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Published by: 世界气象组织 (WMO) ; 2019
Notes: Translation by the Sueji Niiyama copyright © 2020
Disclaimer regarding 3rd party resources: WMO endeavours to ensure, but cannot and does not guarantee the accuracy, accessibility, integrity and timeliness of the information available on its website. WMO may make changes to the content of this website at any time without notice.
The responsibility for opinions expressed in articles, publications, studies and other contributions rests solely with their authors, and their posting on this website does not constitute an endorsement by WMO of the opinion expressed therein.
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Collection(s) and Series: 世界气象组织 (WMO)- No. 1225
Language(s): Japanese; Other Languages: English, French, Spanish, Russian, Arabic, Chinese
Format: Digital (Free)Published by: 世界气象组织 (WMO) ; 2018
Notes: Translation by the Sueji Niiyama copyright © 2020
Disclaimer regarding 3rd party resources: WMO endeavours to ensure, but cannot and does not guarantee the accuracy, accessibility, integrity and timeliness of the information available on its website. WMO may make changes to the content of this website at any time without notice.
The responsibility for opinions expressed in articles, publications, studies and other contributions rests solely with their authors, and their posting on this website does not constitute an endorsement by WMO of the opinion expressed therein.
WMO shall not be liable for any damages incurred as a result of the use of its website. Please do not misuse our website.
Collection(s) and Series: 世界气象组织 (WMO)- No. 1213
Language(s): Japanese; Other Languages: English, French, Spanish, Russian, Arabic, Chinese
Format: Digital (Free)This document provides high-level targets to guide the evolution of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Integrated Global Observing System (WIGOS) in the coming decades. This vision (henceforth referred to as the “Vision for WIGOS in 2040” or simply the “Vision”) replaces the “Vision for the Global Observing System in 2025”, which was adopted by the Executive Council at its sixty-first session in June 2009. In many ways, the 2025 Vision foreshadowed the development of WIGOS, whereas the current document anticipates a fully developed and implemented WIGOS framework that supports all act ...Published by: WMO ; 2020 (2019 edition)
This document provides high-level targets to guide the evolution of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Integrated Global Observing System (WIGOS) in the coming decades. This vision (henceforth referred to as the “Vision for WIGOS in 2040” or simply the “Vision”) replaces the “Vision for the Global Observing System in 2025”, which was adopted by the Executive Council at its sixty-first session in June 2009. In many ways, the 2025 Vision foreshadowed the development of WIGOS, whereas the current document anticipates a fully developed and implemented WIGOS framework that supports all activities of WMO and its Members within the general areas of weather, climate and water.
Collection(s) and Series: WMO- No. 1243
Language(s): English; Other Languages: French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic
Format: Digital (Free)
ISBN (or other code): 978-92-63-11243-9
Tags: Global Observing System (GOS) ; Instruments and Methods of Observation Programme (IMOP) ; Automated Weather Observing System (AWOS) ; Global Space-based Inter-Calibration System (GSICS) ; WMO Integrated Global Observing System (WIGOS) ; Guide ; OBS - Personnel managing observing programmes and networks ; OBS - Personnel performing meteorological observations ; Technical Publications Add tag
Published by: OMM ; 2020
Collection(s) and Series: OMM- No. 1248
Language(s): Spanish; Other Languages: French, English, Russian, Arabic, Chinese
Format: Digital (Free) (ill.)
ISBN (or other code): 978-92-63-31248-9
Published by: المنظمة العالمية للأرصاد ; 2020
Language(s): Arabic; Other Languages: English, French, Chinese, Russian, Spanish
Format: Digital (Free)
Permalinkإن أداة تحليل واستعراض قدرات نظم الرصد )الأداة OSCAR ( الخاصة بموارد المعلومات التشغيلية للنظام العالمي المتكامل للرصد التابع للمنظم ة العالمية للأرصاد الجوي ة (WIGOS) هي مصدر رئيسي للمعلومات بالنسب ة للبيانات الشرحية للنظام WIGOS . والمقصود من مكونات الأداة OSCAR السطحية والفضائية القاعدة هو تسجيل البيانات الشرحية لمنصات / محطات الرصد، وفقا لمعيار البي انات الشرحية للنظام (WIGOS) (WMDS) الوارد وصفه في مرجع النظام العالمي المتكامل للرصد التابع للمنظم ة )مطبوع المنظم ة رق م 1160 ( وفي معيار البيانا ت الشرحية للنظام WIGOS )مطبوع المنظمة رقم 1192 ( والاحتفاظ بسجل للبيانات الشرحية الحالية والتاريخ ...PermalinkИнструмент анализа и обзора возможностей систем наблюдений (ОСКАР) Информационного ресурса Интегрированной глобальной системы наблюдений ВМО (ИГСНВ) (ИРИ) является ключевым источником информации для метаданных ИГСНВ. Компоненты ОСКАР, касающиеся наземных и космических наблюдений, предназначены для регистрации метаданных платформы/станции наблюдений в соответствии со Стандартом метаданных ИГСНВ, описанным в Наставлении по Интегрированной глобальной системе наблюдений ВМО (ВМО-№ 1160) и в Стандарте метаданных ИГСНВ (ВМО-№ 1192), и для сохранения регистрационных записей текущих и исторических мет ...PermalinkPermalinkL’Outil d'analyse de la capacité des systèmes d'observation (OSCAR), qui fait partie des ressources du Système mondial intégré des systèmes d'observation de l'OMM (WIGOS) consacrées à l’information, est une source d’information essentielle sur les métadonnées du WIGOS. La composante de surface et la composante spatiale d’OSCAR servent à consigner les métadonnées des plates-formes/stations d’observation conformément à la Norme relative aux métadonnées du WIGOS, décrite dans le Manuel du Système mondial intégré des systèmes d'observation de l'OMM (OMM-N° 1160) et dans la publication intitulée No ...PermalinkWMO 全球综合观测系统（WIGOS）信息资源（WIR）观测系统能力分析和评审工具（OSCAR）是 WIGOS 元数据的关键信息来源。根据《WMO 全球综合观测系统手册》（WMO-No. 1160）和 《WIGOS 元数据标准》（WMO-No. 1192）中所述的WIGOS 元数据标准，OSCAR 的地基和空基 部分旨在记录观测平台／台站的元数据，并保留WIGOS 当前和历史元数据记录。本手册阐释了如何 使用OSCAR／Surface - 地基工具。
第2 节是指导如何搜索OSCAR/Surface 来查找台站信息和观测元数据。这一节有助于注册用户和匿 名用户使用。
第3 节是关于如何管理该系统中台站的信息。这一节主要涉及注册用户，例如台站联系人和国家联络 单位。PermalinkLa Herramienta de análisis y examen de la capacidad de los sistemas de observación (OSCAR) de la Plataforma de Información sobre el Sistema Mundial Integrado de Sistemas de Observación de la OMM (WIGOS) es una fuente de información fundamental sobre los metadatos del WIGOS. Los componentes sobre capacidades de los sistemas de observación desde el espacio y en superficie de OSCAR tienen por objeto registrar los metadatos observacionales de las plataformas/estaciones de observación de conformidad con la Norma sobre metadatos del WIGOS descrita en el Manual del Sistema mundial integrado de sistem ...PermalinkPurpose of this web portal is to enable Members to share their experience and knowledge on Instruments and Methods of Observation, thus facilitating others' everyday work. The portal contains links to many useful resources shared by WMO Members.PermalinkIn keeping with the aims of the WMO Global Campus, multiple organizations came together to the CALMet Moodle Course for Trainers and Educators in Earth sciences. This online course is delivered in a Moodle website following a self-paced mode, although it can be locally adapted for facilitated delivery. The self-paced format allows you to decide how much time to dedicate to the course and when to study. Once enrolled, you can engage at the level you like and make the course fit your schedule. You may follow the units in a sequence or choose only what to you want to learn. Each of the units has ...PermalinkGCRF African-SWIFT is a programme of research and capability building, led by the National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS), and funded by UK Research and Innovation Global Challenges Research Fund. The project aims to deliver a step change in African weather forecasting capability from hourly to seasonal timescales, and build research capability to continue forecasting improvements in Africa for the foreseeable future.
The GCRF African-SWIFT team works with forecast users across sectors from aviation to agriculture, energy, water and emergency response to understand how to ...Permalink
PermalinkGCRF African-SWIFT is a programme of research and capability building, led by the National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS), and funded by UK Research and Innovation Global Challenges Research Fund. The project aims to deliver a step change in African weather forecasting capability from hourly to seasonal timescales, and build research capability to continue forecasting improvements in Africa for the foreseeable future.
