This lesson provides an overview of the primary influences of watershed and channel sedimentation. In a short narrated portion of the lesson, we explore a section of the Rio Grande watershed and channel in New Mexico using Google Earth imagery, river profiles, and graphic animations. We highlight features of the upland catchments, the river channel, and the Elephant Butte Reservoir. We then demonstrate how environmental factors (climate, geography, land use changes, reservoirs) impact the supply and movement of sediments for the Rio Grande and other rivers. The focus is on the three primary pr ...Published by: The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research ; 2015
This lesson provides an overview of the primary influences of watershed and channel sedimentation. In a short narrated portion of the lesson, we explore a section of the Rio Grande watershed and channel in New Mexico using Google Earth imagery, river profiles, and graphic animations. We highlight features of the upland catchments, the river channel, and the Elephant Butte Reservoir. We then demonstrate how environmental factors (climate, geography, land use changes, reservoirs) impact the supply and movement of sediments for the Rio Grande and other rivers. The focus is on the three primary processes in sedimentation: generation, transport, and deposition. The lesson then addresses natural climate and weather influences along with some observed and projected trends associated with climate change.
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Tags: Climate change ; Tropical cyclone ; Drought ; Global warming ; Climate projection ; River ; Irrigation ; Wildfire ; Flash flood ; Sedimentation ; Runoff ; Evaporation ; Erosion ; North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) ; La Niña ; Climate services ; Agriculture ; Lesson/ Tutorial ; Hydraulic ; Competencies for Provision of Climate Services Add tagDrawing upon several sources of information and types of analysis, including literature reviews, field visits and rapid participatory assessments, this paper provides a critical assessment of land-related development policies and projects over the past two decades in Central America. Reflections on past land-related development policies and projects in Central America are based on their contributions to growth and poverty reduction. The paper calls for future projects to better integrate poverty reduction and development goals, natural resource management, disaster risk management and climate ...Published by: International Land Coalition ; 2013
Reflections on 20 years of land-related development projects in Central America: 10 things you might not expect, and future directions
Drawing upon several sources of information and types of analysis, including literature reviews, field visits and rapid participatory assessments, this paper provides a critical assessment of land-related development policies and projects over the past two decades in Central America. Reflections on past land-related development policies and projects in Central America are based on their contributions to growth and poverty reduction. The paper calls for future projects to better integrate poverty reduction and development goals, natural resource management, disaster risk management and climate change into a territorial approach stressing local governance and planning. The paper concludes with six specific recommendations, which can serve as the basis for future discussions on the direction of future development support to countries’ land policies and projects in Central America, as well as other regions.
Format: Digital (Free), Hard copyICRAF, 2013Decline in agricultural productivity due to severe land degradation is a common issue in many farming systems in Ethiopia. Several places, including the high potential agricultural areas, are dealing with highly degraded landscapes and severe soil loss.Published by: ICRAF ; 2013
Recognizing local agro-ecological knowledge in sustainable intensification of tree-crop-livestock farming systems
Decline in agricultural productivity due to severe land degradation is a common issue in many farming systems in Ethiopia. Several places, including the high potential agricultural areas, are dealing with highly degraded landscapes and severe soil loss.
Format: Digital (Free)UNEP, 2013The change to a green and better fed world depends on the development of low carbon agriculture. Improving food and nutrition security while protecting the earth’s natural resource base will require a smarter, more innovative, better focused and cost-effective approach.Published by: UNEP ; 2013
The change to a green and better fed world depends on the development of low carbon agriculture. Improving food and nutrition security while protecting the earth’s natural resource base will require a smarter, more innovative, better focused and cost-effective approach.
Format: Digital (Free)The rapid expansion of commodity agriculture in tropical forest landscapes is a key driver of deforestation. To meet the growing demand from a more prosperous and expanding global population, it is imperative to develop sustainable commodity supply chains that support higher agricultural productivity, and that enable improved environmental, economic, and social outcomes. Interventions by community, market, and state actors can enhance the sustainability of supply chains by affecting where and how agricultural production occurs. These interventions—in the form of novel or moderated instit ...Published by: CGIAR ; 2013
The rapid expansion of commodity agriculture in tropical forest landscapes is a key driver of deforestation. To meet the growing demand from a more prosperous and expanding global population, it is imperative to develop sustainable commodity supply chains that support higher agricultural productivity, and that enable improved environmental, economic, and social outcomes. Interventions by community, market, and state actors can enhance the sustainability of supply chains by affecting where and how agricultural production occurs. These interventions—in the form of novel or moderated institutions and policies, incentives, or information—can influence producers directly or achieve their impacts indirectly by influencing consumer, retailer, and processor decisions.
This study used global datasets to document the trends in deforestation and commodity agriculture production to compare and explain the impacts of different types of supply chain interventions.
