World Bank, 2012Cities and Flooding: A Guide to Integrated Urban Flood Risk Management for the 21st Century provides forward-looking operational assistance to policy makers and technical specialists in the rapidly expanding cities and towns of the developing world on how best to manage the risk of floods. It takes a strategic approach, in which appropriate risk management measures are assessed, selected and integrated in a process that both informs and involves the full range of stakeholders.Published by: World Bank ; 2012
Cities and Flooding: A Guide to Integrated Urban Flood Risk Management for the 21st Century provides forward-looking operational assistance to policy makers and technical specialists in the rapidly expanding cities and towns of the developing world on how best to manage the risk of floods. It takes a strategic approach, in which appropriate risk management measures are assessed, selected and integrated in a process that both informs and involves the full range of stakeholders.
Format: Digital (Free)Published by: UNEP ; 2012
Format: Digital (Free)Science for Environment Policy, Issue 254. EEA, 2011Collecting, or ‘harvesting’ rainwater may help society cope with a number of problems, such as water shortages, flooding and the degradation of urban streams. Urban roofs make up about half of the total sealed surface (‘unnatural’ surfaces, which cover over natural surfaces, such as soil) in cities and contribute the most to stormwater run-off, which could be harvested for other purposes. To maximise this potential, it is useful to know which type of roof can harvest the greatest amount of good quality water.[article]
in Science for Environment Policy > Issue 254 [09/26/2011] . - 1 p.
Collecting, or ‘harvesting’ rainwater may help society cope with a number of problems, such as water shortages, flooding and the degradation of urban streams. Urban roofs make up about half of the total sealed surface (‘unnatural’ surfaces, which cover over natural surfaces, such as soil) in cities and contribute the most to stormwater run-off, which could be harvested for other purposes. To maximise this potential, it is useful to know which type of roof can harvest the greatest amount of good quality water.
Format: Digital[article]Science for Environment Policy, 242. EEA, 2011Cities are key players in global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A new World Bank study has proposed a three-stage plan for mitigating climate change at a local level. Its recommendations include improving urban infrastructure and encouraging lifestyle change, but most importantly, clarity in the way urban GHG inventories are calculated.[article]
in Science for Environment Policy > 242 (1 June 2011) . - 1 p.
Cities are key players in global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A new World Bank study has proposed a three-stage plan for mitigating climate change at a local level. Its recommendations include improving urban infrastructure and encouraging lifestyle change, but most importantly, clarity in the way urban GHG inventories are calculated.
Format: Digital[article]Science for Environment Policy, 240. EEA, 2011A new study has shown that life expectancy and monetary benefits increase significantly when levels of fine particles are reduced further in European cities. It also reveals that living near busy roads could be responsible for a substantial amount of poor health attributable to air pollution.[article]
in Science for Environment Policy > 240 [05/19/2011]
A new study has shown that life expectancy and monetary benefits increase significantly when levels of fine particles are reduced further in European cities. It also reveals that living near busy roads could be responsible for a substantial amount of poor health attributable to air pollution.