The GCRF African-SWIFT team works with forecast users across sectors from aviation to agriculture, energy, water and emergency response to understand how to ...PermalinkThe purpose of this Compendium is to provide Members with easy access to all the WMO competency frameworks that have been implemented since the first frameworks for aeronautical meteorological personnel were put in place in 2013. This publication accompanies the Guide to Competency (WMO-No. 1205), which provides competency implementation advice to Members.PermalinkЦель настоящего Руководства состоит в предоставлении руководящих указаний организациям Членов, которые разрабатывают, осуществляют и/или поддерживают программы в области обучения и оценки на основе рамочных основ компетенций Всемирной метеорологической организации (ВМО), как установлено в Техническом регламенте, том I (ВМО-№ 49).PermalinkThe workshop presentations included research organizations and NMHS experts discussing the challenges and successes experienced using UAVs in field campaigns collecting data in support of environmental and meteorological applications. The challenges included airspace use regulations and technical capabilities of the UAVs. UAV industry representatives spoke to the workshop audience on the types and capabilities of UAVs and about their collaboration in field campaigns with research organizations and NMHS represented at the workshop. IATA and other experts informed the workshop audience of the va ...PermalinkLa finalidad de la presente Guía es proporcionar orientación a las organizaciones de los Miembros que están elaborando, aplicando o manteniendo programas de formación y de evaluación basados en competencias a partir de los marcos de competencias de la Organización Meteorológica Mundial (OMM) establecidos en el Reglamento Técnico, Volumen I (OMM-Nº 49).
Este material de orientación contiene ejemplos de algunas de las mejores prácticas de los Miembros para facilitar la transferencia tanto de conocimientos como de experiencia, y así permitir que las organizaciones cumplan con los requisito ...Permalinkوالرامیة (WMO) في عام 2009 ، اتُّخذت خطوة مهمة في إعداد أطر الكفاءة للمنظمة العالمیة للأرصاد الجوية إلى إرشاد الأعضاء في تقديم الخدمات وتطوير القدرات عندما أعادت فرقة العمل المعنیة بمؤھلات متنبئي الأرصاد الجوية للطیران تحديد المؤھلات المطلوبة من خبراء الأرصاد الجوية وفنیي الأرصاد الجوية. وقد بوضع مجموعة من معايیر الكفاءة للمتنبئین والمراقبین (WMO) أوصت الفرقة المجلسَ التنفیذي للمنظمة المعنیین بالأرصاد الجوية للطیران بغیة مواصلة تحديد المهارات والمعارف الوظیفیة المحورية المطلوبة في القرار ،(WMO) من الموظفین التشغیلیین العاملین في خدمات الطیران. ووافق المجلس التنفیذي للمنظمة وكلَّف بتنفیذھا (AMP ...PermalinkThis Guidance on Integrated Urban Hydrometeorological, Climate and Environment Services (Volume I: Concept and Methodology) serves to assist WMO Members in the development and implementation of the urban services that address the needs of the cities stakeholders in their countries.Permalink2009年，航空预报员资格任务组重新确定了气象工作者和气象技术人员的资格要求，这是迈向制定世界气象组织（WMO）胜任力框架，指导会员服务提供和能力开发的重要一步。任务组还建议WMO执行理事会制定一套航空气象预报员和观测员的胜任力标准，以进一步确定从事航空服务的业务人员所需的关键工作技能和知识。WMO执行理事会通过其决议9（EC-61）批准制定航空气象人员（AMP）胜任力标准，该标准已于2013年12月1日授权实施，并被纳入《技术规则》第一卷（WMO-No.49）。Permalink
PermalinkThis lesson was developed by meteorologist, Dr. Mick Pope, with sponsorship from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BoM). The lesson is a somewhat broad-brush review of the overall forecast process, but with specific application of the forecast funnel approach as used by Australia's Bureau of Meteorology (BoM). The forecast process components include decision support and communication, use of numerical weather prediction, and applying the forecast funnel approach. The forecast funnel is described in detail, along with the forecaster time pyramid, and it is applied using a BoM forecast polic ...PermalinkThis online lesson introduces learners to the Impact-Based Forecast and Warning Services approach to managing risk from weather events. After reviewing the steps of the approach, learners will practice using them in two simulations. In the simulations, learners must determine the likelihood and potential severity of weather hazards associated with an approaching storm. Then they must create a message describing the potential risk and impacts from the storm's most prominent hazards.PermalinkThis 45-minute lesson provides an overview of the satellite-derived products generated by the Satellite Application Facility on Land Surface Analysis (LSA-SAF) that may provide beneficial information to the agriculture community. Learners will practice reading and interpreting the LSA-SAF products to better understand the characteristics of vegetation. The lesson also discusses the application of satellite-derived products in regression analysis to model agricultural production, and uses a wine production case in the Portuguese Douro Valley to show learners how seasonal crop productions may be ...PermalinkThe Community Earth System Model (CESM) is a fully-coupled, community, global climate model that provides state-of-the-art computer simulations of the Earth's past, present, and future climate states. The CESM Distance Learning Course is based on the CESM Tutorial held annually at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, Colorado. This course consists of 12 lectures and 4 practical sessions on simulating the climate system and practical sessions on running Community Earth System Model (CESM), modifying components, and analyzing data. The course is targeted at the graduat ...PermalinkWhile solar radiation enables and sustains life on Earth, it also produces “space weather” that can profoundly impact different technologies, including telecommunications, satellite navigation, and the electric power grid. Solar flares can produce x-rays resulting in radio blackouts that block high-frequency radio waves. Solar Energetic Particles can penetrate satellite electronics and cause electrical failure. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) can cause geomagnetic storms that induce ground currents and degrade power grid operations, sometimes catastrophically. The Sun, The Earth, and Near-Earth ...PermalinkIn this lesson, forecasters will practice using guidance from different convection-allowing models (CAMs) over the short term. As they review and analyze the model guidance they will encounter some of the advantages and limitations of using CAMs for winter weather.PermalinkWant to know about COSMIC, and how satellite signals can provide information about Earth's atmosphere? This video provides anyone interested in the topic with a brief overview of the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate, called COSMIC. Targeted to students and teachers in Grades 5-9 but accessible to anyone, the video introduces the latest COSMIC mission (COSMIC-2), which uses satellites orbiting near Earth to measure how the atmosphere affects signals from global positioning system (GPS) satellites high above the surface. This technique is called radio occul ...PermalinkThe current GOES-R and JPSS meteorological satellites have improved capabilities for enhanced fire detection that include more effective monitoring of fire starts, evolution, and smoke. This lesson provides forecasters and others with the opportunity to become more familiar with both GOES-R and JPSS satellite products (including the longwave-shortwave IR difference, Fire Temperature RGB, GeoColor, GOES-R Fire Mask, JPSS Active Fire, and others) during the onset of a large grassland fire event, known as the Rhea Fire, that affected western Oklahoma from April 12-18, 2018. Interactions and quest ...PermalinkThe latest-generation Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2) provides high-resolution observations of Earth's atmosphere, including the ionosphere. In this video, scientists and mission planners introduce the instrumentation used and describe the collaborations that made the COSMIC-2 mission possible. These experts describe how COSMIC uses a technique called radio occultation—making use of existing navigation satellite signals passing through the atmosphere to provide detailed measurements of temperature, pressure, and water vapor. They ex ...PermalinkThe U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) National Blend of Models (NBM) is scheduled to be upgraded to version 3.2 in November 2019. It includes the first probabilistic blended guidance for temperature, precipitation, snow, and ice. There are more blended forecast products for aviation, marine, water resources, fire weather, winter weather, and tropical weather. Version 3.2 uses more model components to improve guidance, and introduces a new Guam domain. For a transcript, see What’s New in NBM v3.2. (https://www.meted.ucar.edu/nwp/blend_v32_video/NBM_v32_script.pdf)PermalinkNWP is one of the most important forecasting tools in our toolbox. Yet identifying when/where it isn’t capturing reality is difficult. In the short-term forecasting range, it is important as a forecaster to identify when/where NWP output isn’t matching reality. Then you can make appropriate changes to the forecast output. To find those mismatches anywhere in the world, one of the best tools is satellite imagery. In this lesson, we will focus on a few cases using satellite imagery to help identify mismatched features/processes between the satellite imagery and the NWP. Anyone trying to add valu ...PermalinkYou know what PV is, yet aren't quite sure how to modify it to make a better forecast. In this short lesson, we will discuss how to modify the PV surface to match water vapour imagery and how those adjustments affect the surface sensible weather. This is the fifth in a series of video lessons that introduces three different methods for modifying NWP output to add human value to forecasts. Pre-requisite Knowledge: Satellite Water Vapour Interpretation -- Short CoursePermalinkAnother way to try to find mismatches between observed weather and NWP output is by using total-column variables. There are a few of them to choose from, and they make for a relatively simple comparison method for finding correctable mismatches. In this lesson, we'll address appropriate methods for making these comparisons and build to a point where we will focus on bigger picture atmospheric processes. This is the second in a series of video lessons that introduces three different methods for modifying NWP output to add human value to forecasts.PermalinkNWS forecasts are only one of many sources of forecast guidance that both expert users and the public have access to. Decision support for a spectrum of end users requires that the NWS will use social science findings and practices as a guide for making its products more accessible and effective.This lesson will focus on effective messaging when communicating weather hazards. In the process the learner