Published by: WMO ; 2020
Notes: Executive Council, 72nd session (28 September–2 October 2020) Videoconference
Language(s): English; Other Languages: French, Spanish, Russian, Arabic, Chinese
Format: Digital (Free)
ISBN (or other code): 978-92-63-11255-2Part D – Representations derived from data models consists of the specification of the list of standard representations derived from data models, including those using extensible markup language (XML), with their specifications and associated code tables. This is the first edition of Volume I.3 of the Manual on Codes and introduces the use of XML.Published by: WMO ; 2020 (2019 edition updated in 2021)
Manual on Codes - International Codes, Volume I.3 - Annex II to the WMO Technical Regulations: Part D – Representations derived from data models
Part D – Representations derived from data models consists of the specification of the list of standard representations derived from data models, including those using extensible markup language (XML), with their specifications and associated code tables. This is the first edition of Volume I.3 of the Manual on Codes and introduces the use of XML.
Collection(s) and Series: WMO- No. 306
Language(s): English; Other Languages: French, Russian, Spanish
Format: Digital (Free)
ISBN (or other code): 978-92-63-10306-2
Archives access: 2001-[...]These rules of procedure cover the Executive Council and the panels reporting to it (Scientific Advisory Panel, Climate Coordination Panel, Hydrological Coordination Panel, Panel of Experts on Polar and High-mountain Observations, Research and Services and Capacity Development Panel). Established in accordance with Regulation 3, they were adopted by the Executive Council under the authority of the Convention and of the General Regulations of the World Meteorological Organization.Published by: WMO ; 2020 (2020 Edition)
These rules of procedure cover the Executive Council and the panels reporting to it (Scientific Advisory Panel, Climate Coordination Panel, Hydrological Coordination Panel, Panel of Experts on Polar and High-mountain Observations, Research and Services and Capacity Development Panel). Established in accordance with Regulation 3, they were adopted by the Executive Council under the authority of the Convention and of the General Regulations of the World Meteorological Organization.
Collection(s) and Series: WMO- No. 1256
Language(s): English; Other Languages: French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic
Format: Digital (Free)
ISBN (or other code): 978-92-63-11256-9
Published by: WMO ; 2020
Establishing the Systematic Observations Financing Facility: A new way of financing basic observations
Notes: SYSTEMATIC OBSERVATIONS FINANCING FACILITY
Weather and climate information for the global public good
Format: Digital (Free)
Published by: WMO ; 2020
Mise en place du Mécanisme de financement des observations systématiques: Repensons le financement des observations de base
Notes: MÉCANISME DE FINANCEMENT DES OBSERVATIONS SYSTÉMATIQUES
Recueillir des informations sur le temps et le climat dans l’intérêt de tous
Language(s): English; Other Languages: French
Format: Digital (Free)This Compendium is intended for use by airport and airspace planners and designers, air traffic controllers and flight crew to improve their knowledge of the basic processes governing weather in the tropics as well as the detailed climate and weather of the individual regions in and adjacent to the tropics. This Compendium can also be used by operational and non-operational meteorologists, including aeronautical meteorological observers and forecasters, as well as meteorological training professionals as valuable reference material and a training aid.PermalinkThis booklet is a simple guide to the aeronautical meteorological codes, METAR, SPECI and TAF, applicable on 5 November 2020, updated as a result of the alignment of the Technical Regulations (WMO-No. 49), Volume II – Meteorological Service for International Air Navigation, Parts I and II, with Amendment 79 to Annex 3 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation. It is aimed at a wide range of users such as pilots, flight dispatchers, air traffic control staff and meteorological observers at smaller aerodromes where sophisticated automated instruments are not available. Although the reade ...PermalinkThese Regulations are designed:
(a) To facilitate cooperation in meteorology and hydrology between Members;
(b) To meet, in the most effective manner, specific needs in the various fields of application of
meteorology and operational hydrology in the international sphere; and
(c) To ensure adequate uniformity and standardization in the practices and procedures
employed in achieving (a) and (b) above.Permalink
PermalinkThe State of the Climate in Africa 2019, report provides a snapshot of climate trends, observed high-impact events and associated risks and impacts on key sensitive sectors in Africa. The report also draws lessons on existing gaps in climate change action.PermalinkThis publication is the outcome of the revision, expansion and up-dating of the 1998 Guide to Wave Analysis and Forecasting. It is designed to enhance the provision of up-to-date information and guidance material on all aspects of the ocean-related activities of National Meteorological Services.