Format: Digital[article]Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Xu J.; Li C.; Shi H.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011This study investigated the decadal variation of the direct surface solar radiation (DiSR) and the diffuse surface solar radiation (DfSR) during 1961–2008 in the Shanghai megacity as well as their relationships to Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) under clear-sky conditions. Three successive periods with unique features of long term variation of DiSR were identified for both clear-sky and all-sky conditions: a "dimming" period from the late 1960s to the mid 1980s, a "stabilization"/"slight brightening" period from the mid 1980s to the mid 1990s, and a "renewed dimming" period thereafter. During the ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Stroud C.A.; Makar P.A.; Moran M.D.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Regional-scale chemical transport model predictions of urban organic aerosol to date tend to be biased low relative to observations, a limitation with important implications for applying such models to human exposure health studies. We used a nested version of Environment Canada's AURAMS model (42- to- 15- to- 2.5-km nested grid spacing) to predict organic aerosol concentrations for a temporal and spatial domain corresponding to the Border Air Quality and Meteorology Study (BAQS-Met), an air-quality field study that took place in the southern Great Lakes region in the summer of 2007. The use o ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 5. El Haddad I.; Marchand N.; Temime-Roussel B.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011A comprehensive aerosol characterization was conducted at Marseille during summer, including organic (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), major ionic species, radiocarbon (14C), water-soluble OC and HULIS (HUmic LIke Substances), elemental composition and primary and secondary organic markers. This paper is the second paper of a two-part series that uses this dataset to investigate the sources of Organic Aerosol (OA). While the first paper investigates the primary sources (El Haddad et al., 2010), this second paper focuses on the secondary fraction of the organic aerosol.PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 5. El Haddad I.; Marchand N.; Wortham H.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Marseille, the most important port of the Mediterranean Sea, represents a challenging case study for source apportionment exercises, combining an active photochemistry and multiple emission sources, including fugitive emissions from industrial sources and shipping. This paper presents a Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) approach based on organic markers and metals to apportion the primary sources of organic aerosol in Marseille, with a special focus on industrial emissions. Overall, the CMB model accounts for the major primary anthropogenic sources including motor vehicles, biomass burning and the a ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 5. Gerasopoulos E.; Amiridis V.; Kazadzis S.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Three years (2006–2008) of ground-based observations of the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) in the urban environment of Athens, in the Eastern Mediterranean, are analysed in this work. Measurements were acquired with a Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer at five wavelengths. The daily average AOD at 500 nm is 0.23, and the mean Ångström coefficient calculated between 415 and 867 nm is 1.41. The annual variability of AOD has a spring maximum dominated by coarse dust particles from the Sahara (AOD 0.34–0.42), while the diurnal pattern is typical for urban sites, with AOD steadily increasing ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 5. Lee S.-H.; Kim S.-W.; Angevine W.M.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011The performance of different urban surface parameterizations in the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) in simulating urban boundary layer (UBL) was investigated using extensive measurements during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006 field campaign. The extensive field measurements collected on surface (meteorological, wind profiler, energy balance flux) sites, a research aircraft, and a research vessel characterized 3-dimensional atmospheric boundary layer structures over the Houston-Galveston Bay area, providing a unique opportunity for the evaluation of the physical parameterizations. The m ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Bon D.M.; Ulbrich I.M.; de Gouw J.A.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Volatile organic compound (VOC) mixing ratios were measured with two different instruments at the T1 ground site in Mexico City during the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign in March of 2006. A gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) quantified 18 light alkanes, alkenes and acetylene while a proton-transfer-reaction ion-trap mass spectrometer (PIT-MS) quantified 12 VOC species including oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) and aromatics. A GC separation system was used in conjunction with the PIT-MS (GC-PIT-MS) to evaluate PIT-MS measurements an ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Amato F.; Viana M.; Richard A.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Size and time-resolved roadside enrichments of atmospheric particulate pollutants in PM10 were detected and quantified in a Mediterranean urban environment (Barcelona, Spain). Simultaneous data from one urban background (UB), one traffic (T) and one heavy traffic (HT) location were analysed, and roadside PM10 enrichments (RE) in a number of elements arising from vehicular emissions were calculated. Tracers of primary traffic emissions (EC, Fe, Ba, Cu, Sb, Cr, Sn) showed the largest REs (>70%). Other traffic tracers (Zr, Cd) showed lower but still consistent REs (25–40%), similar to those obtai ...PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; Global Water Partnership (GWP); United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) - WMO, 2011This training manual addresses a broad spectrum of relevant issues in this emerging field of integrated urban flood management. It is expected to provide course participants and practitioners with best practice concepts and application with the intention to further inform and engage stakeholders in promoting