Published by: BMO ; 2020 (Издание 2019 г.)
Collection(s) and Series: BMO- No. 1238
Language(s): Russian; Other Languages: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Spanish
Format: Digital (Free)
ISBN (or other code): 978-92-63-41238-6
Published by: WMO ; 2020
Collection(s) and Series: WMO- No. 1248
Language(s): English; Other Languages: French, Spanish, Russian, Arabic, Chinese
Format: Digital (Free) (ill.)
ISBN (or other code): 978-92-62-11248-5
Published by: OMM ; 2020
Collection(s) and Series: OMM- No. 1248
Language(s): Spanish; Other Languages: French, English, Russian, Arabic, Chinese
Format: Digital (Free) (ill.)
ISBN (or other code): 978-92-63-31248-9
Published by: المنظمة العالمية للأرصاد ; 2020
Language(s): Arabic; Other Languages: English, French, Chinese, Russian, Spanish
Format: Digital (Free)
Published by: BMO ; 2020
Language(s): Russian; Other Languages: English, French, Chinese, Arabic, Spanish
Format: Digital (Free)Permalink
PermalinkPermalinkGCRF African-SWIFT is a programme of research and capability building, led by the National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS), and funded by UK Research and Innovation Global Challenges Research Fund. The project aims to deliver a step change in African weather forecasting capability from hourly to seasonal timescales, and build research capability to continue forecasting improvements in Africa for the foreseeable future.
The GCRF African-SWIFT team works with forecast users across sectors from aviation to agriculture, energy, water and emergency response to understand how to ...Permalink
PermalinkThe purpose of this Compendium is to provide Members with easy access to all the WMO competency frameworks that have been implemented since the first frameworks for aeronautical meteorological personnel were put in place in 2013. This publication accompanies the Guide to Competency (WMO-No. 1205), which provides competency implementation advice to Members.PermalinkThe Community Earth System Model (CESM) is a fully-coupled, community, global climate model that provides state-of-the-art computer simulations of the Earth's past, present, and future climate states. The CESM Distance Learning Course is based on the CESM Tutorial held annually at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, Colorado. This course consists of 12 lectures and 4 practical sessions on simulating the climate system and practical sessions on running Community Earth System Model (CESM), modifying components, and analyzing data. The course is targeted at the graduat ...PermalinkThis lesson introduces tools and concepts that are essential for scenario-based planning for sea level change. The lesson guides the learner through the use of the USACE Sea Level Change Calculator to produce site-specific water-level projections. The lesson also introduces the NOAA Sea Level Rise Viewer and NOAA's Sea Level Trends website.PermalinkThis publication marks the twenty-fifth anniversary of the WMO Statement on the State of the Global Climate, which was first issued in 1994. The 2019 edition treating data for 2018 marks sustained international efforts dedicated to reporting on, analysing and understanding the year-to-year variations and long-term trends of a changing climate.PermalinkInternational Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) - International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI)This website makes available numerous resources from IRI training events.PermalinkThe purpose of this Guide is to provide guidance to Members’ organizations that are developing, implementing and/or maintaining competency-based training and assessment programmes based upon the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) competency frameworks established in the Technical Regulations, Volume I (WMO-No.49).
Examples of selected Members’ best practices are included in this guidance material to facilitate transfer of knowledge and experience, and thus enable organizations to achieve compliance with the WMO requirements in the most efficient way.
