The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) commissioned the WMO 2016 Survey on the Use of Satellite Data to collect information on the availability and use of satellite data and products for meteorological and related environmental applications by users globally, and to identify obstacles and areas for improvement. WMO carries out this global Survey every four years, and the results from the previous 2012 Survey1 are used as a baseline in this report wherever possible.Published by: WMO ; 2019 (2019 edition)
The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) commissioned the WMO 2016 Survey on the Use of Satellite Data to collect information on the availability and use of satellite data and products for meteorological and related environmental applications by users globally, and to identify obstacles and areas for improvement. WMO carries out this global Survey every four years, and the results from the previous 2012 Survey1 are used as a baseline in this report wherever possible.
Collection(s) and Series: SP- No. 13
Format: Digital (Free)This document describes the underpinning skills that support the WMO competencies that relate to the use of satellite data by operational meteorologists.Published by: WMO ; 2018 (2018 edition)
This document describes the underpinning skills that support the WMO competencies that relate to the use of satellite data by operational meteorologists.
Collection(s) and Series: SP- No. 12
Language(s): English; Other Languages: French, Spanish, Russian, Arabic, Chinese
Format: Digital (Free)
Archives access: 2017-[...]This document explains how to initiate and develop a functional NFCS that will serve as a key coordination mechanism to bring together the local, national, regional and global stakeholders needed for successful generation and delivery of co-designed and co-produced climate services with and for users, effectively linking climate knowledge with action on the ground at national and local levels.Published by: WMO ; 2018
This document explains how to initiate and develop a functional NFCS that will serve as a key coordination mechanism to bring together the local, national, regional and global stakeholders needed for successful generation and delivery of co-designed and co-produced climate services with and for users, effectively linking climate knowledge with action on the ground at national and local levels.
Collection(s) and Series: WMO- No. 1206
Language(s): English; Other Languages: French, Spanish, Russian, Arabic, Chinese
Format: Digital (Free)
ISBN (or other code): 978-92-63-11206-4In view of the increasing pressure on water resources, National Hydrological Services (NHSs) worldwide are faced with the challenge to deliver hydrological services of high quality, timeliness and proven credibility, to assist the decision making process of water and natural resources managers. Nowadays, it is commonly expected that these services must be based on information that includes an accurate assessment of its uncertainty. Stream discharge, the basic hydrological variable, is no exception, yet most measurements are still reported as a value without any information on its associated un ...Published by: WMO ; 2017
In view of the increasing pressure on water resources, National Hydrological Services (NHSs) worldwide are faced with the challenge to deliver hydrological services of high quality, timeliness and proven credibility, to assist the decision making process of water and natural resources managers. Nowadays, it is commonly expected that these services must be based on information that includes an accurate assessment of its uncertainty. Stream discharge, the basic hydrological variable, is no exception, yet most measurements are still reported as a value without any information on its associated uncertainty. It is therefore very appropriate that the WMO Commission for Hydrology has undertaken the project for the Assessment of the Performance of Flow Measurement Instruments and Techniques, with the participation of experts from the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS), the International Association for Hydro-Environment Engineering and Research (IAHR), the Association of Hydro- Meteorological Equipment Industry (HMEI) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
Collection(s) and Series: WMO- No. 1097
Format: Digital (Free)
ISBN (or other code): 978-92-63-11097-8The current publication presents, in an integrated manner, best practices for user-readiness projects performed by user organizations (for example, NMHSs) as well as for satellite development programmes in support of user readiness. Definitions of and a timeline for deliverables are presented that should be made available by the satellite development programmes to user-readiness projects. The best practices documented here therefore apply to both user organizations (section 3) and satellite operators (section 5). The primary audiences for this publication are Members of the Coordination Group ...Published by: WMO ; 2017 (2017 edition)
The current publication presents, in an integrated manner, best practices for user-readiness projects performed by user organizations (for example, NMHSs) as well as for satellite development programmes in support of user readiness. Definitions of and a timeline for deliverables are presented that should be made available by the satellite development programmes to user-readiness projects. The best practices documented here therefore apply to both user organizations (section 3) and satellite operators (section 5). The primary audiences for this publication are Members of the Coordination Group for Meteorological Satellites (CGMS) and WMO, but the broader user community can equally benefit from the information.