will become familiar with some messaging best practices that are based on social science findings.PermalinkThis 45-minute lesson briefly introduces learners to the benefits of using probabilistic forecast information to assess weather and communicate forecast uncertainties. Learners will explore a winter weather event in Germany and practice synthesizing deterministic and probabilistic forecast guidance to better understand forecast uncertainties based on lead-time. Also, learners will decide how to best communicate the potential weather threats and impacts to local end users. The lesson is another component of the Forecast Uncertainty: EPS Products, Interpretation, and Communication distance learn ...PermalinkThe Satellite Foundational Course for JPSS (SatFC-J) is a series of short lessons focused on topics related to microwave remote sensing and Joint Polar Satellite System instruments and capabilities. Hosted by the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA), this resource provides access to the full set of course lessons, which were developed specifically for National Weather Service (NWS) forecasters. The lessons provide foundational training to help forecasters and decision makers maximize the utility of the U.S.’ new-generation polar-orbiting environmental satellites. The cou ...PermalinkThe Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) aboard the GOES-R series satellites provides continuous lightning detection from space, giving forecasters a unique tool to monitor developing thunderstorms. This 45 minute lesson introduces learners to the benefits of using GLM gridded products, primarily Flash Extent Density (FED). Learners will explore several North American convective events and use Flash Extent Density, in combination with other satellite and radar data, to diagnose convective initiation, storm intensification, and areal extent of lightning activity. Helpful hints to keep in mind w ...PermalinkThis lesson summarizes the science and techniques used to measure atmospheric wind. It presents an overview of the main sensor types for wind, including mechanical, electronic, and drifting-position sensors as well as sensors relying on impact pressure and sensors utilizing timing or Doppler shifts. The advantages and limitations of the sensor types and information about uncertainty and errors are reviewed with a focus on understanding which sensors might be best for particular applications. The lesson concludes with wind measurement applications including turbulence profiles, turbulence flux ...PermalinkIn this lesson, we start by investigating the different types of fronts that are commonly analyzed. Next, we address two different types of cold fronts: classic (stacked), and katabatic. Then, we identify the main characteristics of these frontal types and what sets them apart from each other in conceptual models and in water vapour imagery. This is the first lesson in a two part series that addresses three different types of cold fronts and how to diagnose them.PermalinkSurface observations are usually the first place we go when trying to find mismatches between observed weather and NWP output. We'll talk in this lesson about appropriate methods for making those comparisons and build to a point where we will focus on bigger picture atmospheric processes. This is the first in a series of video lessons that introduces three different methods for modifying NWP output to add human value to forecasts.PermalinkThis lesson provides an overview of the science and techniques related to measuring humidity, or the amount of water vapor, in Earth's atmosphere. After beginning with a review of the units used for humidity, the learner will examine the three main types of hygrometers (material, thermodynamic, and optical) and explore instruments within each of these categories. The lesson provides information about the advantages and limitations of various humidity instruments. The effects of siting, sheltering, and ventilation on humidity measurements are also addressed. The lesson is part of the Instrument ...PermalinkUsing a heavy rain situation in Barbados, this video will demonstrate the use of Multi-hazard, Impacts-based Forecast and Warning Services. The demonstration will show an evolution of the forecast in the 3-, 2-, and 1-day lead time periods. The rainfall case is based loosely on 2018's Tropical Storm Kirk, although the name and specific details of the storm are not used.PermalinkThis lesson introduces tools and concepts that are essential for scenario-based planning for sea level change. The lesson guides the learner through the use of the USACE Sea Level Change Calculator to produce site-specific water-level projections. The lesson also introduces the NOAA Sea Level Rise Viewer and NOAA's Sea Level Trends website.PermalinkIf there were a way to make direct comparisons between satellite imagery and NWP output, that would appear to be the best possible way to find mismatches between the observed weather and NWP output. In this lesson, we'll address possible methods for making direct comparisons, starting with pseudo or synthetic satellite imagery and building to a point where we focus on a relatively unused NWP output. This is the third in a series of video lessons that introduces three different methods for modifying NWP output to add human value to forecasts. Pre-requisite Knowledge: Satellite Water Vapour Inte ...Permalink
PermalinkThis module explores the science of snowpack and snowpack assessment. It begins by describing the factors involved in snowpack development and then focuses on snowpack evolution. Using two scenarios (one set in mountainous terrain, the other in a relatively flat area), the module explores how basic processes, such as conduction and radiation, and various precipitation events impact snowpack, particularly its density, structure, and stability, throughout the cold season. Woven throughout the module are video clips of avalanche forecasters discussing snowpack and demonstrating various assessment ...PermalinkThis lesson teaches the basics of satellite image interpretation to forecasters, meteorology students, and other interested learners, with an emphasis on the African region. It begins by briefly describing visible, infrared, and water vapour channels, as well as RGBs and derived products. From there, it teaches learners how to interpret clouds and surface features using various channels and products. This sets the stage for the final section, where learners practice identifying features using assorted imagery and products. The lesson uses Meteosat Second Generation imagery over Africa and, to ...PermalinkThis module presents an overview of space-based microwave remote sensing for environmental applications with a focus on meteorological applications. It delivers basic information on polar-orbiting satellite characteristics, current microwave instruments, and the products they provide. Special attention is given to the newer capabilities of the U.S.’s Suomi NPP (National Polar-orbiting Partnership) and future JPSS (Joint Polar Satellite System) satellites with additional information included for those missions being operated by international partners. This module also serves as an introduction ...PermalinkThis module is an update to the previous Satellite Meteorology: GOES Channel Selection module. It reviews the five GOES imager channels and their use, incorporating conceptual visualizations and numerous imagery examples. The module also includes updated information on improvements for the GOES-13, -14 and -15 satellites. Highlights include a higher resolution 13.3 micrometer CO2 channel (GOES-14 & -15), modified spectral response of the visible channel, improved radiometric performance and pixel geolocation, and shortened data outages during the fall and spring satellite eclipse periods.PermalinkThis lesson describes the role of forecasters in supporting emergency managers during tropical cyclones with a focus on the wind hazards. It provides an overview of the wind speed products produced by the National Weather Service, including how they are used to create local wind forecasts. Learners will practice interpreting probabilistic wind speed guidance and conveying appropriate wind speed information to decision-makers using projected scenarios of hazardous wind events. Developing messages for emergency managers and the public that include the potential wind speed, threat, and impact inf ...PermalinkUnderstanding Marine Customers, 2nd edition, introduces the different marine forecast customers and discusses what forecast information they need to know and why they need to know it. A better understanding of the needs of the marine forecast customer will lead to better daily forecasts. The 2nd edition expands upon marine customer base to include more nearshore users, such as beachgoers, surfers, and sea kayakers.PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO); Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC); et al. - WMO, 2019This report is produced by the GSRN Task Team and provides a proposal for the establishment of a GCOS Surface Reference Network, with the support of the GCOS programme, relevant programmes at WMO and the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). It outlines the next steps required for the implementation of a GSRN: approval of the proposed GSRN by relevant WMO programmes, the GCOS programme and other sponsors, solicitation of offers to host and staff appropriately the proposed Lead Centre, and the selection of suitable sites for an initial GSRN.PermalinkIn this 1-hour lecture, presented in three parts, research hydrologist Dr. Holly Hartmann discusses issues and approaches for communicating with decision-makers regarding climate change topics in water management and planning. Dr. Hartmann is a national leader in research related to the development of decision support tools for climate, water, and other resource management applications, especially linking research with the needs of decision-makers and moving research into agency operations. Dr. Hartmann is Carpe Diem West’s Director of Climate Science Applications. Previously she was Director ...PermalinkThis lesson describes current and future satellites sensors and products used for monitoring the fire cycle, with an emphasis on polar-orbiting satellites. Product information is presented in the context of the fire lifecycle: from assessing the pre- and post-fire environment to detecting and monitoring active fires, smoke, and aerosols. Product information is also consolidated in the Fire Product Suite. The lesson concludes with an interactive fire case study, supplemented with observations from a National Weather Service trainer/forecaster who experienced the fire. The lesson is intended for ...PermalinkThe Product Access Guide is a web-based resource maintained by the World Meteorological