This Guide will also be ...Permalink本出版物旨在为世界气象组织(WMO)会 员开展与气候信息与服务相关的国家活动提供 指导和支持。本指南之前已有两个版本：最初 的版本出现在1960年，而第二个版本于1983年 出版。随着时间的推移，虽然很多最基本的气 候科学和气候学惯例仍然保持不变，但是气候 学知识和资料分析技术方面的科学进步，以及 技术、计算机能力以及仪器方面的变化，使得 第二个版本过时了。Permalinkالمنظمة العالمية للأرصاد - المنظمة العالمية للأرصاد, 2018 (طبعة 2018; مجموعة مطبوعات المنظمة-No. 100)صمم هذا المطبوع من أجل توفير التوجيه والمساعدة لأعضاء المنظمة العالمية للأرصاد الجوية في تطوير الأنشطة الوطنية المرتبطة بالمعلومات والخدمات المناخية. وقد صدرت طبعتان سابقتان من هذا الدليل: المطبوع الأصلي، الذي ظهر في 1960 ، والطبعة الثانية، التي نشرت في 1983 . ومع أن الكثير من مبادئ علم المناخ والممارسات المناخية لم تفقد صلاحيتها مع مرور الزمن، فإن أوجه التقدم العلمي في المعارف المناخية وأساليب تحليل البيانات، فضاً عن التغيرات التي حدثت في التكنولوجيا، وفي قدرات الحواسيب والأجهزة، قد جعلت الطبعة الثانية غير مناسبة للعصر.PermalinkLa presente publicación tiene por objeto proporcionar orientación y asistencia a los Miembros de la Organización Meteorológica Mundial (OMM) para llevar a cabo actividades nacionales vinculadas con la información y los servicios climáticos.PermalinkНастоящая публикация предназначена для предоставления руководства и оказания содействия странам — членам Всемирной Метеорологической Организации (ВМО) в развитии национальной деятельности, связанной с климатической информацией и обслуживанием.PermalinkPermalinkThis lesson provides an introduction to the Middle East for Navy meteorologists. It focuses on the major aspects of synoptic and mesoscale weather patterns, hazards to aviation and maritime operations, geography, oceanography, and climatology. The “Geography” Unit covers major political boundaries, cities, ports, topographical features, rivers, and seismicity. The “Oceanography” Unit includes major bathymetric features, mean sea surface temperature, vertical temperature profiles, salinity and velocity, ocean currents, and tidal ranges. The “Climatology” Unit covers the seasonal climatology of ...Permalink
Launched in 2007, the College of Earth and Mineral Sciences' OER initiative enables departments and individual faculty to provide resources free-of-charge under a Creative Commons license. As long as they adhere to the license, teachers and learners around the world are free to download, remix, translate, localize, and make these materials their own.PermalinkThis publication is designed to provide Members of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) with guidance and assistance in developing national activities linked to climate information and services.PermalinkGuidelines for managing changes in climate observation programmes, with a set of recommended practices by which such changes can be managed, have already been published (WMO, 2007). This guidance note will focus on those AWSs likely to form part of long-term climate records. These will normally be owned by NMHSs or associated agencies, or sometimes by third parties (such as aviation, agriculture or road transport agencies) under standards endorsed by the NMHSs. Experience shows that private AWSs can be useful for some climate purposes (such as providing information on individual local-scale ex ...PermalinkIn this recorded webinar from the Hydrologic Impacts Under Climate Change (HIUCC) course (June 2017), Dr. Julie Vano describes what the near future will likely bring in terms of hydrologic impacts studies. Her talk is parsed into four sections. Section 1 summarizes ongoing research. Section 2 discusses the sharing of hydro-climate information. Section 3 moves into the future and describes the process of planning, executing, and evaluation a climate impacts study. Section 4 provides concluding thoughts from Dr. Vano and includes three questions (and answers) from the HIUCC course attendees.PermalinkThis case-study lesson provides an opportunity to apply the information in the ASMET lesson “Satellite-Derived Climatology Products for Monitoring Convection Over West and Central Africa” to a case that occurred over West and Central Africa in June 2014. It demonstrates how to integrate climatology information with satellite, global instability indices (GII), and NWP data when convection is forecast to occur.PermalinkThis lesson offers users of climate information a demonstration of the utility of the Local Climate Analysis Tool (LCAT) for water resources applications. The training follows a NOAA Climate Resilience Toolkit case study in Tampa, Florida, and illustrates how LCAT analyses can be used to inform the steps to climate resilience outlined in the Toolkit. This text-based, interactive lesson will be accessible to anyone using LCAT for water resources decision-making, though will be most useful to those with some familiarity with drought/water resources questions and information needs. Some backgroun ...PermalinkLong-term management of critical water resources infrastructure needs to incorporate projected changes to environmental conditions. Reservoirs form the heart of water