejemplos de algunas de las mejores prácticas de los Miembros para facilitar la transferencia tanto de conocimientos como de experiencia, y así permitir que las organizaciones cumplan con los requisitos de la OMM de la forma más eficiente.
La Guía también será útil para las comisiones técnicas de la OMM y para los equipos de expertos que se encargan de elaborar y actualizar requisitos en materia de competencias (parte II, sección 1), así como para los proveedores de formación, incluidos los Centros Regionales de Formación (CRF), que necesitarán las competencias para articular sus planes de formación y los programas de sus cursos (parte III, sección 3). Además, la Guía será útil para los Servicios Meteorológicos e Hidrológicos Nacionales (SMHN) y para otras organizaciones de los Miembros, que necesitarán las competencias para orientar su prestación de servicios y, en particular, para usarlas en sistemas de gestión de la calidad (parte I y parte III).
Collection(s) and Series: OMM- No. 1205
Language(s): Spanish; Other Languages: English, French, Russian, Arabic, Chinese
Format: Digital (Free)
ISBN (or other code): 978-92-63-31205-1والرامیة (WMO) في عام 2009 ، اتُّخذت خطوة مهمة في إعداد أطر الكفاءة للمنظمة العالمیة للأرصاد الجوية إلى إرشاد الأعضاء في تقديم الخدمات وتطوير القدرات عندما أعادت فرقة العمل المعنیة بمؤھلات متنبئي الأرصاد الجوية للطیران تحديد المؤھلات المطلوبة من خبراء الأرصاد الجوية وفنیي الأرصاد الجوية. وقد بوضع مجموعة من معايیر الكفاءة للمتنبئین والمراقبین (WMO) أوصت الفرقة المجلسَ التنفیذي للمنظمة المعنیین بالأرصاد الجوية للطیران بغیة مواصلة تحديد المهارات والمعارف الوظیفیة المحورية المطلوبة في القرار ،(WMO) من الموظفین التشغیلیین العاملین في خدمات الطیران. ووافق المجلس التنفیذي للمنظمة وكلَّف بتنفیذھا (AMP ...Published by: المنظمة العالمية للأرصاد ; 2019 (2018年版)
والرامیة (WMO) في عام 2009 ، اتُّخذت خطوة مهمة في إعداد أطر الكفاءة للمنظمة العالمیة للأرصاد الجوية إلى إرشاد الأعضاء في تقديم الخدمات وتطوير القدرات عندما أعادت فرقة العمل المعنیة بمؤھلات متنبئي الأرصاد الجوية للطیران تحديد المؤھلات المطلوبة من خبراء الأرصاد الجوية وفنیي الأرصاد الجوية. وقد بوضع مجموعة من معايیر الكفاءة للمتنبئین والمراقبین (WMO) أوصت الفرقة المجلسَ التنفیذي للمنظمة المعنیین بالأرصاد الجوية للطیران بغیة مواصلة تحديد المهارات والمعارف الوظیفیة المحورية المطلوبة في القرار ،(WMO) من الموظفین التشغیلیین العاملین في خدمات الطیران. ووافق المجلس التنفیذي للمنظمة وكلَّف بتنفیذھا (AMP) على وضع معايیر كفاءة للعاملین في مجال الأرصاد الجوية للطیران ،(EC-LXI) 9 بحلول الأول من كانون الأول/ ديسمبر 2013 وإدراجها في المجلد الأول من اللائحة الفنیة (مطبوع المنظمة .(
Collection(s) and Series: مجموعة مطبوعات المنظمة
Language(s): Arabic; Other Languages: English, French, Russian, Chinese, Spanish
Format: Digital (Free)This Guidance on Integrated Urban Hydrometeorological, Climate and Environment Services (Volume I: Concept and Methodology) serves to assist WMO Members in the development and implementation of the urban services that address the needs of the cities stakeholders in their countries.Published by: WMO ; 2019
Guidance on Integrated Urban Hydrometeorological, Climate and Environmental Services - Volume I: Concept and Methodology
This Guidance on Integrated Urban Hydrometeorological, Climate and Environment Services (Volume I: Concept and Methodology) serves to assist WMO Members in the development and implementation of the urban services that address the needs of the cities stakeholders in their countries.
Collection(s) and Series: WMO- No. 1234
Format: Digital (Free)
ISBN (or other code): 978-92-63-11234-72009年，航空预报员资格任务组重新确定了气象工作者和气象技术人员的资格要求，这是迈向制定世界气象组织（WMO）胜任力框架，指导会员服务提供和能力开发的重要一步。任务组还建议WMO执行理事会制定一套航空气象预报员和观测员的胜任力标准，以进一步确定从事航空服务的业务人员所需的关键工作技能和知识。WMO执行理事会通过其决议9（EC-61）批准制定航空气象人员（AMP）胜任力标准，该标准已于2013年12月1日授权实施，并被纳入《技术规则》第一卷（WMO-No.49）。Published by: 世界气象组织 (WMO) ; 2019 (2018年版)
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Collection(s) and Series: 世界气象组织 (WMO)- No. 1205
Language(s): Chinese; Other Languages: English, French, Russian, Arabic, Spanish
Format: Digital (Free)
ISBN (or other code): 978-92-63-51205-5
Published by: WMO ; 2019
Developing Meteorological and Hydrological Services through WMO Education and Training Opportunities
Collection(s) and Series: ETR- No. 25
Language(s): English; Other Languages: French, Spanish, Russian
Format: Digital (Free)In this lesson, learners will explore the alignment of meteorological and non-meteorological factors that create Critical Fire Weather Patterns. Several scenarios will step learners through the decision-making processes for identifying the presence of a Critical Fire Weather Pattern and communicating with partners using terminology familiar to them. The scenarios will also illustrate how coordination and consistency among meteorologists support the fire agencies and other partners. The focus of the lesson is on recognizing that the presence of a Critical Fire Weather Pattern is more important ...PermalinkC3S User Learning Services offers free training on how to use the Climate Data Store platform and its content. Our ambition is to provide high quality training to those who use climate data.