Format: Digital (Free)UNDP, 2013This policy has been developed with a dual objective in mind. The first was to strengthen Jordan’s capacity to respond to the detrimental impacts of Climate Change expected to add a multiplying effect to current challenges in sectors like water and agriculture. The second was to strengthen Jordan’s global stewardship in addressing options to reduce emissions while achieving sound and sustainable developmental objectives especially in the various sectors of energy.PermalinkUganda has been regarded as a development success story due to its increasing economic growth and declining poverty. Nevertheless, the country’s economic dependence on agriculture makes it very sensitive to climate variability and change. Temperatures in Uganda have been steadily increasing and climate hazards such as floods and droughts have become more frequent and intense, a trend expected to continue. Ugandan smallholder farmers already know and apply various global best practices to reduce climate risks, but much remains to be done to improve these local responses. This report argues that ...PermalinkClimate-related hazards, including drought, floods, cyclones, sea-level rise and extreme temperatures, have enormous impact on the socio-economic development of a society. The frequency, magnitude and duration of damaging climate conditions are changing. It is now widely understood that efforts to address the impacts of adverse climatic conditions on human development must be undertaken within the context of a longerterm vision of development. UNDP is supporting a wide range of countries to manage risks related to climate variability and change through the Climate Risk Management Technical Ass ...PermalinkThis report is a product of the Climate Risk Management – Technical Assistance Support Project, which is supported by UNDP’s Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery and Bureau for Development Policy. This is one in a series of reports that examines high-risk countries and focusses on a specific socio-economic sector in each country. The series illustrates how people in different communities and across a range of socio-economic sectors may have to make adaptations to the way they generate income and cultivate livelihoods in the face of a changing climate. These reports present an evidence ...PermalinkThis report is a product of the Climate Risk Management – Technical Assistance Support Project, which is supported by UNDP’s Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery and Bureau for Development Policy. This is one in a series of reports that examines high-risk countries and focusses on a specific socio-economic sector in each country. The series illustrates how people in different communities and across a range of socio-economic sectors may have to make adaptations to the way they generate income and cultivate livelihoods in the face of a changing climate. These reports present an evidence ...PermalinkScience for Environment Policy, Issue 34. EEA, 2012A new study has revealed the diversity in terminology and choice of indicators across eight major frameworks used to assess the environmental impacts of agriculture. The researchers call for further work to quantify and express uncertainty surrounding chosen reference values.PermalinkThis review analyses some of the major events and trends related to natural disasters and humanitarian disaster response and looks at the experience of developed countries with natural disasters in 2011. Highlighting evidences from the Japanese earthquake-tsunami-nuclear accident, the earthquake in Christchurch, New Zealand, floods in Australia, and tornadoes, hurricanes and drought in the United States, it reminds that natural hazards affect all regions of the world and even rich countries have much to learn about both disaster risk reduction and disaster response.
The review ...PermalinkPermalinkThis study examines the innovative adaptive measures used by farmers in northern Nigeria to respond to the effects of climate change. Quantitative and qualitative approaches (rapid rural appraisal, focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews) were used to gather information from 500 farmers. The findings indicate that 84 per cent and 79 per cent of the farmers were aware and knowledgeable of climate change issues, respectively, while 81 per cent of them noted that they had experienced climate change incidences. The paper highlights adaptive measures used by the farmers in northern N ...PermalinkIndia Government, 2012This bilingual guide book highlights that we can't avoid future earthquakes, but preparedness and safe building construction practices can certainly reduce the extend of damage and loss. To take necessary action it is mandatory for every citizen to have elementary knowledge of earthquake, forces acting on structures, remedial measures to be taken for structural safety and knowledge of do's and don'ts before, during and after an earthquake.
This guide will serve as a reference tools to sensitize citizens about the issues of concerning preparedness measures for an earthquake.
PermalinkFAO, 2012Recent food crises and growing concerns about global climate change have placed agriculture on top of the international agenda. Decision-makers have recognised the strong link between the dual goals of eradicating hunger and making agriculture sustainable. Achieving these goals will require a significant increase in agricultural investment but, more importantly, it will require improving the quality of this investment. This annual flagship report by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) reviews the economic and social rationale for agricultural investment, examines the causes of underinv ...PermalinkCrop production must meet the demands of feeding a growing population in an increasingly degraded environment amid uncertainties resulting from climate change. there is a pressing need to adapt farming systems to meet these challenges. one of agriculture’s greatest assets in meeting them is nature itself: many of the ecosystem services provided by nature – such as nutrient cycling, pest regulation and pollination – directly contribute to agricultural production. the healthy functioning of these ecosystem services ensures the sustainability of agriculture as it intensifies to meet growing deman ...PermalinkThis edition focuses on the potato as a targeted disaster risk reduction effort in western Afghanistan. By helping farmers adapting how they handle the potatoes, it describes how the USAID program is enabling farmers to grow more food to last through the cold winter months and even have a chance to sell surplus produce when prices are favorable to them. It demonstrates