resource assets. Long-range plans for the repair, replacement, maintenance and renovation of these facilities depend on accurate projections of reservoir pool elevations. Environmental conditions, in turn, dictate the magnitude and timing of inflows and outflows from reservoirs, and thus the resulting water surface elevation. This lesson explores the factors that affect reservoir pool elevation and the considerations and challeng ...PermalinkInstitute of Biometeorology (IBIMET) ; World Meteorological Organization (WMO) - CNR-National Research Council"Seasonal Forecast Course Package T.O.P." is a set of online resources whose goal is to enhance knowledge in the theory of seasonal forecasting and operational use of seasonal climate forecasts. The course package has two audiences. The first is training institutions, to facilitate development of additional training courses. The materials and documentations here collected represent the building blocks of a course based on validated contents and user needs. It can also be used by national hydro-meteorological service staff members who wish to improve their climate services competencies or to sp ...PermalinkThe atlas is based on the climate datasets provided by the CM SAF. It consists of maps providing climatological information of different meteorological parameters. These include:
-general climatic characteristics of meteorological parameters over Europe and Latvia;
-information on satellite data suitable for climatological studies, particularly datasets provided by the CM SAF;
-an example of the strengths and weaknesses of satellite data for climate applications;
-instructions for creating a satellite climatology atlas and beginning to work with satellite da ...PermalinkThe focus of this document is on observations at surface meteorological observing stations. However, many of the principles will also be valid for other forms of observations, including upper-air observations and datasets based on mobile or remotely sensed platforms (for example, satellites, radar or drifting buoys). In particular, as many key remotely sensed datasets begin in the 1970s, it is recommended that, where feasible, the current climatological standard normal period (1981–2010 at the time of writing) be used for these datasets to allow comparison among different data forms on a consi ...PermalinkIn this 1-hour lecture, presented in three parts, research hydrologist Dr. Holly Hartmann discusses issues and approaches for communicating with decision-makers regarding climate change topics in water management and planning. Dr. Hartmann is a national leader in research related to the development of decision support tools for climate, water, and other resource management applications, especially linking research with the needs of decision-makers and moving research into agency operations. Dr. Hartmann is Carpe Diem West’s Director of Climate Science Applications. Previously she was Director ...PermalinkClimate is changing at unprecedented rates in recorded history. A variety of lines of evidence demonstrate that climate change is likely to affect the hydrologic cycle and thus create new challenges in water management. This requires that climate change information be included in water and water-related resources planning, operations, and management. Climate and Water Resources Management, Part 1: Climate Variability and Change describes the terminology, global evidence, regional manifestations, and basic science of global climate variability and anthropogenic change, with a focus on water res ...PermalinkThis module provides an introduction to the European continent and the Mediterranean and Black Sea areas for weather forecasters. It focuses on geography, climatology, oceanography, major aspects of the synoptic and mesoscale weather patterns, and hazards to aviation and maritime operations. Geography covers major political boundaries, cities, ports, topographical features, rivers, and volcanic areas. Climatology covers the seasonal climatology of jet stream, synoptic weather systems, extratropical cyclones, and high winds and seas. Oceanography includes major bathymetric features; mean sea su ...PermalinkClimate is changing at unprecedented rates in recorded history. A variety of lines of evidence demonstrate that climate change is likely to affect the hydrologic cycle and thus create new challenges in water management. This requires that climate change information be included in water and water-related resources planning, operations, and management. Climate Variability and Change for Water Resources Management - International Edition describes the terminology, global evidence, regional manifestations, and basic science of global climate variability and anthropogenic change, with a focus on wa ...PermalinkThis lesson describes a common approach used by the United States Bureau of Reclamation to scope a study on integrating climate change information into water resources