Collection(s) and Series: WMO- No. 1187
Language(s): English; Other Languages: French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic
Format: Digital (Free)
ISBN (or other code): 978-92-63-11187-6The purpose of the WMO nowcasting guidelines presented here is to help National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) by providing them with information and knowledge on how to implement a nowcasting system with the resources available to them and an understanding of the current state of science and technology.PermalinkThese Guidelines are intended to provide a one-stop, consistent and contemporary reference resource from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for managers of National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs). They should help with many of the challenges that directors and managers of NMHSs face, including:
– Ensuring that the NMHS is able to meet national needs for meteorological, hydrological and related data and services;
– Responding to newly identified challenges in a rapidly changing world;
– Clarifying and articulating the mandate of the NMHS;
– ...PermalinkPermalinkThe focus of this document is on observations at surface meteorological observing stations. However, many of the principles will also be valid for other forms of observations, including upper-air observations and datasets based on mobile or remotely sensed platforms (for example, satellites, radar or drifting buoys). In particular, as many key remotely sensed datasets begin in the 1970s, it is recommended that, where feasible, the current climatological standard normal period (1981–2010 at the time of writing) be used for these datasets to allow comparison among different data forms on a consi ...PermalinkThe aim of this publication is to provide a specification for the shortlist of NCMPs that can be produced consistently and easily by most countries. By having clearly defined NCMPs, it should be possible for countries with fewer resources to focus their efforts on a small number of products that have wide applicability and interest.PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) - WMO, 2016 (WMO-No. 1170)Because of the current and projected impacts on climate due to the high levels of greenhousegas (GHG) emissions, adaptation is a necessary strategy at all scales in a changing climate. At its 17th session, the Conference of Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) established the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process as a way to facilitate effective adaptation planning in Least Developed Countries (LDCs) and other developing countries. The four key elements that need to be undertaken in the development of NAPs are: Laying the groundwork and addressin ...PermalinkIt is the goal of the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) programme to ensure long - term measurements in order to detect trends in global distributions of chemical constituents in air and the reasons for them (WMO, 2001a). With respect to aerosols, the objective of GAW is to determine the spatio - temporal distribution of aerosol properties related to climate forcing and air quality on multi - decadal time scales and on regional, hemispheric and global spatial scales. The objective of GAW Report No. 153, published in 2003, was to provide a synthesis of methodologies and procedures for measuring the ...PermalinkThis technical document is an update of WMO/TD-1210, WCDMP-55, Guidelines on Climate Data Rescue (2004). It builds on the original Guidelines, while taking into account both changes in technology that have occurred in the intervening 12 years and lessons learned in more recent climate data rescue activities around the world. An overview of data rescue is presented with chapters on its importance, archiving original media, imaging, digitization and archiving digital images and digital data. Twelve appendices provide supporting information.
The Guidelines on Climate Data Rescue are intend ...PermalinkThe Guidelines represent WMO’s approach to project management and outline key stages of the project life cycle that WMO staff should follow. The Handbook aims to help WMO to improve concrete processes and procedures related to project management and provides detailed guidance on how to go about each stage of the project life cycle.PermalinkThe corporate visual identity guidelines are aimed at strengthening the Organization’s identity through branding.PermalinkImproving the understanding of the potential impacts of severe hydrometeorological events poses a challenge to NMHSs and their partner agencies, particularly disaster reduction and civil protection agencies (DRCPAs). These Guidelines establish a road map that identifies the various milestones from weather forecasts and warnings to multi-hazard impact-based forecast and warning services.