that a more resilient livelihood means less vulnerability to weather-related and economic shocks.PermalinkAgriculture accounts for 30 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions. How agriculture is practised, therefore, has significant potential for mitigating climate change, providing food security and improving the livelihoods of food producers worldwide. There is growing interest in the use of market governance mechanisms for tackling climate change by giving the financial incentives to make the required changes. The key messages emerging from this study are that economic measures have a vital part to play, but to be effective, emissions from food production and consumption must be addressed to ...PermalinkSince the Global Conference on Climate Change, Food Security and Agriculture held at the Hague in 2010, the concept of climate-smart agriculture (CSA) has gained increasing attention at international and national levels, with several countries initiating related activities. The objective of this paper is to highlight recent experiences with country-level implementation of CSA to identify some key lessons to incorporate in ongoing efforts to expand the use of the approach in developing countries. Section 1 describes the evolution of the concept of CSA since the Hague conference. Section 2 i ...PermalinkAgriculture has to address simultaneously three intertwined challenges: ensuring food security through increased productivity and income, adapting to climate change and contributing to climate change mitigation. To accomplish this, food systems have to become, at the same time, more efficient and resilient, at every scale from the farm level to the global level. Radical changes are needed in agricultural and food systems. These changes can play an essential role in greening the economy and contributing to sustainable development. This paper considers the intertwined challenges of food sec ...PermalinkWe explore the relationship between farming practice changes made by households coping with the huge demographic, economic, and ecological changes they have seen in the last 10 years and household food security. We examine whether households that have been introducing new practices, such as improved management of crops, soil, land, water, and livestock (e.g. cover crops, micro-catchments, ridges, rotations, improved pastures, and trees) and new technologies (e.g. improved seeds, shorter-cycle and drought-tolerant varieties) are more likely to be food secure than less innovative farming househo ...PermalinkSteduto Pasquale; Hsiao Theodore C.; Fereres Elias; et al. - FAO, 2012 (FAO irrigation and drainage paper-No. 66)Food production and water use are inextricably linked. Water has always been the main factor limiting crop production in much of the world where rainfall is insufficient to meet crop demand. With the ever-increasing competition for finite water resources worldwide and the steadily rising demand for agricultural commodities, the call to improve the efficiency and productivity of water use for crop production, to ensure future food security and address the uncertainties associated with climate change, has never been more urgent.PermalinkThis report provides input into the discussions at the 2012 World Water Week in Stockholm and its special focus on water and food security. This report presents the latest thinking and new approaches to emerging and persistent challenges to achieve food security in the 21st century, including the use of early warning systems to bolster food security by reducing damages caused to agriculture by water scarcity and drought. It focuses on critical issues that have received less attention in the literature to date, such as: food waste, land acquisitions, gender aspects of agriculture, and early war ...PermalinkPermalinkThis document illustrates the relationship between climate change and agriculture; reviews and demonstrates how current climate change policy responses fall short of addressing the realities of poor rural farmers who are the most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change; and paints an alternative way forward by defining Climate Resilient Sustainable Agriculture (CRSA) and suggesting recommendations to national governments. CRSA prioritises the right to food, environmental conservation, and long-term community resilience in order to reduce food insecurity at the local level, and contribute t ...PermalinkThe Management for Adaptation to Climate Change (MACC) project in Malawi is implemented by Total Land Care (TLC) with funding from the Royal Norwegian Embassy in Malawi and a 5 years time frame from 2008 to mid 2013. The key objectives of the project are to reduce deforestation, to improve household food security and incomes, and to develop rural-based enterprises. The review team found the project in line with Malawian as well as Norwegian development policy. TLC also has an extensive and good cooperation with Malawian NGOs as well as with international organisations, both in Malawi and abroa ...PermalinkUNEP, 2012This report – Avoiding Future Famines: Strengthening the Ecological Basis of Food Security through
Sustainable Food Systems - has been a unique collaboration of 12 leading scientists and
experts involved in world food systems including marine and inland fisheries.
The institutions involved include the UN Environment Programme, the International Fund
for Agricultural Development, the Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations,
the World Bank, the World Food Programme and the World Resources Institute. The report provides
detai ...PermalinkEmissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from agriculture are substantial. This paper looks into how can agricultural greenhouse gas emissions be reduced or sequestration enhanced while maintaining and even increasing food supply. The paper relies on a research undertaken in nine chosen African countries.
The authors reveal that croplands and grazing lands cover more than half of the East African countries’ lands and about 40% of the West African countries’ lands. In the nine African countries, the largest amount of GHG emissions is from the livestock sector, followed by emissions f ...PermalinkFAO, 2012Starting with an overview of the concept of climate change, the course then looks at its impact on food security. After examining strategies for mitigating or adapting to the effects of climate change, it suggests concrete ways to make sure agriculture is “climate smart”.
The course is aimed at policy makers and people working in development agencies, who need to better understand how climate change affects agriculture and food systems, and what concrete actions can be taken.