Organization to (i) facilitate online search for quality-controlled, documented satellite-based data products from providers worldwide, related expert groups, and training material, (ii) enhance the visibility of satellite data products and related material; (iii) address insufficient awareness of users, especially in developing countries. The Product Access Guide complements the WMO Information System and allows a more targeted search experience than Google or the GEO portal. This resource is made availabl ...PermalinkGravity is an important part of geodesy, with implications for height measurements and many other applications. In this module, we explore the concept of equipotential surfaces and relate them to gravity. Then we discuss geodetic applications that rely on accurate gravity measurements, including leveling surveys and floodplain mapping. We introduce a special surface based on gravity, called the gravimetric geoid, and explain why we want to use it as a reference datum. We discuss how to measure Earth’s gravity and introduce you to the National Geodetic Survey’s GRAV-D project, including how and ...PermalinkThis 45-minute lesson briefly introduces learners to the benefits of using probabilistic forecast information to assess the weather and communicate forecast uncertainties. Learners will explore a heat wave event in Spain and practice interpreting EPS forecast products effectively to determine various forecast parameters based on lead-time. Also, learners will decide how to best communicate the potential weather threats and impacts information to local end users.PermalinkThe hazards associated with convective systems present some of the most dangerous conditions encountered by aircraft and pose many challenges to aviation operations. When convection is forecast to develop, aviation forecasters are required to issue a series of warning messages and other meteorological aeronautical products to various members of the aviation community. This lesson teaches these forecasters how to produce the products, doing so in the context of a case study in which learners assume the role of aeronautical forecaster on duty at the airport in Niamey, Niger on a night when conve ...PermalinkThis module discusses how to apply various observational data and remote sensing tools such as satellite, METARS, soundings, profilers, radar, and model analyses to diagnose the potential for fog and/or low stratus. Various forecast tools (such as model forecast fields, forecast soundings, and BUFKIT) used to assess fog and/or low stratus potential onset, intensity, and duration are also examined. This module is part of the Distance Learning Course 1: Forecasting Fog and Low Stratus.PermalinkThe purpose of this module is to train operational meteorologists at NWS WFOs and elsewhere how to maximize opportunities to add value to NWP forecasts. The training includes use of the methods and tools from earlier modules in Course 2 of Effective Use of NWP in the Forecast Process. Included in the module are two case examples for the short- and medium-range. Additionally, a WES "caselet" is available from the NWS Warning Decision Training Branch that further illustrates how to add value to NWP guidance.PermalinkThis module provides an introduction to polar-orbiting-satellite-based microwave remote sensing products that depict moisture and precipitation in the atmosphere. The module begins with definitions and descriptions of total precipitable water and cloud liquid water products, contrasting each with more familiar infrared water vapor and window channel products. This is followed by an overview of microwave precipitation estimation and a discussion of how polar-satellite products compare with those from geostationary satellites and ground-based radar. A series of case examples highlights potential ...PermalinkThis webcast introduces the forecaster to the new multiple-forecast-center North American Ensemble Forecast System (NAEFS). Beginning with a brief review of the theory behind ensemble prediction, this presentation then introduces the elements of the NAEFS. These include the U.S. National Centers for Environmental Prediction’s Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS) and the Canadian Meteorological Center’s Ensemble Forecast System (CEFS). A description of each separate ensemble system is followed by a discussion of how the NAEFS improves the ensemble forecast over either the GEFS or CEFS alone. ...PermalinkTo become a better forecaster, it is not enough to simply know that a forecast did not verify. One must determine what happened and identify methods for improvement through forecast verification. The forecast verification process helps answer questions like: Is there a particular method that has been more effective in the past in similar circumstances? Is there guidance that is more accurate? Are there persistent biases in our forecasts? Do our forecasts perform better in certain regimes than others? In the era of gridded forecasts, grid-based verification provides more information about the s ...PermalinkSpace Weather Impacts on Aviation examines the effects of solar flares, coronal mass ejections, and other solar phenomena on aviation operations. The lesson builds on background science knowledge taught in the course prerequisite, Space Weather Basics, 2nd Edition. The content gives aviation forecasters and others an overview of the information and products available from NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center and provides practice interpreting and using those products for decision support during space weather events.PermalinkThis Web-based module is a component of the Integrated Sensor Training (IST) Professional Development Series (PDS) Professional Competency Unit #6-Satellite Data and Products. This module provides a closer look at the capabilities, products, and applications available to operational weather forecasting with the present suite of microwave instruments onboard both NOAA and DMSP satellites. If you wish, you may launch the module from this page.PermalinkClimate is changing at unprecedented rates in recorded history. A variety of lines of evidence demonstrate that climate change is likely to affect the hydrologic cycle and thus create new challenges in water management. This requires that climate change information be included in water and water-related resources planning, operations, and management. Climate and Water Resources Management, Part 1: Climate Variability and Change describes the terminology, global evidence, regional manifestations, and basic science of global climate variability and anthropogenic change, with a focus on water res ...PermalinkA weather forecaster’s knowledge of climatology is important to the success of a forecast, especially where convection is involved. That’s particularly true over Central and West Africa where convection has a strong diurnal cycle and usually develops over particular geographic regions and during specific time intervals. The lesson describes satellite-derived cloud climatology products and several global instability indices, all of which can be integrated with other products to forecast convection. Although the lesson uses examples of climatology products from specific months, it makes the full ...PermalinkThis is part 2 of a 2-part Webcast based on a presentation by Dr. David Whiteman on August 11, 2004 in Boulder, CO. Dr. Whiteman presents conceptual and practical information regarding winds in the planetary boundary layer in complex terrain. Part 2 topics include valley wind systems, cross-valley wind systems, diurnal mountain-wind systems, and plateau-basin wind systems.PermalinkThis module takes the learner through the considerations for the river forecasting decisions associated with the remnants of Hurricane Ivan on 17-19 September, 2004 for the Susquehanna River system in Pennsylvania and New York. The module assists the learner with applying the concepts covered in the foundation topics of the Basic Hydrologic Sciences course. Some of the specific topics pertinent to this case are soil conditions, the impact of QPF on runoff, runoff models, runoff processes, routed flow and stage-discharge relationships. Observations of upstream conditions and comparisons to hist ...PermalinkDuring this presentation, Dr. Brad Colman (NOAA/NWS) covers both the philosophical and methodological approaches to weather forecasting in general, with a special emphasis on challenges introduced in areas of complex terrain. The insightful comments made by the presenter regarding recommended approaches to applying conceptual models, mesoscale model output, and decision trees in the forecast process are useful to anyone who predicts the weather.PermalinkThis module, part of the "NWP Training Series: Effective Use of NWP in the Forecast Process", explores how NWP models handle both grid-scale microphysical (precipitation) and convective processes through parameterizations and/or explicit methods, with an emphasis on how model treatment (and errors in the triggering) of these processes affects forecast depiction of precipitation and related forecast variables. Back in 2000, the subject matter expert for this module was Dr. Ralph Petersen of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Environmental Modeling Center (NCEP/EMC). Revisions to ...PermalinkThis lesson provides an overview of meteorological and environmental RGB products, namely, how they are constructed and how to use them. The first half provides background information on the RGB development process and the rapid evolution of RGB products as newer geostationary and polar-orbiting satellite imagers incorporate additional spectral channels. The second half of the lesson, the Applications section, focuses on the formulation and uses of RGB products; providing examples, interpretation exercises, satellite specific information, and other background information for many of the common ...PermalinkThis exercise follows the progression of a winter weather event across the Central Plains states beginning 1200 UTC on 7 March 1999. Each forecast question is accompanied by Eta model data and includes a forecast discussion by Phil Schumacher, NWS Sioux Falls, South Dakota. This exercise compliments the Webcast, Inverted Troughs and their Associated Precipitation Regimes, based on a presentation by Phil Schumacher at the MSC Winter Weather Course, December 2002, in Boulder Colorado.PermalinkStreamflow routing provides a set of methods for describing and predicting the movement of water from one point to another along a river. Typically, this process involves predicting the shape of a hydrograph downstream from a particular location in a channel, reservoir, or lake. This first requires an understanding of the basic flow regimes and how water is stored and released within a channel. From there, information and calculations