For completeness, these Guidelines also describe the ultimate step of forecasting actual impacts, although it is recognized that this is a highly sophisticated exercise, requiring strong collaboration w ...PermalinkWHYCOS is a global concept, comprising a number of independent regional or basin-wide Hydrological Cycle Observing System (HYCOS) components. At the local level within a country, HYCOS brings together various agencies to work on delivering enhanced data and information products, such as the production and delivery of flood forecasts and warnings. An important complementary activity is the building of closer ties to communities and groups whose primary mandate benefits from access to the enhanced data, products and services, thereby achieving increased positive societal impacts. This contribute ...PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP); Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) - IPCC, 2014The 2013 Supplement to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories: Wetlands (Wetlands Supplement) extends the content of the 2006 IPCC Guidelines by filling gaps in coverage and providing updated information reflecting scientific advances, including updating emission factors. It covers inland organic soils and wetlands on mineral soils, coastal wetlands including mangrove forests, tidal marshes and seagrass meadows and constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. The coverage of the 2006 IPCC Guidelines on wetlands was restricted to peatlands drained and managed for pea ...PermalinkThese guidelines review the rationale for hydrological data rescue, the benefits to be derived therefrom, appropriate rescue methods, sound data management practices as well as data management systems, procedures for securing rescued data far into the future and for safeguarding data through storage in an international database.PermalinkThe development of these Guidelines was prompted by the need to establish some common understanding, as well as rules and procedures, for those engaged in the preparation and promulgation of regulatory material in WMO. Their purpose therefore is to lay out principles and procedures with a view to improving the quality of the WMO Technical Regulations, Volume I to Volume IV and their annexes (manuals) and guides and ensure their consistency. The Guidelines are addressed to both technical commissions and other bodies drafting regulatory provisions (such as the Executive Council Panel of Experts ...PermalinkThe implementation of a drought policy based on the philosophy of risk reduction can alter a nation’s approach to drought management by reducing the associated impacts (risk). This was the idea that motivated the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the Secretariat of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), in collaboration with a number of UN agencies, international and regional organizations, and key national agencies, to organize the Highlevel Meeting on National Drought Policy (HMNDP), which ...PermalinkPermalinkThe GCOS Reference Upper‐Air Network (GRUAN) guide provides both mandatory operating requirements and guidelines on how to achieve the operating protocols specified in the GRUAN Manual (GCOS‐170). Mandatory operating protocols are distinguished by the words “must” or “shall” while guidelines are distinguished by the words “could” or “should”. The primary goals of GRUAN are to provide vertical profiles of reference measurements suitable for reliably detecting changes in global and regional climate on decadal time scales, initially for temperature, pressure and water vapour, with ...PermalinkThis guide is intended to help Permanent Representatives of WMO (hereafter referred to as PRs) and potential candidates understand the purpose and benefits of the WMO Fellowship Programme. It will familiarize them with the application procedure, requirements, entitlements and available fellowship opportunities. It builds upon the Manual on Policies and Procedures for WMO Fellowships (WMO/TD-No. 1356, ETR-18) but takes into account the funding situation for the current financial period, identifying which elements of support can be offered within the available funding.PermalinkThese Guidelines are intended to provide a one-stop, consistent and up-to-date reference resource for everything managers need to know about running a National Meteorological or Hydrometeorological Service (NMS).PermalinkThis publication is intended for those involved in providing training for staff in a National Meteorological and Hydrological Service (NMHS) or related agencies. In particular, it aims to strengthen training departments and enhance the expertise of trainers by providing a reference manual and introductory guide. It includes guidance on the options available to ensure positive learning experiences for individuals and organizations.PermalinkThe World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Public Weather Services (PWS) Programme has the primary role of assisting National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) to develop or enhance their capacity to deliver services to the public, media, disaster managers and responders and other users in socio-economic sectors. The PWS Programme therefore assists NMHSs in their responsibility of providing warning and alerting