The course also includes face to face training materials, such as exercises, trainer’s no ...PermalinkUNCTAD, 2012"The report, titled "Development-led Globalization: Towards Sustainable and Inclusive Development Paths," suggests that FDG has led to uneven, unstable and unfair outcomes. It outlines an agenda for DLG based on three pillars: enabling developing countries to mobilize domestic resources, strengthen productive capacities and share the gains in an equitable manner; creating more robust multilateral structures for collective responses to upcoming challenges, such as taming finance and promoting investment-led responses to climate change; and strengthening regional ties, including through South–So ...PermalinkScience for Environment Policy, Issue 244. EEA, 2011In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change concluded that African agriculture and food security would face major risks under the influence of climate change. With an analysis of more recent assessments, scientists have confirmed this projection and indicated that agriculture everywhere in Africa runs some risk of negative impacts from climate change.PermalinkScience for Environment Policy, 238. EEA, 2011Diverse agricultural systems can sustainably improve food security and supply a varied, healthy diet for people, according to a recent analysis of the benefits of agricultural biodiversity. The food-based approach, when integrated with other strategies, can be used to tackle malnutrition, micronutrient deficiencies and the impact of climate change on farming.PermalinkEsporo, N° 151. CTA, 2011De acordo com um estudo realizado, seria possível diminuir o total das emissões relacionadas com o gado, em cerca de 12%, mediante simples melhoramentos na produção.PermalinkSpore: the magazine for agricultural and rural development in ACP countries, N° 151. CTA, 2011Some 12% of total livestock-related emissions could be cut with simple improvements in production, says a study.PermalinkSpore: le magazine du développement agricole et rural des pays ACP, N°151. CTA, 2011D’après une étude, quelque 12 % des émissions totales imputables au bétail pourraient être supprimés grâce à de simples améliorations de la production, incluant l’adoption de pâtures plus nutritives et l’ajout de faibles quantités de résidus de récoltes ou de céréales.PermalinkPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 369. N° 1934. Thornton Philip K.; Jones Peter G.; Ericksen Polly J.; et al. - The Royal Society, 2011Agricultural development in sub-Saharan Africa faces daunting challenges, which climate change and increasing climate variability will compound in vulnerable areas. The impacts of a changing climate on agricultural production in a world that warms by 4°C or more are likely to be severe in places. The livelihoods of many croppers and livestock keepers in Africa are associated with diversity of options. The changes in crop and livestock production that are likely to result in a 4°C+ world will diminish the options available to most smallholders. In such a world, current crop and livestock variet ...PermalinkScience for Environment Policy, n° 228. EEA, 2011Land cleared in the tropics loses nearly twice as much carbon and produces less than half the annual crop yield as land in temperate zones, according to researchers. Their analysis of the trade-off between crop production and the loss of carbon stored in vegetation highlights the need to target reforestation in the tropics.PermalinkSpore: le magazine du développement agricole et rural des pays ACP, N°150. CTA, 2011Faire pousser les plantes dans des solutions nutritives : le procédé intéresse de plus en plus certains pays ACP. Les légumes hydroponiques sont prolifiques et toujours fiables, et ils ont besoin de moins de terre et d’eau. La culture hors-sol a néanmoins un coût.PermalinkSpore: le magazine du développement agricole et rural des pays ACP, N°150. CTA, 2011Depuis des générations, les agriculteurs africains cultivent sous les arbres. Cette forme d’agroforesterie appelée agriculture persistante procure de meilleurs rendements, des revenus issus des produits forestiers et, potentiellement, des marchés du carbone.PermalinkSciences au sud, 57. Institut de recherche pour le développement (IRD), 2011L’objectif du volet Recherche qui s’inscrit dans le programme Pampa est d’en évaluer les impacts sur l’environnement et l’économie des communautés rurales.PermalinkSciences au sud, 57. Institut de recherche pour le développement (IRD), 2011En Thaïlande, les vers de terre se sont adaptés aux conditions
des rizières inondées, dont ils augmentent la fertilité.PermalinkUNEP, 2011This chapter has three broad aims. First, it highlights the need for providing all households with sufficient and affordable access to clean water supplies as well as adequate sanitation. Second, it makes a case for early investment in water management and infrastructure, including ecological infrastructure. The potential to make greater use of biodiversity and ecosystem services in reducing water treatment costs and increasing productivity is emphasised. Third, the chapter provides guidance on the suite of governance arrangements and policy reforms, which, if implemented, can sustain and incr ...PermalinkThis module is the third in the four-part Volcanic Ash series. It provides information on the impacts of an explosive volcanic eruption to aviation, climate, maritime operations and society. The threats, or impacts, from an eruption vary depending on the eruption style, duration and proximity--both in distance and altitude--to the volcano. As you learned earlier, an eruption may bring multiple hazards to urban and rural areas through: Lahars (mudflows) and floods Lava-flow inundation Pyroclastic flows and surge Volcanic ash and bomb fallout Volcanic gases In this module, we'll take a closer lo ...PermalinkProvides a concise introduction to volcanic ash through the examples of the Mt. Pinatubo and Eyjafjallajökull eruptions. This is the introduction to a four-part series on Volcanic Ash.PermalinkThis module is the second in the four-part Volcanic Ash series. It provides information about the geological, and geophysical processes related to volcanic activity and volcanic ash in the atmosphere and on the ground. It discusses four types of volcanic eruptions and describes six major volcanic hazards: Tephra Pyroclastic flow Lahar Lava flow Volcanic gas TsunamiPermalinkThis report summarises current knowledge of the anticipated impacts of climate change on water availability for