The C3S mission is to support adaptation and mitigation policies of the European Union by providing consistent and authoritative information about climate change. We offer free and open access to climate data and tools based on the best available science. We listen to our users and endeavour to help them meet their goals in dealing with the impacts of climate change.PermalinkThis lesson was developed by meteorologist, Dr. Mick Pope, with sponsorship from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BoM). The lesson is a somewhat broad-brush review of the overall forecast process, but with specific application of the forecast funnel approach as used by Australia's Bureau of Meteorology (BoM). The forecast process components include decision support and communication, use of numerical weather prediction, and applying the forecast funnel approach. The forecast funnel is described in detail, along with the forecaster time pyramid, and it is applied using a BoM forecast polic ...PermalinkThis online lesson introduces learners to the Impact-Based Forecast and Warning Services approach to managing risk from weather events. After reviewing the steps of the approach, learners will practice using them in two simulations. In the simulations, learners must determine the likelihood and potential severity of weather hazards associated with an approaching storm. Then they must create a message describing the potential risk and impacts from the storm's most prominent hazards.PermalinkThis 45-minute lesson provides an overview of the satellite-derived products generated by the Satellite Application Facility on Land Surface Analysis (LSA-SAF) that may provide beneficial information to the agriculture community. Learners will practice reading and interpreting the LSA-SAF products to better understand the characteristics of vegetation. The lesson also discusses the application of satellite-derived products in regression analysis to model agricultural production, and uses a wine production case in the Portuguese Douro Valley to show learners how seasonal crop productions may be ...PermalinkThe Community Earth System Model (CESM) is a fully-coupled, community, global climate model that provides state-of-the-art computer simulations of the Earth's past, present, and future climate states. The CESM Distance Learning Course is based on the CESM Tutorial held annually at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, Colorado. This course consists of 12 lectures and 4 practical sessions on simulating the climate system and practical sessions on running Community Earth System Model (CESM), modifying components, and analyzing data. The course is targeted at the graduat ...PermalinkWhile solar radiation enables and sustains life on Earth, it also produces “space weather” that can profoundly impact different technologies, including telecommunications, satellite navigation, and the electric power grid. Solar flares can produce x-rays resulting in radio blackouts that block high-frequency radio waves. Solar Energetic Particles can penetrate satellite electronics and cause electrical failure. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) can cause geomagnetic storms that induce ground currents and degrade power grid operations, sometimes catastrophically. The Sun, The Earth, and Near-Earth ...PermalinkIn this lesson, forecasters will practice using guidance from different convection-allowing models (CAMs) over the short term. As they review and analyze the model guidance they will encounter some of the advantages and limitations of using CAMs for winter weather.PermalinkWant to know about COSMIC, and how satellite signals can provide information about Earth's atmosphere? This video provides anyone interested in the topic with a brief overview of the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate, called COSMIC. Targeted to students and teachers in Grades 5-9 but accessible to anyone, the video introduces the latest COSMIC mission (COSMIC-2), which uses satellites orbiting near Earth to measure how the atmosphere affects signals from global positioning system (GPS) satellites high above the surface. This technique is called radio occul ...PermalinkThe current GOES-R and JPSS meteorological satellites have improved capabilities for enhanced fire detection that include more effective monitoring of fire starts, evolution, and smoke. This lesson provides forecasters and others with the opportunity to become more familiar with both GOES-R and JPSS satellite products (including the longwave-shortwave IR difference, Fire Temperature RGB, GeoColor, GOES-R Fire Mask, JPSS Active Fire, and others) during the onset of a large grassland fire event, known as the Rhea Fire, that affected western Oklahoma from April 12-18, 2018. Interactions and quest ...PermalinkThe latest-generation Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2) provides high-resolution observations of Earth's atmosphere, including the ionosphere. In this video, scientists and mission planners introduce the instrumentation used and describe the collaborations that made the COSMIC-2 mission possible. These experts describe how COSMIC uses a technique called radio occultation—making use of existing navigation satellite signals passing through the atmosphere to provide detailed measurements of temperature, pressure, and water vapor. They ex ...PermalinkThe U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) National Blend of Models (NBM) is scheduled to be upgraded to version 3.2 in November 2019. It includes the first probabilistic blended guidance for temperature, precipitation, snow, and ice. There are more blended forecast products for aviation, marine, water resources, fire weather, winter weather, and tropical weather. Version 3.2 uses more model components to improve guidance, and introduces a new Guam domain. For a transcript, see What’s New in NBM v3.2. (https://www.meted.ucar.edu/nwp/blend_v32_video/NBM_v32_script.pdf)PermalinkNWP is one of the most important forecasting tools in our toolbox. Yet identifying when/where it isn’t capturing reality is difficult. In the short-term forecasting range, it is important as a forecaster to identify when/where NWP output isn’t matching reality. Then you can make appropriate changes to the forecast output. To find those mismatches anywhere in the world, one of the best tools is satellite imagery. In this lesson, we will focus on a few cases using satellite imagery to help identify mismatched features/processes between the satellite imagery and the NWP. Anyone trying to add valu ...PermalinkYou know what PV is, yet aren't quite sure how to modify it to make a better forecast. In this short lesson, we will discuss how to modify the PV surface to match water vapour imagery and how those adjustments affect the surface sensible weather. This is the fifth in a series of video lessons that introduces three different methods for modifying NWP output to add human value to forecasts. Pre-requisite Knowledge: Satellite Water Vapour Interpretation -- Short CoursePermalinkAnother way to try to find mismatches between observed weather and NWP output is by using total-column variables. There are a few of them to choose from, and they make for a relatively simple