management and planning. Learners will become familiar with the types of questions that must be addressed for considering climate change impacts when scoping their study. Examples are given for several different water resources mission areas. Note that this is the second of a two lesson series, the first one is titled, "Climate and Water Resources Management, Part 1: Climate Variability and Change."PermalinkThis lesson describes a common approach used by the United States Bureau of Reclamation to scope a study on integrating climate change information into water resources management and planning. Learners will become familiar with the types of questions that must be addressed for considering climate change impacts when scoping their study. Examples are given for several different water resources mission areas. Note that this is the second of a two lesson series, the first one is titled, "Climate and Water Resources Management, Part 1: Climate Variability and Change."PermalinkThis lesson describes the physical processes, both natural and human-induced, that lead to changes in sea level. The processes described include climate induced changes in ocean heat content and volume, natural oceanic cycles, and both natural and human-induced changes in coastal land elevation. The learning is enhanced with rich graphics and periodic questions.PermalinkClimate outlooks provide probability-based information about expected rainfall and temperatures at timescales of months or longer. This lesson demonstrates how monthly and seasonal outlooks issued by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology can be combined with other information for use in decision-making by persons in climate-sensitive sectors. The lesson explains the main drivers affecting Australia's climate—ENSO, Indian Ocean Dipole, Southern Annular Mode, and the subtropical ridge—and explores how the status of the climate drivers can affect the outlook maps as well as confidence in the outlo ...PermalinkThis lesson describes a common approach used by the United States Bureau of Reclamation to scope a study on integrating climate change information into water resources management and planning. Learners will become familiar with the types of questions that must be addressed for considering climate change impacts when scoping their study. Examples are given for several different water resources mission areas. Note that this is the second of a two lesson series, the first one is titled, "Climate and Water Resources Management, Part 1: Climate Variability and Change."PermalinkThe chemistry of the world’s oceans is changing. Ocean acidity is creeping upward, a result of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide. The added carbon dioxide depletes seawater of carbonate, a chemical constituent of minerals that form the shells and structures of animals including corals, molluscs, plankton, and others. The accelerating impacts are expected to reverberate through the marine food web. Most people are unaware of ocean acidification and its expected impacts. This lesson will educate policy makers and university students about its causes and consequences. The lesson explains the chem ...PermalinkEl presente documento técnico es una actualización de la publicación WMO/TD-No. 1210, WCDMP-55, Guidelines on Climate Data Rescue (2004) (Directrices sobre el rescate de datos climáticos). Se basa en las directrices originales, pero, al mismo tiempo, en él se tienen en cuenta tanto los cambios tecnológicos surgidos a lo largo de los 12 años transcurridos como las enseñanzas extraídas de actividades de rescate de datos climáticos más recientes llevadas a cabo en todo el mundo. Se presenta un panorama general del rescate de datos, y en los diversos capítulos se abordan cuestiones como su importa ...PermalinkLe présent document technique résulte de la mise à jour de la publication intitulée Guidelines on Climate Data Rescue (2004) (WMO/TD-1210, WCDMP-55). Il prend en compte l’évolution de la technologie depuis douze ans et tire les enseignements des opérations de sauvetage des données les plus récentes menées dans le monde. On y trouvera une présentation générale du concept de sauvetage des données, suivie de chapitres consacrés à l’importance de cette activité, à l’archivage des supports d’origine, à leur numérisation en mode image, à la numérisation des données et à l’archivage des images et des ...PermalinkThis technical document is an update of WMO/TD-1210, WCDMP-55, Guidelines on Climate Data Rescue (2004). It builds on the original Guidelines, while taking into account both changes in technology that have occurred in the intervening 12 years and lessons learned in more recent climate data rescue activities around the world. An overview of data rescue is presented with chapters on its importance, archiving original media, imaging, digitization and archiving digital images and digital data. Twelve appendices provide supporting information.