This 2018 (3rd edition) represents the latest updates, taking into account the dramatic improvements in wave modelling and observational capability over the last two decades. The former JCOMM Expert Team on Waves and Coastal Hazards led the revision.PermalinkBetween 1970 and 2019, 79% of disasters worldwide involved weather, water, and climate-related hazards. These disasters accounted for 56% of deaths and 75% of economic losses from disasters associated with natural hazards reported during that period. As climate change continues to threaten human lives, ecosystems and economies, risk information and early warning systems (EWS) are increasingly seen as key for reducing these impacts. The majority of countries, including 88% of least developed countries and small island states, that submitted their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) to UN ...PermalinkThis publication provides guidance on homogenization of instrumental land station data. For beginners, the publication describes prerequisites for homogenization (including data rescue, quality control, metadata, parallel measurements etc), explains homogenization practices in detail and provides an overview of homogenization software packages. For advanced users, the history and mathematical theory of homogenization is introduced.PermalinkThe Global Climate in 2015–2019 is part of the WMO Statements on Climate providing authoritative information on the state of the climate and impacts. It builds on operational monitoring systems at global, regional and national scales. It has been authored by: Peter Siegmund, lead author (Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute), Jakob Abermann (University of Graz, Austria), Omar Baddour, Michael Sparrow, Rodica Nitu, Oksana Tarasova (WMO), Pep Canadell (CSIRO Climate Science Centre, Australia), Anny Cazenave (Laboratoire d’Etudes en Géophysique et Océanographie Spatiales, Centre National d’ ...PermalinkThe Global Climate in 2015–2019 is part of the WMO Statements on Climate providing authoritative information on the state of the climate and impacts. It builds on operational monitoring systems at global, regional and national scales. It has been authored by: Peter Siegmund, lead author (Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute), Jakob Abermann (University of Graz, Austria), Omar Baddour, Michael Sparrow, Rodica Nitu, Oksana Tarasova (WMO), Pep Canadell (CSIRO Climate Science Centre, Australia), Anny Cazenave (Laboratoire d’Etudes en Géophysique et Océanographie Spatiales, Centre National d’ ...PermalinkPermalinkVolume I contains WMO international codes for meteorological data and other geophysical data relating to meteorology. The relevant regulations are given for each code form.PermalinkThe first International Symposium on “Extreme Maritime Weather: Towards Safety of Life at Sea and a Sustainable Blue Economy” was held in London at the International Maritime Organization (IMO) Headquarters from the 23rd to 25th October 2019. Jointly organized by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the IMO, over 200 participants from over 40 different countries attended, representing both private and public sectors, and including Ministers and Ambassadors. The structure of the Symposium consisted of Plenary Sessions, with invited presentations and panel discussions. The Symposium P ...PermalinkPermalinkThese guidelines are intended to provide National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) and other climate service providers with up-to-date information on available resources, strategies, procedures and best practices to help develop their capacities in the provision and use of climate services at the global, regional and national level. The guidance focuses on enhancing the capacity of NMHSs in four key areas: institutional, infrastructural, procedural and human resources. These four areas must be considered together to achieve sustainable capacity development.PermalinkIn conjunction with the Manual on the WMO Information System (Manual on WIS) (WMO-No. 1060), the Guide to the WMO Information System (Guide to WIS) is designed to ensure adequate uniformity and standardization in the data, information and communication practices, procedures and specifications employed among WMO Members in the operation of the WMO Information System (WIS) as it supports the mission of WMO. The Manual on WIS, Annex VII to the WMO Technical Regulations (WMO-No. 49), contains standard and recommended practices, procedures and specifications. The Guide to WIS contains additional in ...PermalinkMeteorology and hydrology play an important role in the understanding of the basic criteria for the siting of nuclear power plant and in applying protective measures for their operations. In order to provide advice on this matter, the WMO Secretariat, at the request of the Executive Council, arranged for the preparation of a Technical Note aimed at practising meteorologists and hydrologists of countries faced with the task of installing nuclear power plants.PermalinkThis document provides high-level targets to guide the evolution of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Integrated Global Observing System (WIGOS) in the coming decades. This vision (henceforth referred to as the “Vision for WIGOS in 2040” or simply the “Vision”) replaces the “Vision for the Global Observing System in 2025”, which was adopted by the Executive Council at its sixty-first session in June 2009. In many ways, the 2025 Vision foreshadowed the development of WIGOS, whereas the current document anticipates a fully developed and implemented WIGOS framework that supports all act ...Permalink
PermalinkIn 2020, WMO celebrates its seventieth anniversary, and its community is again presented with both opportunities and threats from scientific progress, new technologies and major shifts in public policy in many countries. Together, these suggest a need to re-examine the policy foundations of current practice.PermalinkContains lists of the Congress and Executive Council resolutions.PermalinkThis is the first edition of the Manual on the WMO Integrated Global Observing System (WMO-No. 1160), developed following the decision of the Sixteenth World Meteorological Congress to proceed with the implementation of that System (WIGOS). It was approved by the Seventeenth World Meteorological Congress.