comparison method for finding correctable mismatches. In this lesson, we'll address appropriate methods for making these comparisons and build to a point where we will focus on bigger picture atmospheric processes. This is the second in a series of video lessons that introduces three different methods for modifying NWP output to add human value to forecasts.PermalinkNWS forecasts are only one of many sources of forecast guidance that both expert users and the public have access to. Decision support for a spectrum of end users requires that the NWS will use social science findings and practices as a guide for making its products more accessible and effective.This lesson will focus on effective messaging when communicating weather hazards. In the process the learner will become familiar with some messaging best practices that are based on social science findings.PermalinkThis 45-minute lesson briefly introduces learners to the benefits of using probabilistic forecast information to assess weather and communicate forecast uncertainties. Learners will explore a winter weather event in Germany and practice synthesizing deterministic and probabilistic forecast guidance to better understand forecast uncertainties based on lead-time. Also, learners will decide how to best communicate the potential weather threats and impacts to local end users. The lesson is another component of the Forecast Uncertainty: EPS Products, Interpretation, and Communication distance learn ...PermalinkThe Satellite Foundational Course for JPSS (SatFC-J) is a series of short lessons focused on topics related to microwave remote sensing and Joint Polar Satellite System instruments and capabilities. Hosted by the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA), this resource provides access to the full set of course lessons, which were developed specifically for National Weather Service (NWS) forecasters. The lessons provide foundational training to help forecasters and decision makers maximize the utility of the U.S.’ new-generation polar-orbiting environmental satellites. The cou ...PermalinkThe Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) aboard the GOES-R series satellites provides continuous lightning detection from space, giving forecasters a unique tool to monitor developing thunderstorms. This 45 minute lesson introduces learners to the benefits of using GLM gridded products, primarily Flash Extent Density (FED). Learners will explore several North American convective events and use Flash Extent Density, in combination with other satellite and radar data, to diagnose convective initiation, storm intensification, and areal extent of lightning activity. Helpful hints to keep in mind w ...PermalinkThis lesson summarizes the science and techniques used to measure atmospheric wind. It presents an overview of the main sensor types for wind, including mechanical, electronic, and drifting-position sensors as well as sensors relying on impact pressure and sensors utilizing timing or Doppler shifts. The advantages and limitations of the sensor types and information about uncertainty and errors are reviewed with a focus on understanding which sensors might be best for particular applications. The lesson concludes with wind measurement applications including turbulence profiles, turbulence flux ...PermalinkIn this lesson, we start by investigating the different types of fronts that are commonly analyzed. Next, we address two different types of cold fronts: classic (stacked), and katabatic. Then, we identify the main characteristics of these frontal types and what sets them apart from each other in conceptual models and in water vapour imagery. This is the first lesson in a two part series that addresses three different types of cold fronts and how to diagnose them.PermalinkYou've been introduced to Potential Vorticity (PV) as a concept or as a useful tool for NWP assessment, but what is PV really? We'll dive into PV in this lesson and attempt to answer some of the more common questions about PV as a product. This is the fourth in a series of video lessons that introduces three different methods for modifying NWP output to add human value to forecasts. Pre-requisite Knowledge: Satellite Water Vapour Interpretation -- Short CoursePermalinkIn this lesson, we address the characteristics of anabatic cold fronts, then move into analysis of those characteristics. In the analysis activity, you are asked to diagnose the different types of fronts that appear and identify the main characteristics of anabatic and katabatic fronts. The lesson concludes with identification and analysis of dry conveyor belt pulses. This is the second lesson in a two part series that addresses three different types of cold fronts and how to diagnose them using satellite imagery.PermalinkSurface observations are usually the first place we go when trying to find mismatches between observed weather and NWP output. We'll talk in this lesson about appropriate methods for making those comparisons and build to a point where we will focus on bigger picture atmospheric processes. This is the first in a series of video lessons that introduces three different methods for modifying NWP output to add human value to forecasts.PermalinkThis lesson provides an overview of the science and techniques related to measuring humidity, or the amount of water vapor, in Earth's atmosphere. After beginning with a review of the units used for humidity, the learner will examine the three main types of hygrometers (material, thermodynamic, and optical) and explore instruments within each of these categories. The lesson provides information about the advantages and limitations of various humidity instruments. The effects of siting, sheltering, and ventilation on humidity measurements are also addressed. The lesson is part of the Instrument ...PermalinkUsing a heavy rain situation in Barbados, this video will demonstrate the use of Multi-hazard, Impacts-based Forecast and Warning Services. The demonstration will show an evolution of the forecast in the 3-, 2-, and 1-day lead time periods. The rainfall case is based loosely on 2018's Tropical Storm Kirk, although the name and specific details of the storm are not used.PermalinkThis lesson introduces tools and concepts that are essential for scenario-based planning for sea level change. The lesson guides the learner through the use of the USACE Sea Level Change Calculator to produce site-specific water-level projections. The lesson also introduces the NOAA Sea Level Rise Viewer and NOAA's Sea Level Trends website.PermalinkIf there were a way to make direct comparisons between satellite imagery and NWP output, that would appear to be the best possible way to find mismatches between the observed weather and NWP output. In this lesson, we'll address possible methods for making direct comparisons, starting with pseudo or synthetic satellite imagery and building to a point where we focus on a relatively unused NWP output. This is the third in a series of video lessons that introduces three different methods for modifying NWP output to add human value to forecasts. Pre-requisite Knowledge: Satellite Water Vapour Inte ...Permalink