agriculture. It examines the implications for local and national food security and the methods and approaches for assessing climate change impacts on water and agriculture. It emphasises the need for a closer alignment between water and agricultural policies and makes the case for immediate implementation of ‘no-regrets’ strategies which have both positive development outcomes and make agricultural systems resilient to future impacts.PermalinkThis scoping report provides context and analysis for addressing agriculture in international climate negotiations with the aim of informing climate negotiators and other stakeholders of different options and unpacking issues of interest. It observes that agriculture is characterised by a number of special features that distinguish it from other sectors, like producing food and meeting basic survival needs. Its context and site-specific nature makes uniform strategies and solutions ineffective and, unlike other sectors, it is directly affected by climate change. Therefore, it has adaptation ne ...PermalinkThe objective of this report is to catalyse thinking about the ways in which agriculture – which has a vital role in global food security, development and natural resources use – can and must be fully integrated into national strategies and a consensus-based multilateral framework to address the challenges of climate change. The report brings forth questions that will occupy the world community over the next decade or more regarding the role of agriculture in climate change adaptation and mitigation. The report offers some answers and concrete proposals – while recognizing that much more needs ...PermalinkThis FAO publication focuses on climate change mitigation financing for smallholders. The Organization, however, fully recognizes that adaptation may be the imperative and priority over the short and medium term for many smallholders in circumstances where climate change may adversely impact their efforts to overcome poverty and food insecurity. In many cases, most countries will need to deal with both adaptation and mitigation. FAO is supporting national efforts on CSA which seek to enhance the capacity of the agricultural sector to sustainably support food security, livelihoods and growth un ...PermalinkThe global food security and sustainable agriculture are the key challenges before the scientific community in the present era of enhanced climate variability, rapidly rising population and dwindling resources. No part of the world is immune from meteorological extremes of one sort or another posing threat to the food security. Agrometeorology has to make most efficient use of the opportunities available in achieving the objectives of enhancing productivity and maintenance of sustainability. Increased awareness and technological advancement have provided opportunities to develop efficient agro ...PermalinkFor a large number of developing countries, agriculture remains the single most important sector. Climate change has the potential to damage irreversibly the natural resource base on which agriculture depends, with grave consequences for food security. However, agriculture is the sector that has the potential to transcend from being a problem to becoming an essential part of the solution to climate change provided there is a more holistic vision of food security, agricultural mitigation, climate-change adaptation and agriculture’s pro-poor development contribution. What is required is a rapid ...PermalinkEmpirical evidence has shown that farmers can adapt to climate change by using sustainable land and water management (SLWM) practices that provide local mitigation benefits, reducing or offsetting the negative effects of climate change at the level of the plot, farm, or even landscape. However, adaptation to climate change using SLWM practices in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains low. This study was conducted to examine the impact of government policies on adaptation to climate change.PermalinkThe impacts of climate change on the global hydrological cycle are expected to vary the patterns of demand and supply of water for agriculture – the dominant user of freshwater. The extent and productivity of both irrigated and rainfed agriculture can be expected to change. As a result, the livelihoods of rural communities and the food security of a predominantly urban population are at risk from water-related impacts linked primarily to climate variability. The rural poor, who are the most vulnerable, are likely to be disproportionately affected. Adaptation measures that build upon improved l ...PermalinkGlobal warming is expected to heavily impact agriculture, the dominant source of livelihood for the world's poor. Yet, little is known about the distributional implications of climate change at the sub-national level. Using a simple comparative statics framework, this paper analyzes how changes in the prices of land, labor, and food induced by modest temperature increases over the next three decades will affect household-level welfare in India. The authors predict a substantial fall in agricultural productivity, even allowing for farmer adaptation. Yet, this decline will not translate into a s ...PermalinkThe question of whether biofuels help mitigate climate change has attracted much debate in the literature. Using a global computable general equilibrium model that explicitly represents land-use change impacts due to the expansion of biofuels, this study attempts to shed some light on this question. The study shows that if biofuel mandates and targets currently announced by more than 40 countries around the world are implemented by 2020 using crop feedstocks, and if both forests and pasture lands are used to meet the new land demands for biofuel expansion, this would cause a net increase of gr ...PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; International Federation of Agricultural Producers (IFAP) - WMO, 2011At the simplest level, weather is what is happening to the atmosphere at any given time. Climate is a measure of what to expect in any month, season or year, and is arrived at using statistics built up from observations over many years. All aspects of the Earth’s climate – the wind, rain, clouds and temperature – are the result of energy transfers and transformations within the atmosphere, at the Earth’s surface and in the oceans.PermalinkPermalinkMany experts believe that low-cost mitigation opportunities in agriculture are abundant and comparable in scale to those found in the