The Guidelines on Climate Data Rescue are intend ...PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) - WMO, 2016 (WMO-No. 1170)Because of the current and projected impacts on climate due to the high levels of greenhousegas (GHG) emissions, adaptation is a necessary strategy at all scales in a changing climate. At its 17th session, the Conference of Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) established the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process as a way to facilitate effective adaptation planning in Least Developed Countries (LDCs) and other developing countries. The four key elements that need to be undertaken in the development of NAPs are: Laying the groundwork and addressin ...PermalinkA weather forecaster’s knowledge of climatology is important to the success of a forecast, especially where convection is involved. That’s particularly true over Central and West Africa where convection has a strong diurnal cycle and usually develops over particular geographic regions and during specific time intervals. The lesson describes satellite-derived cloud climatology products and several global instability indices, all of which can be integrated with other products to forecast convection. Although the lesson uses examples of climatology products from specific months, it makes the full ...PermalinkAimed at community planners, emergency managers, and other coastal zone decision-makers this video will explain how using geospatial information already available through NOAA, combined with strategic local investments in infrastructure can provide communities with the data needed to confidently plan for future sea-level changes. This resource is hosted on COMET's YouTube Channel.PermalinkThis lesson provides information on climatology—what it is, the factors that create an area's climate, and the sources and uses of climate information. Focused specifically on tropical Pacific islands, the content covers the key features influencing climate in that region and includes examples for four locations distributed across the tropical Pacific Ocean, both north and south of the equator. The lesson provides a basic introduction to tropical climatology intended for a wide range of users, from meteorology technicians, forecasters, and scientists, to those in industries or sectors influenc ...PermalinkThe Climate Data Guide provides concise and reliable information on the strengths and limitations of the key observational data sets, tools and methods used to evaluate Earth system models and to understand the climate system. Citable expert commentaries are authored by experienced data users and developers, enabling scientists to multiply the impacts of their work and the diverse user community to access and understand the essential data. This resource is made available courtesy of NCAR's Climate and Global Dynamics Division and is not produced, owned or hosted by UCAR/COMET.PermalinkThis lesson provides an overview of the primary influences of watershed and channel sedimentation. In a short narrated portion of the lesson, we explore a section of the Rio Grande watershed and channel in New Mexico using Google Earth imagery, river profiles, and graphic animations. We highlight features of the upland catchments, the river channel, and the Elephant Butte Reservoir. We then demonstrate how environmental factors (climate, geography, land use changes, reservoirs) impact the supply and movement of sediments for the Rio Grande and other rivers. The focus is on the three primary pr ...PermalinkThe climate system is a complex, interactive system consisting of the atmosphere, land surface, snow and ice, oceans and other bodies of water, and living elements. The climate system evolves in time under the influence of its own internal dynamics and due to changes in external factors. But, do you know what the meteorological consequences of climate variability and change are? What is the human contribution to climate variability? Find out about these and other issues through the UN CC:Learn learning interface on the scientific fundamentals of climate change. If you are a newcomer to the are ...PermalinkThis lesson explores the primary influences, or drivers, on water temperature of inland streams and rivers. We use a simulated flight, or flyover, where we look down at the features of the South Boise River in Idaho. An unregulated as well as a regulated reach of the river are explored (above and below the Anderson Ranch Reservoir), with a look at cross sections of the river and its environment at key locations during the flyover. We explore how environmental factors (climate, geography, stream morphology) impact water temperatures. Then, after defining the factors that affect water temperatur ...PermalinkThis lesson presents 13 recorded presentations from the 29 July–2 August, 2013 offering of the Climate Variability and Change Virtual Course (CVCVC). This five-day live facilitated online course provided an extensive background on a range of climate variability and change topics with an emphasis on developing communication skills for challenging climate topics. The topics covered in this course, while aimed primarily at NOAA operational climate services delivery staff will also be helpful for others who already possess a basic level of understanding of climate science. Presentations include: W ...PermalinkThese two videos serve as an introduction to the Downscaled Climate and Hydrology Projections website. This website, the result of a collaboration between several federal and non-federal partners, provides access to downscaled climate and hydrology projections for the contiguous United States and parts of Canada and Mexico, derived from contemporary global climate models. In the first video, Dr. Subhrendu Gangopadhyay, hydrologic engineer at the Bureau of Reclamation's Technical Service Center in Denver, introduces the website and provides an overview of the MetEd