PermalinkThis module explores the science of snowpack and snowpack assessment. It begins by describing the factors involved in snowpack development and then focuses on snowpack evolution. Using two scenarios (one set in mountainous terrain, the other in a relatively flat area), the module explores how basic processes, such as conduction and radiation, and various precipitation events impact snowpack, particularly its density, structure, and stability, throughout the cold season. Woven throughout the module are video clips of avalanche forecasters discussing snowpack and demonstrating various assessment ...PermalinkThis lesson teaches the basics of satellite image interpretation to forecasters, meteorology students, and other interested learners, with an emphasis on the African region. It begins by briefly describing visible, infrared, and water vapour channels, as well as RGBs and derived products. From there, it teaches learners how to interpret clouds and surface features using various channels and products. This sets the stage for the final section, where learners practice identifying features using assorted imagery and products. The lesson uses Meteosat Second Generation imagery over Africa and, to ...PermalinkThis module presents an overview of space-based microwave remote sensing for environmental applications with a focus on meteorological applications. It delivers basic information on polar-orbiting satellite characteristics, current microwave instruments, and the products they provide. Special attention is given to the newer capabilities of the U.S.’s Suomi NPP (National Polar-orbiting Partnership) and future JPSS (Joint Polar Satellite System) satellites with additional information included for those missions being operated by international partners. This module also serves as an introduction ...PermalinkThis module is an update to the previous Satellite Meteorology: GOES Channel Selection module. It reviews the five GOES imager channels and their use, incorporating conceptual visualizations and numerous imagery examples. The module also includes updated information on improvements for the GOES-13, -14 and -15 satellites. Highlights include a higher resolution 13.3 micrometer CO2 channel (GOES-14 & -15), modified spectral response of the visible channel, improved radiometric performance and pixel geolocation, and shortened data outages during the fall and spring satellite eclipse periods.PermalinkThis lesson describes the role of forecasters in supporting emergency managers during tropical cyclones with a focus on the wind hazards. It provides an overview of the wind speed products produced by the National Weather Service, including how they are used to create local wind forecasts. Learners will practice interpreting probabilistic wind speed guidance and conveying appropriate wind speed information to decision-makers using projected scenarios of hazardous wind events. Developing messages for emergency managers and the public that include the potential wind speed, threat, and impact inf ...PermalinkUnderstanding Marine Customers, 2nd edition, introduces the different marine forecast customers and discusses what forecast information they need to know and why they need to know it. A better understanding of the needs of the marine forecast customer will lead to better daily forecasts. The 2nd edition expands upon marine customer base to include more nearshore users, such as beachgoers, surfers, and sea kayakers.PermalinkIn this 1-hour lecture, presented in three parts, research hydrologist Dr. Holly Hartmann discusses issues and approaches for communicating with decision-makers regarding climate change topics in water management and planning. Dr. Hartmann is a national leader in research related to the development of decision support tools for climate, water, and other resource management applications, especially linking research with the needs of decision-makers and moving research into agency operations. Dr. Hartmann is Carpe Diem West’s Director of Climate Science Applications. Previously she was Director ...PermalinkThis lesson describes current and future satellites sensors and products used for monitoring the fire cycle, with an emphasis on polar-orbiting satellites. Product information is presented in the context of the fire lifecycle: from assessing the pre- and post-fire environment to detecting and monitoring active fires, smoke, and aerosols. Product information is also consolidated in the Fire Product Suite. The lesson concludes with an interactive fire case study, supplemented with observations from a National Weather Service trainer/forecaster who experienced the fire. The lesson is intended for ...PermalinkThe Product Access Guide is a web-based resource maintained by the World Meteorological Organization to (i) facilitate online search for quality-controlled, documented satellite-based data products from providers worldwide, related expert groups, and training material, (ii) enhance the visibility of satellite data products and related material; (iii) address insufficient awareness of users, especially in developing countries. The Product Access Guide complements the WMO Information System and allows a more targeted search experience than Google or the GEO portal. This resource is made availabl ...PermalinkGravity is an important part of geodesy, with implications for height measurements and many other applications. In this module, we explore the concept of equipotential surfaces and relate them to gravity. Then we discuss geodetic applications that rely on accurate gravity measurements, including leveling surveys and floodplain mapping. We introduce a special surface based on gravity, called the gravimetric geoid, and explain why we want to use it as a reference datum. We discuss how to measure Earth’s gravity and introduce you to the National Geodetic Survey’s GRAV-D project, including how and ...PermalinkThis 45-minute lesson briefly introduces learners to the benefits of using probabilistic forecast information to assess the weather and communicate forecast uncertainties. Learners will explore a heat wave event in Spain and practice interpreting EPS forecast products effectively to determine various forecast parameters based on lead-time. Also, learners will decide how to best communicate the potential weather threats and impacts information to local end users.PermalinkThe hazards associated with convective systems present some of the most dangerous conditions encountered by aircraft and pose many challenges to aviation operations. When convection is forecast to develop, aviation forecasters are required to issue a series of warning messages and other meteorological aeronautical products to various members of the aviation community. This lesson teaches these forecasters how to produce the products, doing so in the context of a case study in which learners assume the role of aeronautical forecaster on duty at the airport in Niamey, Niger on a night when conve ...PermalinkThis module discusses how to apply various observational data and remote sensing tools such as satellite, METARS, soundings, profilers, radar, and model analyses to diagnose the potential for fog and/or low stratus. Various forecast tools (such as model forecast fields, forecast soundings, and BUFKIT) used to assess fog and/or low stratus potential