energy sector. They are mostly located in developing countries and have to do with how land is used. By investing in projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), countries can tap these opportunities to meet their own Kyoto Protocol obligations. The CDM has been successful in financing some types of agricultural projects, including projects that capture methane or use agricultural by-products as an energy source. But agricultural land-use projects are s ...PermalinkThis paper explores the reduction of food insecurity in Bolivia, adopting a supply side approach that analyzes the role of agricultural spending on vulnerability. Vulnerability to food insecurity is captured by a municipal level composite—developed locally within the framework of World Food Program food security analysis—that combines welfare outcomes, weather conditions and agricultural potential for all 327 municipalities in 2003, 2006 and 2007. Our econometric results indicate that levels of public agricultural spending are positively associated with high or very high vulnerability. The aut ...PermalinkUNDP, 2011This is the first edition of the Africa Adaptation Programme (AAP) Discussion Paper Series. This paper focuses on the links between gender and climate change adaptation by highlighting the steps that the AAP is taking to ensure the equal participation of women and all members of society in responding to climate change.PermalinkUNDP, 2011The 'Practitioners and Policy makers Exchange on Climate Change Adaptation in Agriculture', which was held in Bangkok in 2010, facilitated the transfer of knowledge gained from increasing experience with climate change adaptation in the agriculture sector. The FAQ booklet captures participants’ questions related to climate-resilient farming practices, Adaptation Financing, and knowledge sharing.PermalinkThe report notes that women make significant contributions to the rural economy in all developing country regions.PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; Motha Raymond P.; Wilhite Donald A.; et al. - WMO, 2011 (WMO/TD-No. 1572)The Murcia Expert Meeting is based on the outcomes of the Regional Workshop on Indices and Early Warning Systems for Drought which was held at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln in December, 2009. At the Lincoln workshop, drought experts examined what indices are used for meteorological, agricultural and hydrological drought and developed the Lincoln Declaration on Drought Indices. There was a consensus agreement that the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) should be used to characterize meteorological droughts by all NMHSs around the world. Several other of the recommendations formt eh Lin ...PermalinkWFP, 2011In response to a request from the Government of DPRK for food assistance, WFP, FAO, and UNICEF organized a Rapid Food Security Assessment Mission (RFSA). The assessment commenced in early February with WFP Country Office staff assessing the situation in several counties where WFP operates. Between 14 and 21 February WFP staff assessed five counties where WFP does not currently have operations. From 21 February through 11 March, an interagency UN mission made of WFP, FAO and UNICEF staff visited DPRK to: forecast the 2011 production of winter and spring crops; update the assessment of the cerea ...PermalinkThe study draws on specific examples from Africa, Asia and Latin America as well as from some developed countries to show how constraints to successfully integrating production of food and energy crops can be overcome.PermalinkThis paper investigates the potential of and constraints to a rice Green Revolution in Sub-Saharan Africa's large-scale irrigation schemes, using data from Uganda, Mozambique, Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, and Senegal. The authors find that adequate irrigation, chemical fertilizer, and labor inputs are the key to high productivity. Chemical fertilizer is expensive in Uganda and Mozambique and is barely used. This is aggravated when water access is limited because of the complementarities between fertilizer and irrigation. Meanwhile, in the schemes located in four countries in West Africa's Sahel ...PermalinkLa presente edición de El estado mundial de la agricultura y la alimentación aborda el tema de Las mujeres en la agricultura: cerrar la brecha de género en aras del desarrollo. El sector agrícola tiene un bajo rendimiento en muchos países en desarrollo y una de las principales razones es que las mujeres no tienen igualdad de acceso a los recursos y oportunidades que necesitan para ser más productivas. El presente informe confirma claramente que los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio sobre la igualdad de género (ODM 3) y la pobreza y la seguridad alimentaria (ODM 1) se refuerzan mutuamente.Permalink今年的《粮食及农业状况》涉及“农 业中的女性：填性别鸿沟 促农业发展”。 在很多发展中国家，农业领域发展不足， 其中一个主要原因便是女性没有平等地 获得提高生产力所需的资源和机会。本 报告明确说明，针对两性平等的千年发 展目标（目标3）与针对扶贫和针对粮食 安全的千年发展目标（目标1）之间是相 辅相成的。我们必须促进农业中的两性 平等并赋予妇女权力，以不断获得反饥 饿抗极端贫困之战的胜利。我坚信，实 现千年发展目标3 会有助于实现千年发 展目标1。PermalinkLa présente édition de La situation mondiale de l’alimentation et de l’agriculture est consacrée au rôle de la femme dans l’agriculture et aux mesures à prendre pour combler le fossé hommes-femmes en vue de soutenir le développement. Dans de nombreux pays en développement, le secteur agricole n’est pas vraiment performant, en partie parce que les femmes n’ont pas accès aux mêmes ressources et opportunités que les hommes pour accroître leur production. La présente publication confirme, sans l’ombre d’un doute, que les objectifs du Millénaire sur l’égalité des sexes (OMD 3) et la pauvreté et la ...PermalinkPermalinkЭтот выпуск доклада «Положение дел в области продовольствия и сельского хозяйства» посвящен теме «Женщины в сельском хозяйстве: устранение гендерного разрыва в интересах развития». Сектор сельского хозяйства во многих развивающихся странах показывает низкие результаты, и одна из главных причин этого – то, что женщины не имеют равного доступа к ресурсам и возможностям, необходимым им для повышения производительности труда. В докладе убедительно подтверждается, что цели развития тысячелетия по гендерному равенству (ЦРТ-3) и продовольственной безопасности (ЦРТ-1) дополняют друг друга.Permalink