services for the safety of life and livelihood, and property when threatened by extreme weather events such as heavy rain, heavy snow, strong winds, heat waves and extre ...PermalinkThe Seventh Session of the CBS Expert Team on the Evolution of Global Observing Systems (ET-EGOS-7) was held at the WMO Headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, from 7 to 11 May 2012, and was chaired by Dr John Eyre (United Kingdom). A key issue discussed at the meeting was the finalization of the new Implementation Plan for the Evolution of Global Observing Systems (EGOS-IP) responding to the Vision of the Global Observing System in 2025 (approved by EC-LXI in 2009) and to plans of the WMO Integrated Global Observing System (WIGOS). The new EGOS-IP will completely replace the current EGOS-IP and ...PermalinkEnsemble Prediction Systems (EPS) are numerical weather prediction (NWP) systems that allow us to estimate the uncertainty in a weather forecast as well as the most likely outcome. Instead of running the NWP model once (a deterministic forecast), the model is run many times from very slightly different initial conditions. Often the model physics is also slightly perturbed, and some ensembles use more than one model within the ensemble (multi-model EPS) or the same model but with different combinations of physical parameterization schemes (multi-physics EPS). Owing to the cost of running ...PermalinkThe Conference provided material, and, in particular, a number of studies which are contained in these proceedings and which will be used in the development of guidelines on undertaking the analysis, assessment and demonstration of socio-economic benefits of meteorological and hydrological services. These guidelines will complement the development of demonstration and pilot projects and capacity-building and training activities on this subject. These proceedings represent the collection of abstracts of papers delivered at the Conference.PermalinkIncreasingly, Social Media meet the information needs of individuals and communities. Social Media provide enormous opportunities for National Meteorololgical and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) to enhance the delivery of information and services and to interact with users to better understand their needs and interests. The purpose of these Guidelines is to assist NMHSs who may be considering the use of Social Media. The Guidelines address the challenges and highlight the benefits of Social Media, suggest some principles for an effective strategy, and encourage NMHSs to consider Social Media as ...PermalinkThis guide is targeted at NMHSs and is intended to demonstrate the benefits that NMHSs gain by participating in WWIS, and to provide step-by-step guidance for a National Meteorological or Hydrometeorological Service (NMS) wishing to either join the WWIS initiative or to enhance its level of participation. Templates of the standard forms that NMHSs would need to complete to join or enhance participation in the WWIS are also provided.PermalinkConsidering the crucial role of media in the delivery of warning and other essential meteorological information, it is important that NMHSs and respective national media organizations put in place formal agreements that will guide their collaborative work in serving the public. The CBS/OPAG-PWS Expert Team on Communication, Outreach and Public Education Aspects of PWS (ET/COPE) therefore decided to collaborate with the ET/DPM to prepare a set of guidelines, for use by NMHSs, for the establishment of such formal agreements between a National Meteorological or Hydrometeorological Service (NMS) a ...PermalinkThis document represents an update to the Implementation Plan for the Sustained and Coordinated Processing of Environmental Satellite Data for Climate Monitoring (SCOPECM) Version 1.3 of 20 March 2009 [RD-01]. Phase 2 of SCOPE-CM incorporates accomplishments and lessons learned from Phase 1, updated requirements and guidelines from the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS), and the evolving needs for climate information by a variety of users. A key component of Phase 2 is the establishment of sustained production of fundamental climate data records (FCDRs) as well as Essential Climate V ...PermalinkThe World Weather Records (WWR) database contains historical monthly climatic data from land surface stations worldwide. First released in 1927, the WWR database has been widely employed in operational climate monitoring, international climate assessments, and numerous other applications. To date, there have been nine editions of WWR, the first containing data up through 1920, with each successive release containing data for another decade (i.e., 1921-1930, 1931- 1940, 1941-1950, 1951-1960, 1961-1970, 1971-1980, 1981-1990, 1991- 2000). Since its inception, WWR has been produced by three ...PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; WWRP/WGNE Joint Working Group on Forecast Verification Research (JWGFVR) - WMO, 2012Cloud errors can have wide-reaching impacts on the accuracy and quality of outcomes, most notably, but not exclusively, on temperature. This is especially true for weather forecasting, where cloud cover has a significant impact on human comfort and wellbeing. Whilst public perception may not be interested in absolute precision, i.e. whether