onset, intensity, and duration are also examined. This module is part of the Distance Learning Course 1: Forecasting Fog and Low Stratus.PermalinkThe purpose of this module is to train operational meteorologists at NWS WFOs and elsewhere how to maximize opportunities to add value to NWP forecasts. The training includes use of the methods and tools from earlier modules in Course 2 of Effective Use of NWP in the Forecast Process. Included in the module are two case examples for the short- and medium-range. Additionally, a WES "caselet" is available from the NWS Warning Decision Training Branch that further illustrates how to add value to NWP guidance.PermalinkThis module provides an introduction to polar-orbiting-satellite-based microwave remote sensing products that depict moisture and precipitation in the atmosphere. The module begins with definitions and descriptions of total precipitable water and cloud liquid water products, contrasting each with more familiar infrared water vapor and window channel products. This is followed by an overview of microwave precipitation estimation and a discussion of how polar-satellite products compare with those from geostationary satellites and ground-based radar. A series of case examples highlights potential ...PermalinkThis webcast introduces the forecaster to the new multiple-forecast-center North American Ensemble Forecast System (NAEFS). Beginning with a brief review of the theory behind ensemble prediction, this presentation then introduces the elements of the NAEFS. These include the U.S. National Centers for Environmental Prediction’s Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS) and the Canadian Meteorological Center’s Ensemble Forecast System (CEFS). A description of each separate ensemble system is followed by a discussion of how the NAEFS improves the ensemble forecast over either the GEFS or CEFS alone. ...PermalinkTo become a better forecaster, it is not enough to simply know that a forecast did not verify. One must determine what happened and identify methods for improvement through forecast verification. The forecast verification process helps answer questions like: Is there a particular method that has been more effective in the past in similar circumstances? Is there guidance that is more accurate? Are there persistent biases in our forecasts? Do our forecasts perform better in certain regimes than others? In the era of gridded forecasts, grid-based verification provides more information about the s ...PermalinkSpace Weather Impacts on Aviation examines the effects of solar flares, coronal mass ejections, and other solar phenomena on aviation operations. The lesson builds on background science knowledge taught in the course prerequisite, Space Weather Basics, 2nd Edition. The content gives aviation forecasters and others an overview of the information and products available from NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center and provides practice interpreting and using those products for decision support during space weather events.PermalinkThis Web-based module is a component of the Integrated Sensor Training (IST) Professional Development Series (PDS) Professional Competency Unit #6-Satellite Data and Products. This module provides a closer look at the capabilities, products, and applications available to operational weather forecasting with the present suite of microwave instruments onboard both NOAA and DMSP satellites. If you wish, you may launch the module from this page.PermalinkClimate is changing at unprecedented rates in recorded history. A variety of lines of evidence demonstrate that climate change is likely to affect the hydrologic cycle and thus create new challenges in water management. This requires that climate change information be included in water and water-related resources planning, operations, and management. Climate and Water Resources Management, Part 1: Climate Variability and Change describes the terminology, global evidence, regional manifestations, and basic science of global climate variability and anthropogenic change, with a focus on water res ...PermalinkA weather forecaster’s knowledge of climatology is important to the success of a forecast, especially where convection is involved. That’s particularly true over Central and West Africa where convection has a strong diurnal cycle and usually develops over particular geographic regions and during specific time intervals. The lesson describes satellite-derived cloud climatology products and several global instability indices, all of which can be integrated with other products to forecast convection. Although the lesson uses examples of climatology products from specific months, it makes the full ...PermalinkThis is part 2 of a 2-part Webcast based on a presentation by Dr. David Whiteman on August 11, 2004 in Boulder, CO. Dr. Whiteman presents conceptual and practical information regarding winds in the planetary boundary layer in complex terrain. Part 2 topics include valley wind systems, cross-valley wind systems, diurnal mountain-wind systems, and plateau-basin wind systems.PermalinkThis module takes the learner through the considerations for the river forecasting decisions associated with the remnants of Hurricane Ivan on 17-19 September, 2004 for the Susquehanna River system in Pennsylvania and New York. The module assists the learner with applying the concepts covered in the foundation topics of the Basic Hydrologic Sciences course. Some of the specific topics pertinent to this case are soil conditions, the impact of QPF on runoff, runoff models, runoff processes, routed flow and stage-discharge relationships. Observations of upstream conditions and comparisons to hist ...PermalinkDuring this presentation, Dr. Brad Colman (NOAA/NWS) covers both the philosophical and methodological approaches to weather forecasting in general, with a special emphasis on challenges introduced in areas of complex terrain. The insightful comments made by the presenter regarding recommended approaches to applying conceptual models, mesoscale model output, and decision trees in the forecast process are useful to anyone who predicts the weather.PermalinkThis module, part of the "NWP Training Series: Effective Use of NWP in the Forecast Process", explores how NWP models handle both grid-scale microphysical (precipitation) and convective processes through parameterizations and/or explicit methods, with an emphasis on how model treatment (and errors in the triggering) of these processes affects forecast depiction of precipitation and related forecast variables. Back in 2000, the subject matter expert for this module was Dr. Ralph Petersen of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Environmental Modeling Center (NCEP/EMC). Revisions to ...PermalinkThis lesson provides an overview of meteorological and environmental RGB products, namely, how they are constructed and how to use them. The first half provides background information on the RGB development process and the rapid evolution of RGB products as newer geostationary and polar-orbiting satellite imagers incorporate additional spectral channels. The second half of the lesson, the Applications section, focuses on the formulation and uses of RGB products; providing