Permalinkis an issue of Forum du Commerce international. 2010Permalinkis an issue of International Trade Forum. International Trade Centre, 2010PermalinkWBGU, 2010"Biokraftstoffe wurden von einigen als Wunderwaffe gegen den Klimawandel ausgemacht, andere sehen sie als verhängnisvolle Fehlentwicklung, die zur Zerstörung der Wälder und zum Anstieg des Hungers führt. Weder das Eine noch das Andere ist der Fall. Eine umsichtige Anwendung von Bioenergie kann den Ausstoss von Treibhausgasen senken, Beschäftigungsmöglichkeiten schaffen und die Lebensbedingungen im ländlichen Raum verbessern. Die wirtschaftliche Nutzung im großen Stil ohne geeignete Nachhaltigkeitsstandards kann jedoch katastrophale Auswirkungen haben und für Umwelt und Menschen mehr Schaden al ...PermalinkGovernments need to acknowledge that problems of undernutrition and micronutrient deficiency persist, and they should sensitize the public to the magnitude of the problem, its causes and effects and possible strategies to combat it. Nutritional considerations need to be seriously integrated into agriculture, livestock, aquaculture and related programmes so that this dimension can be monitored and desired outcomes achieved. The key objectives of this priority area are to contribute to the eradication of hunger and malnutrition in Asia and the Pacific region in line with the targets of the World ...PermalinkOrganisation des Nations Unies pour l'Alimentation et l'Agriculture (FAO); Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) - United Nations, 2010La produzione alimentare dovrà aumentare del 70 per cento per nutrire nel 2050 una popolazione di nove miliardi di persone. Ciò significa che per quella data sarà necessario incrementare la produzione annua di cereali addirittura di un miliardo di tonnellate e quella della carne di 200 milioni di tonnellate. L’obiettivo di ottenere valori così elevati dai terreni limitati che ricoprono il nostro pianeta richiede sforzi immensi, e nuove, migliori e più numerose tecniche di produzione alimentare. Dovremo riflettere sulla strada più opportuna da seguire e cosa è necessario fare.PermalinkThis working paper aims to create a more comprehensive understanding of how the impacts of CC will be realized at different scales in Nepal (from household livelihoods to national food security), and the many institutions governing the ultimate adaptation process. SectionI, Background, provides background information on Nepal. SectionII, Climate Change in Nepal, addresses the anticipated impacts of CC on water resources and agricultural systems in Nepal. SectionIII, Mapping of Relevant Institutions for Climate Change Adaptation, provides a theoretical discussion of adaptation and, through a ca ...PermalinkBiodiversity underpins the agriculture productivity. Agricultural biodiversity includes all components of biodiversity – at genetic, species and ecosystem levels – that are relevant to food and agriculture and that support the ecosystems in which agriculture occurs. Therefore, its maintenance is essential for the production of food and other agricultural goods and the benefits these provide to humanity, including food security, nutrition and livelihoods. Recent worldwide food crisis has raised the issue of food security to an urgent basis. Many are arguing that worldwide economic meltdown migh ...PermalinkThe number of people which the world must feed is expected to increase by 50% during the first half of this century, but will the world’s agricultural resource base be up to the task of meeting the diverse demands being placed on it? This paper reviews the evidence on the future supply and demand for agricultural land four decades from now and provide a critical evaluation of the potential for a perfect storm in land markets, worldwide.PermalinkThe International Workshop on Addressing the Livelihood Crisis of Farmers: Weather and Climate Services is taking place at a time when there is a growing concern about livelihoods of over 500 million smallholder farmers around the world coupled with the increasing climate variability and future climate change. The world population is projected to grow from 6.5 billion today to 8.3 billion in 2030 and nearly 9.2 billion in 2050. All of that growth will be concentrated in developing countries. Global food production will therefore need to increase by more than 50% by 2030, and should nearly doub ...PermalinkThe practices and technology related to irrigation in Tanzania are of relevance to debates about indigenous intensive agricultural systems, concerning their sustainability and prospects for development. This study analyses water system of Kilimanjaro region in Tanzania, focusing on its material, institutional and ideational aspects. The paper notes that the water management reform process in the region is influenced by development ideologies in the global water management discourse as well as a national tradition that can be described as technocratic.PermalinkEuropean Commission, 2010Land use shapes our environment in positive and negative ways. Productive land is a critical resource for food and biomass production and land use strongly influences soil erosion and soil functions such as carbon storage. Land management largely determines the beauty of Europe's landscapes. It is important therefore to monitor land cover and land-use change through tools such as Corine land cover. Data on land-cover change in Europe from 2000–2006 show that growth in built-up areas and forest land leads to a continued loss of agricultural land. In turn, global economic and environmental chang ...PermalinkThis paper reviews the impacts of climate change and their implications for food security and sustainable development in the Asia and the Pacific region; analyses opportunities and options for climate change adaptation and mitigation in the agricultural sectors; discusses major policy, institutional and technical issues to be addressed; presents global and regional initiatives taken by FAO; and proposes recommendations for further actions.PermalinkThe number of undernourished people in the world remains unacceptably high at close to one billion in 2010 despite an expected decline – the first in 15 years. This decline is largely attributable to a more favourable economic environment in 2010 – particularly in developing countries – and the fall in both international and domestic food prices since 2008.PermalinkGRID Arendal, 2010Uganda’s natural resource base is one of the richest and most diverse in Africa, resulting in the country’s economy relying heavily on goods and services so provided. The purpose of this handbook is to provide a ready source of environmental information and trends for legislators, to foster effective appreciation and representation of environmental issues in parliament.