based on flow and channel bed characteristics are implemented in hydrologic routing methods, which are storage-based, and hydraulic routing methods, which utiliz ...PermalinkTurbulence is a major concern for the aviation industry. It often goes undetected in cloud-free areas, catching pilots off guard when they fly into it. Turbulence can injure passengers and crew, and cause structural damage to aircraft. This makes it critical for aviation weather forecasters to closely monitor the atmosphere for signs of turbulence and issue special warnings when it is likely to be present. This lesson helps prepare forecasters for these tasks by providing general information about turbulence and showing them how to detect it using satellite imagery, tephigrams, and NWP product ...PermalinkThis interactive case exercise covers a 24-hour forecast period that includes the challenge of precipitation type forecasting. The case exercise provides an overview of precipitation type forecasting based on model algorithms, partial thickness analysis, and the top-down method.PermalinkThis module provides a comprehensive overview of the three main dimensions of the fire environment triangle: fuels, topography, and weather. Five interactive case studies illustrate the interdependent influences these three dimensions have on fire behavior. A wide range of fire behavior is also discussed in terms of the environmental factors that support or suppress fire ignition and spread. As part of the Advanced Fire Weather Forecasters Course, this module is meant to introduce forecasters to science of fire behavior.PermalinkMaintaining situational awareness is a crucial skill in every decision-support situation. Wildland fires that threaten populated areas have the potential to inflict devastating damage to communities and can also threaten the personnel working on the fire. This lesson introduces the Situational Awareness Cycle. Learners practice using it to continuously monitor and adapt their support strategies and decision-support information depending on the rapidly evolving wildfire conditions. The lesson also discusses a range of tools that can be used to build and maintain situational awareness.PermalinkThe Satellite Feature Identification: Atmospheric Rivers lesson presents the global moisture transport phenomenon known as the Atmospheric River (AR). ARs are responsible for transporting the majority of maritime moisture from low to middle latitudes. Advanced satellite products, including Integrated Water Vapor and Total Precipitable Water, provide excellent observations of AR development and evolution. This lesson demonstrates the usefulness of these products in forecasting the impacts of ARs, especially when they are combined with numerical weather prediction products. Several AR case studi ...PermalinkThis 7-page module provides a primer on geostrophic adjustment concepts. It discusses their application for understanding and forecasting real weather features, interpreting model forecasts, and recognizing the type and duration of impact that observations exert on the model forecast. The module also includes an interactive Exercises section.PermalinkThis course will help meteorologists and others broaden their understanding of the impacts of weather and climate on public health, including the impacts of heat waves and cold temperatures, winter storms and thunderstorms, flooding, drought, poor air quality, tornadoes, hurricanes, wildfire, UV radiation, and others. This course is directed to broadcast meteorologists, in particular, who play a critical role in the community by helping the public to protect against weather-related health threats and by promoting good health. The course also describes the public health communication system, pr ...PermalinkThese free training resources include video tutorials as well as case studies with accompanying data and imagery. The resources introduce the new generation of aerosol products available from the JPSS series of polar-orbiting satellites (SNPP/VIIRS) and the GOES-R series of geostationary satellites (GOES-16/ABI). Users will learn about the types of satellite aerosol products available, including aerosol optical depth/thickness (AOD/AOT) and aerosol detection (smoke/dust masks), as well as complimentary satellite products, such as fire radiative power (FRP) hotspots and visible color imagery (R ...PermalinkThe National Blend of Global Models was developed to utilize the best available science and provide a consistent National Weather Service forecast product across the U.S. This lesson describes the background and motivation for the National Blend and includes comparisons of Blend forecasts with current guidance. The lesson also offers a short summary of future plans and training related to the National Blend.PermalinkThe Runoff Processes module offers a thorough introduction to the runoff processes critical for flood and water supply prediction. This module explains key terminology and concepts including the following: types of runoff, paths through which water becomes runoff, basin and soil properties that influence runoff, and numerical runoff modeling. Examples of popular runoff models are also discussed.PermalinkThis module provides an overview of some of the applicable TAF Amendment and Conditional Group usage rules, as presented in the latest version of the National Weather Service Instruction 10-813 on TAF directives. It also presents a methodology for TAF writing and development that will lead to an effective and user-friendly product. The focus is on the ceiling and visibility aspects of the TAF. This module is part of the Distance Learning Course 1: Forecasting Fog and Low Stratus.PermalinkVorticity maxima and minima signatures are common features of the atmosphere. They indicate areas of ascending and descending circulation and atmospheric forcing and can be used to diagnose dynamic features such as the axis of maximum winds and deformation zones. This module provides insight on the analysis of these dynamic atmospheric features using Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite imagery. The module is an adaptation of Phil Chadwick's work from the series of modules in "Dynamic Feature Identification: The Satellite Palette".PermalinkWriting TAFs for Ceilings and Visibility, Africa Edition outlines the processes for developing an effective Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (TAF) that meets International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) guidelines. Geared specifically to forecasters in Africa, the lesson includes a case study for an event impacting Cape Town International Airport to provide practice applying the processes to real-life forecast situations.PermalinkPrecipitation frequently falls and accumulates in discrete bands with accumulations that vary markedly over short distances. This module examines several mechanisms that result in mesoscale banded precipitation, focusing primarily on processes at work in midlatitude cyclones. The module starts with a review of the Norwegian and conveyor belt cyclone models. Then several banding processes are examined in detail, including deformation/frontogenesis, the Trowal (Trough of Warm Air Aloft), frontal merger, CSI/slantwise convection, and melting/evaporation-induced circulations. The module concludes ...PermalinkYou've seen it happen repeatedly. Forecasters have a tough forecast ahead of them. But how are they supposed to know which model data will be the best one to help them come to a conclusion about the situation? In situations like this, the first step should always be to assess the model data against a set of current observations that should show a 1-to-1 relationship with the model output. Which variable should be plotted? On which surface? Which current observations will make the most sense to assess against? If you know the answers to some, but not all of these questions, find these answers a ...PermalinkThe availability of numerical guidance from NWP models has been an important component of operational forecasting for decades. For many, the output from this numerical guidance was produced by a mysterious “black box”. Rules for using and adjusting the guidance for operational forecasters were often subjective “Rules of Thumb” based on experience rather than based on quantitative analysis. To open up this “black box”, we produced this web-based “Operational Models Encyclopedia” linking both generic information on how NWP models work, and specifics on physical parameterizations, dynamics, and d ...PermalinkS-290 Unit 3: Fuels covers the effects of fuels on fire behavior and the terminology for describing fuel characteristics, as well as fuel models used for classification. This module is part of the Intermediate Wildland Fire Behavior Course.PermalinkIntended for U.S. National Weather Service forecasters, this short video describes changes to the NWS National Blend of Models when it was updated to v3.1. These changes include: More global, mesoscale, and ensemble components; Increased spatial resolution of some components; New and improved weather elements for aviation, QPF, winter, fire, and marine weather forecasting; Significant wave height for offshore waters and the Great Lakes; Improved bias correction; MOS-like text products; Shortened NBM forecast projections delivered at 19 UTC. For an illustrated transcript, see What’s New in NBM ...PermalinkAircrews and pilots are frequently the first to see oil spills on water. They provide critical eyes in the sky for U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) response teams and NOAA's Office of Response and Restoration. Oil spill responders use a common terminology for describing and reporting oil spills. This lesson teaches aircrews how to identify, describe, and report spills using that terminology. Misidentifying natural events as oil spills is a common, and sometimes expensive, mistake. This lesson also points out common false positives when trying to identify oil spills. While our primary audience for this ...PermalinkThis lesson (available in Chinese) introduces the typhoon QPF forecasting methodology used by the CWB, including the role played by the analogue method and the typhoon rainfall climatology model in Taiwan. The lesson discusses the advantages and limitations of the Ensemble Typhoon QPF model, and includes a case to help learners practice interpreting this guidance and summarizing it to Emergency Operation Centers. The lesson also highlights the need to use probabilistic forecasts instead of deterministic forecasts in order to account for the uncertainties associated with typhoon forecasting.PermalinkThis lesson introduces forecasters to the various probabilistic guidance products used by the National Hurricane Center to forecast storm surge. It provides an overview of how these probabilistic surge products are created, their