examples, interpretation exercises, satellite specific information, and other background information for many of the common ...PermalinkThis exercise follows the progression of a winter weather event across the Central Plains states beginning 1200 UTC on 7 March 1999. Each forecast question is accompanied by Eta model data and includes a forecast discussion by Phil Schumacher, NWS Sioux Falls, South Dakota. This exercise compliments the Webcast, Inverted Troughs and their Associated Precipitation Regimes, based on a presentation by Phil Schumacher at the MSC Winter Weather Course, December 2002, in Boulder Colorado.PermalinkStreamflow routing provides a set of methods for describing and predicting the movement of water from one point to another along a river. Typically, this process involves predicting the shape of a hydrograph downstream from a particular location in a channel, reservoir, or lake. This first requires an understanding of the basic flow regimes and how water is stored and released within a channel. From there, information and calculations based on flow and channel bed characteristics are implemented in hydrologic routing methods, which are storage-based, and hydraulic routing methods, which utiliz ...PermalinkTurbulence is a major concern for the aviation industry. It often goes undetected in cloud-free areas, catching pilots off guard when they fly into it. Turbulence can injure passengers and crew, and cause structural damage to aircraft. This makes it critical for aviation weather forecasters to closely monitor the atmosphere for signs of turbulence and issue special warnings when it is likely to be present. This lesson helps prepare forecasters for these tasks by providing general information about turbulence and showing them how to detect it using satellite imagery, tephigrams, and NWP product ...PermalinkThis interactive case exercise covers a 24-hour forecast period that includes the challenge of precipitation type forecasting. The case exercise provides an overview of precipitation type forecasting based on model algorithms, partial thickness analysis, and the top-down method.PermalinkThis module provides a comprehensive overview of the three main dimensions of the fire environment triangle: fuels, topography, and weather. Five interactive case studies illustrate the interdependent influences these three dimensions have on fire behavior. A wide range of fire behavior is also discussed in terms of the environmental factors that support or suppress fire ignition and spread. As part of the Advanced Fire Weather Forecasters Course, this module is meant to introduce forecasters to science of fire behavior.PermalinkMaintaining situational awareness is a crucial skill in every decision-support situation. Wildland fires that threaten populated areas have the potential to inflict devastating damage to communities and can also threaten the personnel working on the fire. This lesson introduces the Situational Awareness Cycle. Learners practice using it to continuously monitor and adapt their support strategies and decision-support information depending on the rapidly evolving wildfire conditions. The lesson also discusses a range of tools that can be used to build and maintain situational awareness.PermalinkThe Satellite Feature Identification: Atmospheric Rivers lesson presents the global moisture transport phenomenon known as the Atmospheric River (AR). ARs are responsible for transporting the majority of maritime moisture from low to middle latitudes. Advanced satellite products, including Integrated Water Vapor and Total Precipitable Water, provide excellent observations of AR development and evolution. This lesson demonstrates the usefulness of these products in forecasting the impacts of ARs, especially when they are combined with numerical weather prediction products. Several AR case studi ...PermalinkThis 7-page module provides a primer on geostrophic adjustment concepts. It discusses their application for understanding and forecasting real weather features, interpreting model forecasts, and recognizing the type and duration of impact that observations exert on the model forecast. The module also includes an interactive Exercises section.PermalinkThis course will help meteorologists and others broaden their understanding of the impacts of weather and climate on public health, including the impacts of heat waves and cold temperatures, winter storms and thunderstorms, flooding, drought, poor air quality, tornadoes, hurricanes, wildfire, UV radiation, and others. This course is directed to broadcast meteorologists, in particular, who play a critical role in the community by helping the public to protect against weather-related health threats and by promoting good health. The course also describes the public health communication system, pr ...PermalinkThese free training resources include video tutorials as well as case studies with accompanying data and imagery. The resources introduce the new generation of aerosol products available from the JPSS series of polar-orbiting satellites (SNPP/VIIRS) and the GOES-R series of geostationary satellites (GOES-16/ABI). Users will learn about the types of satellite aerosol products available, including aerosol optical depth/thickness (AOD/AOT) and aerosol detection (smoke/dust masks), as well as complimentary satellite products, such as fire radiative power (FRP) hotspots and visible color imagery (R ...PermalinkThe National Blend of Global Models was developed to utilize the best available science and provide a consistent National Weather Service forecast product across the U.S. This lesson describes the background and motivation for the National Blend and includes comparisons of Blend forecasts with current guidance. The lesson also offers a short summary of future plans and training related to the National Blend.PermalinkThe Runoff Processes module offers a thorough introduction to the runoff processes critical for flood and water supply prediction. This module explains key terminology and concepts including the following: types of runoff, paths through which water becomes runoff, basin and soil properties that influence runoff, and numerical runoff modeling. Examples of popular runoff models are also discussed.PermalinkThis module provides an overview of some of the applicable TAF Amendment and Conditional Group usage rules, as presented in the latest version of the National Weather Service Instruction 10-813 on TAF directives. It also presents a methodology for TAF writing and development that will lead to an effective and user-friendly product. The focus is on the ceiling and visibility aspects of the TAF. This module is part of the Distance Learning Course 1: Forecasting Fog and Low Stratus.PermalinkVorticity maxima and minima signatures are common features of the atmosphere. They indicate areas of ascending and descending circulation and atmospheric forcing and can be used to diagnose dynamic features such as the axis of maximum winds and deformation zones. This module provides insight on the analysis of these dynamic atmospheric features using Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite imagery. The module is an adaptation of Phil Chadwick's work from the series of modules in "Dynamic Feature Identification: The Satellite Palette".PermalinkWriting TAFs for Ceilings and Visibility, Africa Edition outlines the processes for developing an effective Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (TAF) that meets International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) guidelines. Geared specifically to forecasters in Africa, the lesson includes a case study for an event impacting Cape Town International Airport to provide practice applying the processes to real-life forecast situations.PermalinkPrecipitation frequently falls and accumulates in discrete bands with accumulations that vary markedly over short distances. This module examines several mechanisms that result in mesoscale banded precipitation, focusing primarily on processes at work in midlatitude cyclones. The module starts with a review of the Norwegian and conveyor belt cyclone models. Then several banding processes are examined in detail, including deformation/frontogenesis, the Trowal (Trough of Warm Air Aloft), frontal merger, CSI/slantwise convection, and melting/evaporation-induced circulations. The module concludes ...PermalinkYou've seen it happen repeatedly. Forecasters have a tough forecast ahead of them. But how are they supposed to know which model data will be the best one to help them come to a conclusion about the situation? In situations like this, the first step should always be to assess the model data against a set of current observations that should show a 1-to-1 relationship with the model output. Which variable should be plotted? On which surface? Which current observations will make the most sense to assess against? If you know the answers to some, but not all of these questions, find these answers a ...PermalinkThe availability of numerical guidance from NWP models has been an important component of operational forecasting for decades. For many, the output from this numerical guidance was produced by a mysterious “black box”. Rules for using and adjusting the guidance for operational forecasters were often subjective “Rules of Thumb” based on experience rather than based on quantitative analysis. To open up this “black box”, we produced this web-based “Operational Models Encyclopedia” linking both generic information on how NWP models work, and specifics on physical parameterizations, dynamics, and d ...PermalinkS-290 Unit 3: Fuels covers the effects of fuels on fire behavior and the terminology for describing fuel characteristics, as well as fuel models used for classification. This module is part of the Intermediate Wildland Fire Behavior Course.PermalinkIntended for U.S. National Weather Service forecasters, this short video describes changes to the NWS National Blend of Models when it was updated to v3.1. These changes include: More global, mesoscale, and ensemble components; Increased spatial resolution of some components; New and improved weather elements for aviation, QPF, winter, fire, and marine weather forecasting; Significant wave height for offshore waters and the Great Lakes; Improved bias correction; MOS-like text products; Shortened NBM forecast projections delivered at 19 UTC. For an illustrated transcript, see What’s New in NBM ...PermalinkAircrews and pilots are frequently the first to see oil spills on water. They provide critical eyes in the sky for U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) response teams and NOAA's Office of Response and Restoration. Oil spill responders use a common terminology for describing and reporting oil spills. This lesson teaches aircrews how to identify, describe, and report spills using that terminology. Misidentifying natural events as oil spills is a common, and sometimes expensive, mistake. This lesson also points out common false positives when trying to identify oil spills. While our primary audience for this ...PermalinkThis lesson (available in Chinese) introduces the typhoon QPF forecasting methodology used by the CWB, including the role played by the analogue method and the typhoon rainfall climatology model in Taiwan. The lesson discusses the advantages and limitations of the Ensemble Typhoon QPF model, and includes a case to help learners practice interpreting this guidance and summarizing it to Emergency Operation Centers. The lesson also highlights the need to use probabilistic forecasts instead of deterministic forecasts in order to account for the uncertainties associated with typhoon forecasting.PermalinkThis lesson introduces forecasters to the various probabilistic guidance products used by the National Hurricane Center to forecast storm surge. It provides an overview of how these probabilistic surge products are created, their purposes, and why they are preferred to deterministic-only style guidance for specific events. The lesson also provides practice in correctly interpreting probabilistic storm surge guidance at various phases of an event. Basic familiarity with probabilistic forecast guidance is required. This online lesson is part of the Tropical Cyclone Storm Surge: Forecasting and C ...PermalinkThis module discusses global climate change that is occurring largely because of greenhouse gases emitted by human activities, and in particular the impact that tropical deforestation plays in the climate system. It also covers signs of climate change, the current thinking on future changes, and international agreements that are attempting to minimize the effects of climate change. The United Nations Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries (UN-REDD Programme) is also discussed.PermalinkThis lesson provides a brief overview of surface and upper-air data and how these data are plotted on meteorological charts. The content introduces various charting and reporting techniques, including station models, contour analyses, streamlines, and upper air maps. Examples cover both the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere and provide learners with opportunities to practice recognizing frequently used weather symbols. Supplemental materials include three Weather Symbol Identification drills. Completing these drills may require approximately 1-1.5 hours above the length of time estim ...PermalinkThis case study focuses on monitoring of the MJO and equatorial waves and their role in tropical cyclogenesis. Learners will use conceptual models to understand the structure of the MJO and equatorial waves. They will identify and monitor those circulations using geostationary satellite images. 