there were 3 or 5 okta of cloud, there is anecdotal evidence to suggest strong links between the perceptions of overall forecast accuracy and whether the cloud was forecast correctly, mostly because temperature errors often go hand-in-hand. It is therefore ...PermalinkFor developing countries, particularly LDCs (Least Developed Countries), this publication provides guidelines on enhancing the contribution of WMO and NMHSs (National Meteorological and Hydrological Services) to the achievement of the MDGs (Millenium Development Goals). Benefiting from the GFCS (Global Framework for Climate Services), NMHSs should be encouraged to use these guidelines, among others, to mainstream their activities, including generation and effective delivery of relevant weather-, climate- and water-related information and services into national sustainable development strategie ...PermalinkPermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) - WMO, 2011In this report we begin by describing and discussing approaches that can be used to estimate such return values in Chapter 2. Approaches based on extreme value theory as well as ad hoc methods are considered. We then present in Chapter 3 some worked examples using two time series of significant wave height measurements, one in deep and the other in shallow waters. In Chapter 4 we provide an inventory of software packages available to carry out extreme value analyses. We finish in Chapter 5 with some guidelines / recommendations.PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) - WMO, 2011In this report we begin by describing and discussing approaches based on extreme value theory that can be used to estimate return values of SWL in Chapter 2. We then present in Chapter 3 a worked example using a long-term time series of still water level measurements processed and quality-checked by the Dutch Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management. They are the measurements of the gauge located at Hoek van Holland, The Netherlands (see Figure 3.1), available from 1887 onwards. In Chapter 4 we provide an inventory of software packages available to carry out extreme value analy ...PermalinkThis document provides guidelines on international collaboration in the warning process for severe weather threats and extreme conditions (heat wave, cold wave, drought, storm surge, avalanches, flooding.) It discusses general principles regarding cross-border exchange of warnings, and includes the role of the media in raising the public’s expectations, focus on public safety, threshold criteria and the scope of cooperation. It also presents examples from different parts of the world to illustrate the factors to be considered in developing international or cross-border collaborations in the wa ...PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; Bais A.; Bernhard G.; et al. - WMO, 2010 (WMO/TD-No. 1538)This paper is part four of a series of documents dedicated to instruments for the measurement of solar ultraviolet radiation. The series of documents has been drawn up by the WMO Scientific Advisory Group on UV Monitoring and the UV Instrumentation Subgroup. The aim of the series is to define instrument specifications and guidelines for instrument characterization that are needed for reliable UV measurements.PermalinkThe Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) aims at providing reliable long-term observations of the chemical composition and physical properties of the atmosphere that are relevant for understanding atmospheric chemistry and climate change. Reactive gases are one of the foci of the GAW programme. This group includes carbon monoxide (CO), which is present only in trace quantities in the atmosphere but plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry. Compatibility of data from different observational platforms and sites is of crucial importance fo ...PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; Kepert Jeffrey David; Ginger J. D. - WMO, 2010 (WMO/TD-No. 1555)PermalinkIn 2010, a historic heat wave and numerous wildfires impacted Moscow and surrounding areas in the Russian Federation. At the same time, catastrophic flooding from unusually heavy monsoon rains was ongoing in Pakistan. Both events led to many fatalities and considerable human suffering. As climate change due to anthropogenic forcing continues, extreme weather events such as these are likely to become more common (IPCC 2007), further increasing the need for preparedness and early warning systems.
The need for robust early warning systems goes beyond purely natural disasters and extend ...PermalinkPermalinkPermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP); International Council for Science (ICSU); et al. - WMO, 2009 (WMO/TD-No. 1488)This document provides a short summary of GCOS requirements for satellite-based climate monitoring that can serve as a guideline for the generation of satellite-based datasets and derived products in order to meet the requirements for climate monitoring and the long-term aspects of climate research.
These guidelines are intended to help space agencies and other relevant institutions in the way they process and analyze datasets obtained from satellite instruments, to subsequently generate Essential Climate Variable (ECV) products (cf. Annex I and III).PermalinkPermalinkPermalink