purposes, and why they are preferred to deterministic-only style guidance for specific events. The lesson also provides practice in correctly interpreting probabilistic storm surge guidance at various phases of an event. Basic familiarity with probabilistic forecast guidance is required. This online lesson is part of the Tropical Cyclone Storm Surge: Forecasting and C ...PermalinkThis module discusses global climate change that is occurring largely because of greenhouse gases emitted by human activities, and in particular the impact that tropical deforestation plays in the climate system. It also covers signs of climate change, the current thinking on future changes, and international agreements that are attempting to minimize the effects of climate change. The United Nations Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries (UN-REDD Programme) is also discussed.PermalinkThis lesson provides a brief overview of surface and upper-air data and how these data are plotted on meteorological charts. The content introduces various charting and reporting techniques, including station models, contour analyses, streamlines, and upper air maps. Examples cover both the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere and provide learners with opportunities to practice recognizing frequently used weather symbols. Supplemental materials include three Weather Symbol Identification drills. Completing these drills may require approximately 1-1.5 hours above the length of time estim ...PermalinkThis case study focuses on monitoring of the MJO and equatorial waves and their role in tropical cyclogenesis. Learners will use conceptual models to understand the structure of the MJO and equatorial waves. They will identify and monitor those circulations using geostationary satellite images. 850-hPa synoptic analysis is used to track equatorial Rossby and mixed Rossby-gravity waves. Focus is on May 2002, a period when an MJO and associated equatorial waves spawned sets of twin cyclones over the Indian Ocean. This case study is similar to a synoptic meteorology laboratory exercise but is des ...PermalinkModel Fundamentals, part of the Numerical Weather Prediction Professional Development Series and the "NWP Training Series: Effective Use of NWP in the Forecast Process", describes the components of an NWP model and how they fit into the forecast development process. It also explores why parameterization of many physical processes is necessary in NWP models. The module covers background concepts and terminology necessary for learning from the other modules in this series on NWP. Back in 2000, the subject matter expert for this module was Dr. Ralph Petersen of the National Centers for Environmen ...PermalinkUnderstanding Drought--This webcast provides an introduction to drought. It presents the measures and scales of drought and how drought is monitored. It also covers how drought is predicted, the impacts of drought, and provides information about drought-related resources. This content serves as a foundation to learning more about climate variability and operational climate services and prepares users for the national implementation of NIDIS. This module was last updated on Sept 28, 2009.PermalinkThe “Mesoscale Meteorology Effects on Fire Behavior” module reviews the development of thermally forced winds in complex terrain and explores how these winds combine with the effects of terrain to influence fire spread. Three-dimensional conceptual animations illustrate these effects through a 24-hr period, as members of the team working this theoretical fire describe different aspects of weather, fire behavior, and operational fire fighting decisions at specific times during this day. This module is part of the Advanced Fire Weather Forecasters Course.PermalinkThis module introduces a variety of meteorological and hydrological products that can improve the quality of heavy rainfall forecasts and assist with hydrological management during extensive precipitation events in Southern Africa. Among the products are the satellite-based ASCAT, SMOS, and ASAR GM soil moisture products and the hydro-estimator. The products are presented within the context of a case, the flooding of South Africa's Vaal Dam region in 2009/2010.PermalinkThis webcast is based on a presentation by Dr. Moore MSC/COMET Winter Weather Workshop in Boulder, CO, 4 December 2002. In it, he covers the definition of the TROWAL and its role in heavy snow production in the form of bands primarily located to the northwest of the surface low. The various conveyor belts associated with mature winter cyclones are emphasized. The roles of mid-level frontogenesis and conditional symmetric instability in these systems are discussed in the context of heavy snow development.PermalinkThe module reviews the fundamental steps for writing a Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (TAF) using guidelines and recommendations developed by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). This module outlines effective forecast methodologies to develop TAFs that represent the expected conditions that aviation customers can use to make operational decisions and minimize unnecessary costs. The module walks users through the process of analysis of satellite, surface, and observational data to create a TAF forecast for an airport in the Caribbea ...PermalinkFounded in 1830, the United States Naval Observatory (USNO) is among the oldest scientific agencies in the United States. Initially tasked with restoring, repairing, and rating nautical instruments, the USNO today provides precise time and celestial measurements required for GPS, telecommunications, navigation, and other operations. Intended as an introduction to the USNO, this module examines how the Observatory goes about its mission, and briefly describes the science behind its observations and publications.PermalinkMeteorologists typically examine atmospheric soundings in the course of preparing a weather forecast. The skew-T / log-P diagram provides the preferred method for analyzing these soundings. This module comprehensively examines the use of the skew-T diagram. It explores thermodynamic properties, convective parameters, stability assessment, and several forecast applications. The module is designed for both instruction and reference. It also comes with an interactive Web-based skew-T diagram that calculates several common forecast parameters.PermalinkThis lesson introduces users to the statistics used in generating the various weather element forecasts included in version 2 and 3 of the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) National Blend of Global Models (NBM). This Level 3 lesson is intended for forecasters and users of NWS forecast products; some prior knowledge of numerical weather prediction and statistics is useful. Learners will be introduced to the analysis of record used to calibrate the NBM’s bias and error estimates. Learners will also explore the bias correction, weighting, and post-processing procedures used to produce the forec ...PermalinkThis module introduces forecasters to the use of microwave image products for observing and analyzing tropical cyclones. Microwave data from polar-orbiting satellites is crucial to today’s operational forecasters, and particularly for those with maritime forecasting responsibilities where in situ observations are sparse. This module includes information on storm structure and techniques for improved storm positioning using the 37 and 85-91 GHz channels from several satellite sensors. Information on current sensors and on the product availability in the NPOESS era is also presented.PermalinkIn this recorded webinar from the Hydrologic Impacts Under Climate Change (HIUCC) course (June 2017), Dr. Julie Vano describes what the near future will likely bring in terms of hydrologic impacts studies. Her talk is parsed into four sections. Section 1 summarizes ongoing research. Section 2 discusses the sharing of hydro-climate information. Section 3 moves into the future and describes the process of planning, executing, and evaluation a climate impacts study. Section 4 provides concluding thoughts from Dr. Vano and includes three questions (and answers) from the HIUCC course attendees.PermalinkThis resource is intended for use as a job aid by operational weather forecasters in live warning situations and as a reference tool to better understand some aspects of severe thunderstorm warning events. Thumbnail images show typical representatives for sixteen radar reflectivity and velocity signatures as well as three primary severe storm types. Each signature links to content describing detection techniques and conceptual and diagnostic information to help determine storm severity. The majority of the examples shown are southern hemisphere storms in Australia; examples from the northern h ...PermalinkThis module helps students gain a basic understanding of the elements of the hydrologic cycle. Making use of illustrations, animations, and interactions, this module examines the basic concepts of the hydrologic cycle including water distribution, atmospheric water, surface water, groundwater, and snowpack/snowmelt.PermalinkTurbulent flow that impacts aviation can be caused by several different factors and can occur at both low and high-levels in the atmosphere. This lesson focuses on forecasting mountain wave turbulence. Its methodology relies on the spatial and temporal distribution of winds, stability, and clouds to forecast and verify mountain wave turbulence. Analyzed forecast products include NWP charts, cross sections and soundings, satellite imagery, RAOBs, PIREPS, and graphical turbulence guidance (GTG). The lesson is targeted for aviation forecasters at the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS). The modul ...PermalinkThis lesson introduces learners to the uncertainty and errors in forecasting the track, timing, and intensity of tropical cyclones. It provides an overview of how the National Hurricane Center’s cone of uncertainty is constructed, as well as its uses and common misconceptions. Learners will explore the influences of track, timing, and intensity forecast errors on potential tropical cyclones impacts. The lesson offers suggestions on how to communicate tropical cyclone forecasts knowing their inherent uncertainty. This online lesson is part of the Tropical Cyclone Storm Winds: Forecasting and Co ...Permalink"Writing TAFs for Convective Weather, 2nd Edition" uses a severe thunderstorm event to illustrate techniques for producing an effective Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (TAF) following current National Weather Service directives. The unit offers guidance for developing TAFs for different types of convection and discusses how to concisely communicate logic and uncertainty in an aviation forecast discussion (AvnFD) or by other