850-hPa synoptic analysis is used to track equatorial Rossby and mixed Rossby-gravity waves. Focus is on May 2002, a period when an MJO and associated equatorial waves spawned sets of twin cyclones over the Indian Ocean. This case study is similar to a synoptic meteorology laboratory exercise but is des ...PermalinkModel Fundamentals, part of the Numerical Weather Prediction Professional Development Series and the "NWP Training Series: Effective Use of NWP in the Forecast Process", describes the components of an NWP model and how they fit into the forecast development process. It also explores why parameterization of many physical processes is necessary in NWP models. The module covers background concepts and terminology necessary for learning from the other modules in this series on NWP. Back in 2000, the subject matter expert for this module was Dr. Ralph Petersen of the National Centers for Environmen ...PermalinkUnderstanding Drought--This webcast provides an introduction to drought. It presents the measures and scales of drought and how drought is monitored. It also covers how drought is predicted, the impacts of drought, and provides information about drought-related resources. This content serves as a foundation to learning more about climate variability and operational climate services and prepares users for the national implementation of NIDIS. This module was last updated on Sept 28, 2009.PermalinkThe “Mesoscale Meteorology Effects on Fire Behavior” module reviews the development of thermally forced winds in complex terrain and explores how these winds combine with the effects of terrain to influence fire spread. Three-dimensional conceptual animations illustrate these effects through a 24-hr period, as members of the team working this theoretical fire describe different aspects of weather, fire behavior, and operational fire fighting decisions at specific times during this day. This module is part of the Advanced Fire Weather Forecasters Course.PermalinkThis module introduces a variety of meteorological and hydrological products that can improve the quality of heavy rainfall forecasts and assist with hydrological management during extensive precipitation events in Southern Africa. Among the products are the satellite-based ASCAT, SMOS, and ASAR GM soil moisture products and the hydro-estimator. The products are presented within the context of a case, the flooding of South Africa's Vaal Dam region in 2009/2010.PermalinkThis webcast is based on a presentation by Dr. Moore MSC/COMET Winter Weather Workshop in Boulder, CO, 4 December 2002. In it, he covers the definition of the TROWAL and its role in heavy snow production in the form of bands primarily located to the northwest of the surface low. The various conveyor belts associated with mature winter cyclones are emphasized. The roles of mid-level frontogenesis and conditional symmetric instability in these systems are discussed in the context of heavy snow development.PermalinkThe module reviews the fundamental steps for writing a Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (TAF) using guidelines and recommendations developed by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). This module outlines effective forecast methodologies to develop TAFs that represent the expected conditions that aviation customers can use to make operational decisions and minimize unnecessary costs. The module walks users through the process of analysis of satellite, surface, and observational data to create a TAF forecast for an airport in the Caribbea ...PermalinkFounded in 1830, the United States Naval Observatory (USNO) is among the oldest scientific agencies in the United States. Initially tasked with restoring, repairing, and rating nautical instruments, the USNO today provides precise time and celestial measurements required for GPS, telecommunications, navigation, and other operations. Intended as an introduction to the USNO, this module examines how the Observatory goes about its mission, and briefly describes the science behind its observations and publications.PermalinkMeteorologists typically examine atmospheric soundings in the course of preparing a weather forecast. The skew-T / log-P diagram provides the preferred method for analyzing these soundings. This module comprehensively examines the use of the skew-T diagram. It explores thermodynamic properties, convective parameters, stability assessment, and several forecast applications. The module is designed for both instruction and reference. It also comes with an interactive Web-based skew-T diagram that calculates several common forecast parameters.PermalinkThis lesson introduces users to the statistics used in generating the various weather element forecasts included in version 2 and 3 of the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) National Blend of Global Models (NBM). This Level 3 lesson is intended for forecasters and users of NWS forecast products; some prior knowledge of numerical weather prediction and statistics is useful. Learners will be introduced to the analysis of record used to calibrate the NBM’s bias and error estimates. Learners will also explore the bias correction, weighting, and post-processing procedures used to produce the forec ...PermalinkThis module introduces forecasters to the use of microwave image products for observing and analyzing tropical cyclones. Microwave data from polar-orbiting satellites is crucial to today’s operational forecasters, and particularly for those with maritime forecasting responsibilities where in situ observations are sparse. This module includes information on storm structure and techniques for improved storm positioning using the 37 and 85-91 GHz channels from several satellite sensors. Information on current sensors and on the product availability in the NPOESS era is also presented.PermalinkIn this recorded webinar from the Hydrologic Impacts Under Climate Change (HIUCC) course (June 2017), Dr. Julie Vano describes what the near future will likely bring in terms of hydrologic impacts studies. Her talk is parsed into four sections. Section 1 summarizes ongoing research. Section 2 discusses the sharing of hydro-climate information. Section 3 moves into the future and describes the process of planning, executing, and evaluation a climate impacts study. Section 4 provides concluding thoughts from Dr. Vano and includes three questions (and answers) from the HIUCC course attendees.PermalinkThis resource is intended for use as a job aid by operational weather forecasters in live warning situations and as a reference tool to better understand some aspects of severe thunderstorm warning events. Thumbnail images show typical representatives for sixteen radar reflectivity and velocity signatures as well as three primary severe storm types. Each signature links to content describing detection techniques and conceptual and diagnostic information to help determine storm severity. The majority of the examples shown are southern hemisphere storms in Australia; examples from the northern h ...PermalinkThis module helps students gain a basic understanding of the elements of the hydrologic cycle. Making use of illustrations, animations, and interactions, this module examines the basic concepts of the hydrologic cycle including water distribution, atmospheric water, surface water, groundwater, and snowpack/snowmelt.PermalinkTurbulent flow that impacts aviation can be caused by several different factors and can occur at both low and high-levels in the atmosphere. This lesson focuses on forecasting mountain wave turbulence. Its methodology relies on the spatial and temporal distribution of winds, stability, and clouds to forecast and verify mountain wave turbulence. Analyzed forecast products include NWP charts, cross sections and soundings, satellite imagery, RAOBs, PIREPS, and graphical turbulence guidance (GTG). The lesson is targeted for aviation forecasters at the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS). The modul ...Permalink