lesson Preparing Hydro-climat ...PermalinkThis module provides an introduction to the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea for weather forecasters. It focuses on major aspects of the geography, oceanography, and climatology. Geography covers major political boundaries, cities, ports, topographical features, rivers, and volcanic areas. Oceanography includes major bathymetric features, mean sea surface temperature and surface salinity, ocean currents, and tidal ranges. Climatology covers the seasonal climatology of jet streams and synoptic weather systems, extratropical cyclones in the Gulf of Mexico, and monthly and seasonal statistics of ...PermalinkClimate information can be used as guidance for a range of weather-dependent operations. This module summarizes the Climate Analysis Process, a series of steps for determining which climatological products and data will be most useful for a specified application. The Climate Analysis Process is followed in the context of preparing a climatological brief for a ship deployment across multiple ocean basins. Though the focus is on Department of Defense data sources, including the Advanced Climate Analysis and Forecasting (ACAF) system, information on other sources is also provided. Products from t ...PermalinkThis Regional Study Guide highlights the sections of the Introduction to Tropical Meteorology, 2nd Edition online textbook that are applicable to aeronautical forecasting operations in Africa. Topics include remote sensing, global circulations, tropical variability, tropical cyclones and the challenges encountered when forecasting tropical weather. The guide consists of a list of links to the content in the textbook and has its own stand-alone quiz.PermalinkThis lesson describes the process of selecting the best available climate projection information and using it to develop “climate-adjusted weather” inputs to be used for modeling climate change impacts. These modeled impacts can be used for planning of future water resources. Specific steps of this process include: 1) Recognizing the general science and terms associated with Atmosphere-ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCMs); 2) Making AOGCMs more regionally applicable through bias correction and downscaling; 3) Determining climate change scenarios based on climate projections and selecting ...PermalinkDiminishing sea ice has opened the Arctic to navigation and operations like never before. Forecasters are increasingly predicting weather in support of those operations. This module is intended to provide forecasters with a brief introduction to the Arctic, including its geography, climatology, and the forecast problems they are likely to encounter. The module follows a U.S. Coast Guard Cutter on a voyage from Dutch Harbor, in the Aleutian Islands, to Barrow, on the north coast of Alaska. Various topics are addressed along the way in a series of short, stand-alone lessons.PermalinkThe international science community has identified a set of Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) that should be monitored for measuring the climate system, how it is changing, and its likely impact on future climate. Environmental satellites play an important role in this effort. They are uniquely positioned to provide broad, spatially consistent, and continuous global sampling of many of the ECVs. This module explores the benefits of monitoring the climate system with satellites. We begin by reviewing how satellites observe key atmospheric elements and features that are found in a variety of cl ...PermalinkThis module explains how climate models work. Because the modeling of both weather and climate share many similarities, the content throughout this module draws frequent comparisons and highlights the differences. We explain not only how, but why climate models differ from weather models. To do so, we explore the difference between weather and climate, then show how models are built to simulate climate and generate the statistics that describe it. We conclude with a discussion of models are tuned and tested. Understanding how climate responds to changes in atmospheric composition and other fac ...PermalinkSatellite monitoring of atmospheric composition provides important information for a number of applications, including stratospheric ozone monitoring, long-range pollutant transport, biomass burning, air quality monitoring and forecasting, and climate change. This module provides an overview of the use of satellites in these application areas, the measurement techniques used, and the development of related operational services. In addition, the module covers a short history of European and U.S. satellite missions, as well as a look at future missions planned for monitoring atmospheric composit ...PermalinkThis short module is an overview of the different effects climate change produces in different regions of the United States. In addition to discussing impacts already being experienced, the module presents information on how climate scientists use specialized models and statistical techniques to estimate how regional climates are likely to change in the future.PermalinkThis module looks at how increasing temperatures due to climate change have affected sea level rise and what effects scientist expect in the future, given rising greenhouse gas emissions. The various mechanisms of sea level rise are discussed, as well as the tools and research used to study this topic. The module also discusses how countries and communities are preparing for future increases in sea levels.PermalinkThis module discusses how a changing climate can also lead to changes in extreme weather events on the local scale. The role of natural variability is also explained. The module describes how climate change can have both positive and negative effects, depending on the situation, location, and the vulnerability of the population. While research on climate change