The Manual was developed by the Executive Council through its Inter-Commission Coordination Group on WIGOS, specifically its Task Team on WIGOS Regulatory Material. It is the result of a collaborative approach involving all interested technical commissions under the leadership of the C ...PermalinkThese WMO Guidelines on Emerging Data Issues are the result of a request made at the seventeenth World Meteorological Congress (Cg-17) to provide clarity and guidance for Members in navigating the rapidly changing world of data and data technologies, and especially to provide some insight regarding trends and emerging challenges in data and their use (WMO, 2015a). While these Guidelines necessarily refer to technical aspects of data, the focus is on the impact (positive and negative) of emerging data issues on WMO systems, on the systems and services provided by WMO Members, and how Members mi ...PermalinkThe Strategic Plan adopted by the Eighteenth World Meteorological Congress, in June 2019, sets the directions and priorities to guide the activities of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) during 2020–2023 and up to 2030 to enable all Members to improve their information, products and services.PermalinkThis manual is designed to facilitate cooperation in data-processing and forecasting among Members; to specify obligations of Members in the implementation of the World Weather Watch (WWW) Global Data Processing and Forecasting System (GDPFS); and to ensure adequate uniformity and standardization in the practices and procedures employed in achieving these.PermalinkPermalinkThis Guidance on Integrated Urban Hydrometeorological, Climate and Environment Services (Volume I: Concept and Methodology) serves to assist WMO Members in the development and implementation of the urban services that address the needs of the cities stakeholders in their countries.PermalinkThis edition of the Guide provides material relevant to some of the new WIGOS-related regulations. The topics cover the new system of WIGOS station identifiers, the new requirements to record and make available metadata as specified in the WIGOS Metadata Standard, the new Observing Systems Capability Analysis and Review (OSCAR) tool to be used by Members to submit metadata for WMO global compilation, the new observing network design principles, national WIGOS implementation, WIGOS data partnerships, Regional WIGOS Centres, and WIGOS Data Quality Monitoring System for surface-based observations ...PermalinkThe Manual on the WMO Information System (WMO-No. 1060) is designed to ensure adequate uniformity and standardization of data, information and communications practices, procedures and specifications employed among World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Members in the operation of the WMO Information System (WIS) as it supports the mission of the Organization.PermalinkThis publication contains: the texts of the WMO Convention; the General, Staff and Financial Regulations; the text of the Agreement between the UN and WMO; the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the Specialized Agencies; and the agreement, plan of execution and protocol concluded between the Swiss Federal Council and WMO governing the latter's status in Switzerland.PermalinkFrench, Spanish and Arabic versions still in preparationPermalinkThe report provides case studies, examples and explanations as to the role of climate information and services to support agriculture in the face of climate variability and change, assesses gaps and makes recommendations. This analysis helps highlight both challenges and opportunities for climate service efforts
aimed at promoting climate resilient development and adaptation action.Permalink
PermalinkThe Technical Regulations are determined by the World Meteorological Congress in accordance with Article 8 (d) of the Convention.