means. It also addresses the importance of maintaining an effective TAF weather watch and updating the TAF proactively.PermalinkThis is part one of a two-module series on estimation of observed precipitation. Through use of rich illustrations, animations, and interactions, this module provides an overview of the science of precipitation estimation using various measuring platforms. First, we define quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) and examine technologies for remote sensing of QPE, including radar and satellite and the strengths and limitations of each. That is followed by an examination of the use of rain gauges for precipitation estimation and important issues to consider with rain gauge measurement. Final ...PermalinkThis is a foundation module in the Mesoscale Meteorology Primer series. Topics covered include an overview of factors that control whether air will go up and over a mountain or be forced around it, the role of potential and kinetic energy, the Froude number and what it tells you, and air flow blocked by topography.PermalinkThis module offers a comprehensive description of a set of common verification measures for hydrologic forecasts, both deterministic and probabilistic. Through use of rich illustrations, animations, and interactions, this module explains how these verification measures can provide valuable information to users with varying needs. In addition to providing a measure of how well a forecast matches observations, verification measures can be used to help forecasters and users learn about the strengths and weaknesses of a forecast.PermalinkThis Webcast features Phil Schumacher, NWS Sioux Falls, South Dakota discussing the conditions that dictate the location of precipitation relative to inverted troughs. Phil presents a composite case study based on collaborative research with Dr. R. Weisman and others, as well as two examples of inverted trough events in the Central Plains. This presentation is based on his presentation at the MSC Winter Weather Course, December 2002, in Boulder, Colorado. The webcast is accompanied by a case exercise, Inverted Trough Case Exercise.PermalinkAimed at community planners, emergency managers, and other coastal zone decision-makers this video will explain how using geospatial information already available through NOAA, combined with strategic local investments in infrastructure can provide communities with the data needed to confidently plan for future sea-level changes. This resource is hosted on COMET's YouTube Channel.PermalinkEach model forecast tells a story about the weather events to unfold. As a forecaster, you employ diagnostics to understand and interpret that story, in order to modify it, blend it with other stories, and generate your own forecast. This lesson will help you sift through the abundance of model data so you can understand and interpret the model’s story. Other lessons cover evaluating the model’s story against observations and against your conceptual models of the evolving situation, blending the stories, and adjusting the forecast to add value over an objective forecast. The diagnostic approac ...PermalinkThis lesson introduces two numerical weather prediction (NWP) lightning hazard products that forecasters can use during a convective meteorological watch and to assess lightning risk at Day 2 and beyond. The first product is the Flash Rate Density, a derived, deterministic lightning product implemented in some NCEP high-resolution NWP models. The second product, the SPC Calibrated Thunderstorm Probability, combines forecasts of measurable precipitation and favorable lightning environments determined from the Cloud Physics Thunder Parameter. Information about these products is presented in the ...PermalinkThis module presents current conceptual models of several MCS types and provides explanations for the structures and behavior of MCSs based on the physical processes underlying their evolution. An understanding of the physical processes and conceptual models of MCSs will help forecasters to predict the most likely locations of severe weather within existing systems and to forecast the longevity, areal extent, and path of the system. Accompanied by conceptual animations, numerical simulations, and case studies, Mesoscale Convective Systems: Squall Lines and Bow Echoes presents strategies with w ...PermalinkThe role of unit hydrograph theory in the flood prediction process is to provide an estimate of streamflow that results from a given amount precipitation. A unit hydrograph shows the temporal change in flow, or discharge, per excess unit of precipitation runoff. This module offers a thorough introduction to the use of unit hydrographs and the application of unit hydrograph theory in flood prediction. Key terminology and assumptions, the process of creating a unit hydrograph and application of unit hydrograph theory to forecast situations are all explored through comprehensive animations and in ...PermalinkThis module discusses the basics of rip current formation and detection as well as the partnerships between the National Weather Service, National Sea Grant College Program, and the United States Lifesaving Association as they relate to rip current safety. This is one of three modules on forecasting rip currents.PermalinkThis exercise tracks Hurricane Michael as it moved into the Maritime region of the Canadian east coast in October, 2000. Analyze data and respond to questions focusing on forecasting the progression of the storm. This case exercise accompanies the Webcast, Hurricanes Canadian Style: Extratropical Transition.PermalinkThis Webcast is based on a presentation delivered by Jim Abraham of MSC at the Winter Weather Course in February 2001. The presentation discusses how, under the right synoptic conditions, hurricanes and tropical storms undergo a transition process to extratropical cyclones as they move into northern latitudes. During the transition process these "hybrid" systems can bring damaging weather conditions to Eastern Canada and the Northeastern States. It uses several case examples to demonstrate the process.PermalinkThis module presents an overview of how satellite data are turned into the satellite products used by operational forecasters and the research and educational communities, etc. The module begins by describing the process of creating simple image products that use relatively simple image manipulation techniques to highlight properties such as wind-blown dust, vegetation, and cloud phase. The module then describes some of the more complex processes involved in generating quantitative products, such as cloud identification, atmospheric instability, wildfire characterization, and sea surface tempe ...PermalinkThis module provides examples of radar imagery from various locations in the Caribbean to demonstrate the different types of images available. Also, examples of different meteorological and non meteorological features are presented to show features seen in island locations.PermalinkThis short video explores some of the ways that location science improves everyday life. It follows two characters, Jane and John, through the course of a typical day. Jane has a smooth trouble-free day fishing with friends, thanks in part to accurate location surveys. John, on the other hand, has an awful day traced to inaccurate surveys and out-of-date maps.PermalinkThis module presents an overview of various aspects of precipitation type forecasting. It includes sections on microphysics and the ice crystal process, application of partial thickness analysis, application of the top-down method, and an overview of model algorithms used for precipitation type analysis.PermalinkThe “History of the Incident Meteorologist Program” describes the evolution of fire weather support by National Weather Service meteorologists, including the more recent expansion to other hazardous incidents and significant national events. This webcast also reviews the evolution of the Air-Transportable Meteorological Unit (ATMU) into today’s AMRS/FxNet system used by Incident Meteorologists today. This short webcast is part of the Advanced Fire Weather Forecasters Course.PermalinkA webcast presentation by Dr. Timothy Spangler (Director of the COMET Program and a former air quality consultant). This 25-minute lecture provides an overview of the basics of dispersion, the effects of different atmospheric conditions on dispersion, and how dispersion is commonly modeled after an accidental release of a hazardous material.PermalinkIn order to assess whether a fog or stratus event is possible, you must evaluate the synoptic-scale influences that will drive the local conditions. In this module, we examine several common synoptic situations to understand the processes involved in fog or low stratus development. Most of these are forced primarily by advective or dynamic processes (although radiation does play a role). A more detailed discussion of radiation processes is contained in the Radiation Fog module. This module is part of the Distance Learning Course 1: Forecasting Fog and Low Stratus.PermalinkThis module provides an introduction to the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea for weather forecasters. It focuses on major aspects of the geography, oceanography, and climatology. Geography covers major political boundaries, cities, ports, topographical features, rivers, and volcanic areas. Oceanography includes major bathymetric features, mean sea surface temperature and surface salinity, ocean currents, and tidal ranges. Climatology covers the seasonal climatology of jet streams and synoptic weather systems, extratropical cyclones in the Gulf of Mexico, and monthly and seasonal statistics of ...PermalinkThis lesson describes the process of selecting the best available climate projection information and using it to develop “climate-adjusted weather” inputs to be used for modeling climate change impacts. These modeled impacts can be used for planning of future water resources. Specific steps of this process include: 1) Recognizing the general science and terms associated with Atmosphere-ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCMs); 2) Making AOGCMs more regionally applicable through bias correction and downscaling; 3) Determining climate change scenarios based on climate projections and selecting ...PermalinkThe content of this lesson will assist the forecaster with the third step of the forecast process, namely, determining plausible forecast outcomes forward in time. The lesson will highlight the role of probabilistic forecast tools to assess the degree of uncertainty in a forecast, as well as suggest an approach for evaluating past and present model performance.PermalinkThis lesson introduces the capabilities of NOAA’s next-generation infrared and microwave sounders, the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS). Both