and extreme events is still relatively new, the module discusses what changes scientists think are likely if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise.PermalinkThe module examines the 2009 drought in the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA), focusing on conditions in Kenya. The module begins by reviewing drought conditions in the years leading up to 2009. From there, it examines the seasonal climate forecast for the beginning of 2009 and see what it portends. Satellite products are used to study rainfall performance throughout the year and its impact on the drought situation. Finally, the module describes the climate oscillations that can impact drought in the GHA and identifies patterns that were present in 2009 and contributed to its severity. By the end o ...PermalinkThis module explains how climate models work. Because the modeling of both weather and climate share many similarities, the content throughout this module draws frequent comparisons and highlights the differences. We explain not only how, but why climate models differ from weather models. To do so, we explore the difference between weather and climate, then show how models are built to simulate climate and generate the statistics that describe it. We conclude with a discussion of models are tuned and tested.PermalinkThis module is the third in the four-part Volcanic Ash series. It provides information on the impacts of an explosive volcanic eruption to aviation, climate, maritime operations and society. The threats, or impacts, from an eruption vary depending on the eruption style, duration and proximity--both in distance and altitude--to the volcano. As you learned earlier, an eruption may bring multiple hazards to urban and rural areas through: Lahars (mudflows) and floods Lava-flow inundation Pyroclastic flows and surge Volcanic ash and bomb fallout Volcanic gases In this module, we'll take a closer lo ...PermalinkAs climate changes, dynamic coastal regions are experiencing a wide range of impacts. Sea levels, ocean acidification, sea surface temperatures, ocean heat, and ocean circulation have all been changing in ways unseen for thousands of years. Arctic sea ice melted significantly more during summers in the last 30 years, and storms are intensifying. Coastal ecosystems stand to be damaged, and coasts will likely erode from rising sea levels, intensified storm surges, and flooding that climate change may amplify. Coastal communities will need to prepare adaptation strategies to cope, and many who li ...PermalinkThe chapter begins with a review of the general principles of atmospheric motion including scale analysis of tropical motions. An overview of the general circulation of the atmosphere and ocean is presented including stratospheric general circulation. Special emphasis is given to the Hadley circulation including its maintenance, seasonal migration, northern and southern hemispheric differences, and the contrast between tropical and midlatitude wind systems. Tropical circulations are examined in a theoretical framework as responses to heating at the equator. Regional monsoons, their conceptual ...PermalinkThis chapter introduces learners to tropical meteorology including various methods of defining the tropics. An overview of energy balance and the global climate system is presented. The role of the tropics in the global energy and momentum balance is presented. Atmospheric structure of temperature and humidity are discussed in terms of latitudinal variability. Pressure ranges and scales of atmospheric motion in the tropics are reviewed. Seasonal and geographic distribution and the diurnal cycle of surface temperature and the influencing factors are examined in detail. Finally, we review tropic ...PermalinkThis chapter presents an overview of the major cycles dominating intraseasonal and interannual variability in the tropics. Characteristic atmospheric and oceanic patterns for each oscillation are presented and methods for tracking the evolution of these cycles are described. Observations and conceptual models of equatorial waves are presented. Classical solutions for equatorial waves are outlined and the effects of moisture on the expression of these waves are discussed. Since the tropics are not an isolated region of the globe, the impacts of these cycles on higher latitudes are also explored ...PermalinkMoisture and precipitation distribution governs life in the tropics. Surplus heating and rising motion in the tropics ignites the global water and energy cycles and influences weather in the midlatitudes. This chapter presents the horizontal and vertical distribution of water vapor, tropical cloud formation and distribution, the lifecycle and precipitation characteristics of tropical mesoscale convective systems, and the variability of tropical precipitation on yearly, seasonal, and hourly time-scales.PermalinkThis module provides an introduction to the northwest Pacific for weather forecasters. It touches on major aspects of the geography, oceanography, and climatology. Geography looks at plate tectonics, topography, and human population. Oceanography examines ocean currents, coastal tidal ranges, and sea ice distribution. Climatology briefly discusses jets streams, distribution of synoptic features, storm tracks of tropical and extratropical cyclones, the fronts, and sensible weather associated with the Northeast and Southwest Monsoons.PermalinkThis module discusses global climate change that is occurring largely because of greenhouse gases emitted by human activities, and in particular the impact that tropical deforestation plays in the climate system. It also covers signs of climate change, the current thinking on future changes, and international agreements that are attempting to minimize the effects of climate change. The United Nations Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries (UN-REDD Programme) is also discussed.Permalink