These Regulations are designed:
(a) To facilitate cooperation in meteorology and hydrology among Members;
(b) To meet, in the most effective manner, specific needs in the various fields of application of meteorology and operational hydrology in the international sphere;
(c) To ensure adequate uniformity and standardization in the practices and procedures employed in achieving (a) and (b) above.PermalinkThe rules of procedure for the regional associations have been adopted in accordance with Regulation 3 of the General Regulations. Their goal is to ensure standardized procedural arrangements for all regional associations and their subsidiary bodies.PermalinkThe rules of procedure for the technical commissions have been adopted in accordance with Regulation 3 of the General Regulations. Their goal is to ensure standardized procedural arrangements for all technical commissions and their subsidiary bodies.PermalinkThe purpose of this Compendium is to provide Members with easy access to all the WMO competency frameworks that have been implemented since the first frameworks for aeronautical meteorological personnel were put in place in 2013. This publication accompanies the Guide to Competency (WMO-No. 1205), which provides competency implementation advice to Members.PermalinkFluvial systems provide a wide range of necessary services for human society to thrive on. These are the so-called ecosystem services: food, drinking water, natural flood mitigation, energy and so forth. Such services are linked to an appropriate level of functionality of fluvial processes, which can be accounted for in terms of ecological objectives. These ecological objectives in watercourses can be reached only if appropriate flow and sediment regimes and related quality of channel morphology are guaranteed. The establishment and maintenance of such flow regimes, namely environmental flows ...Permalink
PermalinkPermalinkPermalinkPermalinkThis publication marks the twenty-fifth anniversary of the WMO Statement on the State of the Global Climate, which was first issued in 1994. The 2019 edition treating data for 2018 marks sustained international efforts dedicated to reporting on, analysing and understanding the year-to-year variations and long-term trends of a changing climate.PermalinkPermalinkPermalinkThe first edition of this guide was published in 1950.PermalinkPermalinkThe purpose of this Guide is to provide guidance to Members’ organizations that are developing, implementing and/or maintaining competency-based training and assessment programmes based upon the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) competency frameworks established in the Technical Regulations, Volume I (WMO-No.49).
Examples of selected Members’ best practices are included in this guidance material to facilitate transfer of knowledge and experience, and thus enable organizations to achieve compliance with the WMO requirements in the most efficient way.
This Guide will also be ...PermalinkInternationally agreed methods of providing services to the marine community around the world are described in the Manual on Marine Meteorological Services (WMO-No. 558), Volume I. The purpose of this Guide is to complement the Manual by:
(a) Describing the requirements for the various types of service;
(b) Explaining the rationale for the agreed methods of providing services;
(c) Giving guidance on how to set up and maintain marine meteorological services.
It follows the same structure as the Manual on Marine Meteorological Services.PermalinkThis handbook is a guide to using satellite telecommunication systems and is provided as an attachment to the Guide to the WMO Information System (WMO-No. 1061). It is intended for scientists and managers who are considering using satellite communications to collect data from remote instrumentation located either on land or at sea. The handbook aims to provide an overview of the state of the market at the time of writing (April 2018) so that users can quickly identify which satellite services are appropriate for their needs. Since the market is evolving rapidly, an online version will be made ...PermalinkThis publication is an Annex to Chapter 9 of the Guide to the WMO Integrated Global Observing System (WMO, 2018). It provides detailed technical guidance for Regional WMO Integrated Global Observing System (WIGOS) Centres (RWCs) to run the operational activities related to the WIGOS Data Quality Monitoring System (WDQMS), specifically for the surface stations of the Global Observing System (GOS) located on land (on the territories of WMO Regional Association (RA) Members). These guidelines describe the three main functions of WDQMS (monitoring, evaluation and incident management), as well as t ...PermalinkThis report considers sensors that are designed for the measurement of atmospheric composition at ambient concentrations focusing on reactive gaseous air pollutants (CO, NOx, O3, SO2), particulate matter (PM) and greenhouse gases CO2 and CH4. It examines example applications where new scientific and technical insight may potentially be gained from using a network of sensors when compared to more sparsely located observations. Access to low-cost sensors appears to offer exciting new atmospheric applications, can support new services and potentially facilitates the inclusion of a new cohort of u ...PermalinkPermalinkPermalinkChapter 1 provides a description of the process approach within the ISO 9000 family of QMS standards. Chapter 2 describes the implementation of the process approach in climate services. Chapters 3–6 provide some essential aspects, examples and best practices to be considered when implementing the process approach in climate services processes: climate data, climate monitoring, climate prediction and service delivery. Chapter 7 mentions briefly some steps in obtaining certification.PermalinkThe purpose of this publication is to describe and recommend procedures for the verification of operational probabilistic seasonal forecasts, including those from the Regional Climate Outlook Forums (RCOFs), National Meteorological and