The book covers several sectors and areas of interests, including agriculture, climate change, energy, fisheries, forests, land oil and gas, pollution, tourism, water wetlands and wildlife/biodiversity.PermalinkWorld Bank, 2010This study analyzes the long-term impacts of large-scale expansion of biofuels on land-use change, food supply and prices, and the overall economy in various countries or regions using a global computable general equilibrium model, augmented by a land-use module and detailed representation of biofuel sectors. The study finds that an expansion of global biofuel production to meet currently articulated or even higher national targets in various countries for biofuel use would reduce gross domestic product at the global level; however, the gross domestic product impacts are mixed across countries ...PermalinkWMO, 2010PermalinkAgrisud International, 2010L’agroécologie consiste pour le paysan à chercher à imiter la nature dans son champ. Elle mise sur les complémentarités entre différentes plantes et animaux. Elle conçoit l’agriculture non comme un processus qui transforme des intrants en productions agricoles, mais comme un cycle, où le déchet sert d’intrant, où les animaux et les légumineuses fertilisent les sols et où les mauvaises herbes sont considérées comme remplissant des fonctions utiles.Permalink本 文 件 审 查 了 气 候 变 化 的 影 响 ，以 及 气 候 变 化 对 亚 洲 及 太 平 洋 区 域 的 粮 食 安 全 和 可 持 续 发 展 产 生 的 影 响 ； 分 析 了 农业 部 门 气 候 变 化 适 应 和 减 缓 的 机 遇 和 方 案 ； 讨 论 了 主 要 的 政 策 和 需 要 解 决 的 体 制 和 技 术 问 题 ；介 绍 了 粮 农 组 织 实 施 的 全 球 和 区 域 举 措 ； 并 提 出 了 进 一 步 行 动 的 建 议Permalinkلا يزال عدد ناقصي التغذية في العالم مرتفعاً بصورة لم تعد مقبولة حيث يكاد يصل إلى مليار نسمة في عام 2010 رغم التراجع المتوقع – للمرة الأولى منذ 15 عاماً. ويُعزى هذا التراجع في قسم كبير منه إلى وجود مناخ اقتصادي مشجّع أكثر في عام 2010 – خاصة في البلدان النامية – وإلى انخفاض الأسعار الدولية والمحلية للمواد الغذائية منذ سنة 2008.Permalink世界上营养不足人口的数量在2010年仍处于令人难以接受的高位，接近10亿，尽管这一数字已经像预期的那样，出现了15年来的首度下降。下降的原因主要归功于2010年经济环境的好转，特别是在发展中国家，还归功于自2008年以来国际及国内粮价的回落。PermalinkEl número de personas subnutridas en el mundo sigue siendo inaceptablemente elevado, casi mil millones en 2010, a pesar de haber experimentado una reducción prevista, la primera en 15 años. Esta reducción se puede atribuir principalmente a la existencia de un entorno económico más favorable en 2010, especialmente en los países en desarrollo, y a la caída de los precios nacionales e internacionales de los alimentos desde 2008.PermalinkНесмотря на ожидаемое снижение – впервые за 15 лет - число недоедающих людей в мире в 2010 году остается недопустимо высоким, приблизившись к 1 миллиарду человек. Это снижение относят главным образом на счет более благоприятной экономической конъюнктуры в 2010 году, особенно в развивающихся странах, и снижения как мировых, так и внутренних цен на продовольствие после 2008 года.PermalinkLe nombre de personnes sous-alimentées dans le monde, qui avoisine le milliard en 2010, se maintient à un niveau inacceptable malgré une baisse attendue – la première en 15 ans. Cette baisse s'explique dans une large mesure par un environnement économique plus favorable en 2010 – notamment dans les pays en développement – et par la diminution des prix des denrées alimentaires sur les marchés intérieurs et internationaux depuis 2008.PermalinkLe présent document analyse les impacts du changement climatique et leurs implications pour la sécurité alimentaire et le développement durable dans la région Asie et Pacifique. Il décrit les possibilités et les options en matière d’adaptation et d’atténuation dans les secteurs agricoles et présente les principales questions politiques, institutionnelles et techniques à approfondir ainsi que les initiatives mondiales et régionales prises par la FAO, avant de conclure par des recommandations sur les actions à engager.PermalinkThis book presents historical evidence of the linkages between climate and food security and the current challenges climate change poses on world food security. It argues that changing climatic conditions are projected to affect food security from the local to the global level as the unpredictability of weather conditions increases. It calls for new policy driven options to address the emerging challenges of attaining improved food security.Permalink