fly on board the Suomi NPP satellite mission and constitute the foundation for NOAA’s operational space-based sounding capability on the next-generation JPSS polar-orbiting satellites. In addition to their complementary sounding duties, CrIS and ATMS provide capabilities and improvements for a variety of environmental products essential to weather forecasting and environmental monitoring. Some of th ...PermalinkS-290 Unit 1: The Fire Environment examines the components of the fire environment triangle and how each affects fire behavior. As part of this topic, heat transfer mechanisms and firebrand transport and the contribution to fire behavior are included. Basic fire terminology is introduced and will be used throughout the course. Later units in the S-290 course will build upon material introduced in this module.PermalinkIn this webinar recording, Michael Bowlan explains how GOES-R/16 can help improve forecasts of severe storms and provide forecasters with real-time information about lightning, flooding potential and other hazards. The high-resolution Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) data can indicate whether thunderstorm updrafts are gathering strength or weakening, helping aid forecasters in making warning decisions. The ABI can also aid in identifying storms and convective complexes that have stalled or are “training”, which can signal a flood risk and help forecasters issue flood or flash flood warnings soon ...PermalinkThis Webcast is based on a presentation given by Dr. James T. Moore of Saint Louis University at the 5th Annual MSC/COMET Winter Weather Workshop on 30 November 2004 in Boulder, Colorado. Dr. Moore reviews many aspects of jet streak dynamics including convergence/divergence, ageostrophic winds, propagation, and coupled jets.PermalinkConveyor belts highlight important atmospheric processes that can be advantageous for making forecasts. They can be used for identifying general temperature patterns, defining the extent of cloud cover, predicting moisture return, evaluating stability, forecasting wind gusts, pinpointing cyclogenesis, and understanding the three-dimensional structure of the atmosphere. For short-term forecasts, they can even augment NWP showing the three-dimensional structure and portraying the same information as equivalent or wet-bulb potential temperature and potential vorticity surfaces. Conveyor belts mak ...PermalinkThe “S-290 Unit 4: Basic Weather Processes” distance learning module summarizes atmospheric structure and composition, the Sun-Earth radiation budget, weather elements used to describe the atmosphere, the greenhouse effect, and temperature lags observed both daily and seasonally. The content introduces the concepts of pressure, atmospheric heating, and temperature and provides a basis for understanding weather topics that are explored in more detail in other modules of the Intermediate Wildland Fire Behavior Course.PermalinkThis video provides an introduction to the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC), including information about the COSMIC-2 mission. COSMIC uses a technique called radio occultation to profile temperature, water vapor, and ionospheric information within Earth's atmosphere. The high-quality, high-resolution data contribute to improvements in numerical weather prediction, hurricane forecasts, climate studies, and ionospheric analyses. This full video resource covering COSMIC data and science is hosted on COMET's YouTube Channel. A short video highlightin ...PermalinkIn this webinar recording Scott Rudlosky and Geoffrey Stano discuss and demonstrate the capabilities of the GOES-R/16 Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) in both operational and research applications. You will learn how the GLM, the first lightning mapper in geostationary orbit, differs from land-based lightning detection. The presenters summarize important processes known as lightning events, group, flashes, and lightning jumps and show products that illustrate the location and areal extent of lightning, and its evolution in cloud systems. With this information you should be able to integrat ...PermalinkThis introductory module presents the basis for the other modules in the new NWP Series: Effective Use of NWP in the Forecast Process. We present the four steps in the forecast process, as determined by best practices in U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs). Then we show the module topics and summarize how to navigate through the course.PermalinkMesoscale convective systems occur worldwide and year-round and are accompanied by the potential for severe weather and flooding. This lesson describes typical system evolution by examining squall line, bow echo, and MCC characteristics throughout their life cycles. This lesson has less emphasis on the physical processes controlling MCS structure and evolution than our previously released Mesoscale Convective Systems: Squall Lines and Bow Echoes lesson. Instead, this newly updated lesson includes more material on tropical squall lines, MCC's, and on NWP’s ability to predict convective systems. ...PermalinkThis lesson introduces learners to the challenges in predicting and communicating localized tropical cyclone (TC) rainfall threats. The lesson discusses the key ingredients conducive for heavy TC rainfall, and the tools used by the National Weather Service to forecast it. Learners work through a TC case to practice interpreting precipitation guidance correctly and communicating the threat and impacts. The lesson also highlights the issuance of flash flood emergencies and areal flood warnings during TC events, and how to best communicate TC rainfall impacts for a local area. The lesson will tak ...PermalinkThis lesson provides a technical introduction to Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), covering theory, procedures, and accuracy issues. Aimed at professionals in a “geospatial science” field, including engineers, surveyors, meteorologists, geographers and GIS professionals, it will also be useful for emergency managers, and technically-inclined members of the general public with appropriate math and/or science background. For those who may currently see GPS/GNSS as a “black box”, this 1.5 hour lesson provides an understanding of the underlying principles and concepts to support correctl ...PermalinkThis lesson is an abbreviated review of the scientific basis for using visible and infrared satellite imagery. The concepts and capabilities presented are common to most geostationary (GEO) and low-Earth orbiting (LEO) meteorological satellites. Basic remote sensing and radiative theory are reviewed using conceptual models to help organize scientific concepts. Some imagery is also included to illustrate concepts and relate them to sensor observations. This lesson is a part of the NWS Satellite Foundation GOES-R Course. More in-depth information on radiation and radiative transfer can be found ...PermalinkThis lesson provides guidance for operational forecasters needing to combine different intensity methods to determine the intensity of a tropical cyclone. Each of the intensity methods is summarized, focusing on both strengths and weaknesses. These methods include the Dvorak technique, surface observations, scatterometry, the Advanced Dvorak Technique (ADT), microwave sounders (AMSU), SATCON, and subjective interpretation of passive microwave patterns. Consideration of the previous intensity estimate and forecast is also examined. Three case studies task the learner with combining the various ...PermalinkThis module discusses climate change, particularly as it is currently being affected by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases emitted by human activities. It also covers signs of climate change, how scientists study climate, the current thinking on future changes, and what can be done to minimize the effects. Updated in 2012.PermalinkScatterometers and altimeters provide a variety of space-based observations that are useful for marine analysis and forecasting as well as other applications. Key among the products are ocean surface winds from scatterometers and significant wave heights from altimeters. This lesson describes the basics of scatterometers and altimeters, including how they work, what they measure, and how scatterometer winds and altimeter significant wave heights are derived. It then discusses some of the challenges in using the estimates, such as dealing with ambiguities and rain contamination. The lesson also ...PermalinkThis Webcast is a recreation of a presentation on slantwise convection given by Kent Johnson in February, 2002 in Boulder, Colorado. It focuses on assessing the release of conditional symmetric instability as slantwise convection. It provides an overview of the characteristics and theory of CSI, assessment of CSI and slantwise induced precipitation in complex terrain, and operational challenges to assessing CSI.PermalinkThis module examines mesoscale ocean circulation models and features and processes that they predict. These models simulate temperature, salinity, currents, and elevation in 3 dimensions through a period of time. They have sufficient resolution to simulate features like fronts, eddies, upwelling, and internal tides. In this module, we examine current operational models, limitations to model forecasts, examples of predicted ocean features, and potential applications.PermalinkSatellite Feature Identification: Blocking Patterns examines how water vapor imagery can be used to help diagnose blocking patterns and their dissipation. Four major blocking patterns are covered in this module: Blocking highs, Cut-off lows, Rex blocks and Omega blocks. This module is part of the series: "Dynamic Feature Identification: The Satellite Palette".PermalinkThis lesson will describe the real-time storm surge products that are issued by the National Hurricane Center (NHC) and National Weather Service Weather Forecast Offices (NWS WFOs) during a significant tropical cyclone event along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States. Tropical cyclones that threaten a coastline have the potential to inflict devastating damage to communities. Real-time storm surge information will assist decision-makers in their plans and preparation work for these events. Basic familiarity with probabilistic forecast guidance is required. It is recommended that us ...PermalinkThis module applies concepts covered in the module, Fog: Its Processes and Impacts to Aviation. It examines the fog processes at a tropical location: Guyana. A basic overview of the main fog types is provided, and then a detailed analysis is done for a representative fog event at the Cheddi Jagan International Airport in Guyana. Conclusions are made about fog processes in Guyana which can then be applied to forecasting for aviation impacts.Permalink