Hydrological Services and other forecasting centres. The recommendations are meant to complement the WMO Commission for Basic Systems Standardized Verification System for Long-range Forecasts (SVSLRF). SVSLRF defines standards for verifying model outputs from Global Producing Centres (GPCs), and so includes procedures for measuring the quality of ensemble predic ...PermalinkPermalinkThis publication summarizes the main conclusions and recommendations from SYMET-13 and includes the Statement agreed by the participants on the final day of the Symposium.PermalinkPermalinkThis Annual Report provides a snapshot of this progress. During the course of this single year, the new WMO HydroHub started to stimulate innovation and community engagement for making hydrological measurements more sustainable. WMO became an official observer with the Arctic Council and launched the Year of Polar Prediction to improve predictions for the Arctic and Antarctic. National agencies launched and operationalized sophisticated, next-generation meteorological satellites. The WMO Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) expanded its reporting to cover reactive gases and airborne dust. We strength ...PermalinkThis guidance document is primarily intended for the providers of climate services, in particular for National Meteorological and Hydrological Services, but will also be of use to other organizations involved in the development, delivery and use of climate services.Permalink
PermalinkThis document explains how to initiate and develop a functional NFCS that will serve as a key coordination mechanism to bring together the local, national, regional and global stakeholders needed for successful generation and delivery of co-designed and co-produced climate services with and for users, effectively linking climate knowledge with action on the ground at national and local levels.PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC); United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - WMO, 2018 (WMO-No. 1208)PermalinkThis publication is designed to provide Members of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) with guidance and assistance in developing national activities linked to climate information and services.PermalinkPermalinkPermalinkPermalinkPermalinkThe purpose of this Guide is to define the minimum technical specifications and procedures applicable to the Direct Broadcast Network for Near-real-time Relay of Low Earth Orbit Satellite Data (DBNet) and to provide guidance for implementing these specifications and procedures.
In the present Guide, the term “shall” is used when referring to the technical specifications and procedures that have to be applied for DBNet to work properly, and the term “should” when referring to those that would enhance the proper functioning of DBNet. The DBNet technical specifications are applica ...PermalinkPermalinkThe objective of this publication is to provide guidance to WMO Members on how to develop and implement a quality management system (QMS). The Guide details the steps required to obtain certification of compliance with the ISO standard ISO 9001:2015, Quality Management System – Requirements (ISO, 2015c)It also provides the steps for transition from ISO standard ISO 9001:2008 (ISO, 2008) to standard ISO 9001:2015 (ISO, 2015c). It is especially focused on WMO Member National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs). However, it could be successfully utilized by other service providers, ...PermalinkGuidelines for managing changes in climate observation programmes, with a set of recommended practices by which such changes can be managed, have already been published (WMO, 2007). This guidance note will focus on those AWSs likely to form part of long-term climate records. These will normally be owned by NMHSs or associated agencies, or sometimes by third parties (such as aviation, agriculture or road transport agencies) under standards endorsed by the NMHSs. Experience shows that private AWSs can be useful for some climate purposes (such as providing information on individual local-scale ex ...PermalinkThese Guidelines are intended to provide a one-stop, consistent and contemporary reference resource from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for managers of National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs). They should help with many of the challenges that directors and managers of NMHSs face, including:
– Ensuring that the NMHS is able to meet national needs for meteorological, hydrological and related data and services;
– Responding to newly identified challenges in a rapidly changing world;
– Clarifying and articulating the mandate of the NMHS;
– ...PermalinkPermalinkThe aim of this publication is to provide a specification for the shortlist of NCMPs that can be produced consistently and easily by most countries. By having clearly defined NCMPs, it should be possible for countries with fewer resources to focus their efforts on a small number of products that have wide applicability and interest.PermalinkThe focus of this document is on observations at surface meteorological observing stations. However, many of the principles will also be valid for other forms of observations, including upper-air observations and datasets based on mobile or remotely sensed platforms (for example, satellites, radar or drifting buoys). In particular, as many key remotely sensed datasets begin in the 1970s, it is recommended that, where feasible, the current climatological standard normal period (1981–2010 at the time of writing) be used for these datasets to allow comparison among different data forms on a consi ...PermalinkThe purpose of the WMO nowcasting guidelines presented here is to help National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) by providing them with information and knowledge on how to implement a nowcasting system with the resources available to them and an understanding of the current state of science and technology.PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; International Telecommunication Union (ITU) - WMO, 2017 (WMO-No. 1197)The Handbook provides comprehensive technical and operational information on current observation applications and systems and on the use of radio frequencies by meteorological systems, including meteorological satellites, radiosondes, weather radars, wind profiler radars and spaceborne remote sensing instruments. It is intended for the meteorological (i.e. weather, water and climate) and radiocommunication communities, including governmental institutions, industry as well as the general public.PermalinkPermalinkThe current publication presents, in an integrated manner, best practices for user-readiness projects performed by user organizations (for example, NMHSs) as well as for satellite development programmes in support of user readiness. Definitions of and a timeline for deliverables are presented that should be made available by the satellite development programmes to user-readiness projects. The best practices documented here therefore apply to both user organizations (section 3) and satellite operators (section 5). The primary audiences for this publication are Members of the Coordination Group ...PermalinkPermalinkIn view of the increasing pressure on water resources, National Hydrological Services (NHSs) worldwide are faced with the challenge to deliver hydrological services of high quality, timeliness and proven credibility, to assist the decision making process of water and natural resources managers. Nowadays, it is commonly expected that these services must be based on information that includes an accurate assessment of its uncertainty. Stream discharge, the basic hydrological variable, is no exception, yet most measurements are still reported as a value without any information on its associated un ...PermalinkPermalinkThis latest report confirms that 2016 was the warmest year on record: a remarkable 1.1 °C above the pre-industrial period, which is 0.06 °C above the previous record set in 2015. This increase in global temperature is consistent with other changes in the climate system. Globally averaged sea-surface temperatures were also the warmest on record; global sea levels continued to rise; and Arctic sea-ice extent was well below average for most of the year.PermalinkThis publication responds to the recommendations made in the review of the future roles and operation of RTCs, which was carried out by the Executive Council Panel of Experts on Education and Training from 2012 to 2014. The review and recommendations were approved by the WMO Executive Council at its sixty-sixth session in 2014. The review underlined the importance and usefulness of the RTCs to WMO Members. However, it also noted that, for Members to get even more value from such centres, the criteria for designation and reconfirmation of RTCs needed to be improved and that Directors of RTCs wo ...PermalinkIn view of the increasing pressure on water resources, National Hydrological Services (NHSs) worldwide are faced with the challenge to deliver hydrological services of high quality, timeliness and proven credibility, to assist the decision making process of water and natural resources managers. Nowadays, it is commonly expected that these services must be based on information that includes an accurate assessment of its uncertainty. Stream discharge, the basic hydrological variable, is no exception, yet most measurements are still reported as a value without any information on its associated un ...PermalinkPermalinkThis book is a brief introduction to a career in meteorology. For more information about qualifications, training and opportunities, you are invited to consult your career adviser or your local or national weather service.PermalinkThe regional activities under the WMO Tropical Cyclone Programme consist mainly of the programmes pursued by groups of countries acting in concert to improve their warning systems. In Region IV (North America, Central America and the Caribbean) there is a long history of collective action specifically designed to protect people and property from the severe tropical cyclones which are called hurricanes in the Region. A working group, known as the RA IV Hurricane Committee, was established by the seventh session of Regional Association IV (Mexico City, April May 1977) to promote such activities ...PermalinkThis Atlas describes the classification system for clouds and meteorological phenomena used by all WMO Members. The classifications also describe meteorological meteors other than clouds – hydrometeors, lithometeors, photometeors, and electrometeors.
The Atlas provides a common language to communicate cloud observations, and ensures consistency in reporting by observers around the world. It serves as a training tool for meteorologists, as well as for those working in aeronautical and maritime environments, and it has become popular with weather enthusiasts and cloud spotters.Permalink
PermalinkIt is the goal of the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) programme to ensure long - term measurements in order to detect trends in global distributions of chemical constituents in air and the reasons for them (WMO, 2001a). With respect to aerosols, the objective of GAW is to determine the spatio - temporal distribution of aerosol properties related to climate forcing and air quality on multi - decadal time scales and on regional, hemispheric and global spatial scales. The objective of GAW Report No. 153, published in 2003, was to provide a synthesis of methodologies and procedures for measuring the ...PermalinkThe purpose of this publication is to provide the reader with a broad overview of the main information technology security (ITS) components and procedures. It is not meant to be an extensive security course, as such information is widely available in the information technology (IT) industry. It is aimed at high-level managers, system managers and technicians who wish to have an introduction to ITS. It should act as an aid to understanding the basic concepts and principles of ITS, and help the reader to direct further study in this ever-widening field of computer science.Permalink