integrated and cooperative approaches in water management in general. The manual integrates expertise from disciplines such as hydrology, sociology, economics, architecture, urban design, construction and water resources engineering and management. The subject is approached from an interna ...PermalinkUN-Habitat, 2011Cities and Climate Change reviews the linkages between urbanization and climate change, two of the greatest challenges currently facing humanity in the 21st Century, and whose effects are converging in dangerous ways. It illustrates the significant contribution of urban areas to climate change while at the same time highlighting the potentially devastating effects of climate change on urban populations. It reviews policy responses, strategies and practices that are emerging in urban areas to mitigate and adapt to climate change, as well as their potential achievements and constraints. In concl ...PermalinkUN-Habitat, 2011Cities and Climate Change reviews the linkages between urbanization and climate change, two of the greatest challenges currently facing humanity in the 21st Century, and whose effects are converging in dangerous ways. It illustrates the significant contribution of urban areas to climate change while at the same time highlighting the potentially devastating effects of climate change on urban populations. It reviews policy responses, strategies and practices that are emerging in urban areas to mitigate and adapt to climate change, as well as their potential achievements and constraints. In concl ...PermalinkThe increased pressures on the world’s natural resources and ecological systems in the past century, has been accompanied by rapid urban population growth. Urban centres themselves have ecological reputations since they drive unsustainable environmental change, rapidly increasing the use of fossil fuels and carbon dioxide emissions due to increasing per capita consumption levels. They also lead to high levels of resource use and waste generation, causing serious ecological consequences locally, regionally and globally, especially in terms of climate change. However, addressing the issue of urb ...PermalinkUNEP/GRID, 2011Africa is currently the least urbanised region in the world, but this is changing fast. Of the billion people living on the African continent, about 40 per cent lives in urban areas. The urban population in Africa doubled from 205 million in 1990 to 400 million in 2010, and by 2050, it is expected that this would have tripled to 1.23 billion. Of this urban population, 60 per cent is living in slum conditions. In a time of such urban growth, Africa is likely to experience some of the most severe impacts of climate change, particularly when it comes to water and food security. This places huge p ...PermalinkWorld Bank, 2011The report, Cities and Climate Change: An Urgent Agenda, says that up to 80 percent of the expected $80 billion to $100 billion per year in climate change adaptation costs will likely be borne by urban areas. Nevertheless, says the report, climate change offers cities opportunities to alter course, implement smart policies, and develop sustainable communities. Well managed, dense cities are also shown to be the most important pre-requisite to mitigation of GHG emissions and overall sustainable development.PermalinkICLEI, 2011This report provides a conceptual framework for better understanding how to integrate climate and other risk reduction measures in urban areas and systems. Here resilience is oﬀ ered as an economic and performance model with far reaching implications. The report calls for more locally responsive climate ﬁ nancing investment strategies and instruments. It also sets the scene for and provides a valuable contribution to the ongoing international discussions on climate ﬁ nancing for adaptation; how it can be mobilized, leveraged and innovated for the local level.PermalinkUrban flooding is an increasingly important issue. Disaster statistics appear to show flood events are becoming more frequent, with medium-scale events increasing fastest. The impact of flooding is driven by a combination of natural and human-induced factors. As recent flood events in Pakistan, Brazil, Sri Lanka and Australia show, floods can occur in widespread locations and can sometimes overwhelm even the best prepared countries and cities. There are known and tested measures for urban flood risk management, typically classified as structural or engineered measures, and non-structural, mana ...PermalinkEEA, 2011The European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR) is a web-based register established by Regulation (EC) No 166/2006 which implements the UNECE PRTR Protocol, signed in May 2003 in Kiev.PermalinkEEA, 2011Cities and towns are highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change and will need to find innovative ways to adapt. Now is the time to start rethinking urban design and management — yet few have taken concrete action.PermalinkAtmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters, Volume 3 Number 6. Wang Li-Li; Wang Yue-Si; Li Yuan-Yuan - Science Press, 2010An automated procedure employing principal-component analysis and a two-stage cluster analysis was developed to classify the synoptic meteorological conditions prevailing over Urumqi, one of the most heavily polluted cities in the world. Six clusters representing different circulation patterns and air-mass characteristics were classified using surface- and upper-meteorological variables during the heating period from 2001 to 2008, and the relationships between synoptic clusters and air quality were evaluated. The heaviest air-pollution episodes occurred when Urumqi was in either an extremely c ...PermalinkONU-Habitat, 2010La présent rapport se penche sur les processus et les grands
thèmes qui concernent plus particulièrement l’Afrique, en les
illustrant à l’aide de données récentes et d’exemples parlants.
Il se concentre sur les villes mais sans appliquer de seuil bien
défini aux zones de peuplement dont il traite, le sujet étant
l’urbanisation et les zones urbaines en généralPermalinkUN-Habitat, 2010The State of the African Cities 2010 goes above and beyond the first report, which provided a general overview of housing and urban management issues in Africa. With the subtitle: Governance, inequity and urban land markets, the report uncovers critical urban issues and challenges in African cities, using social and urban geography as the overall entry points. While examining poverty, slum incidence and governance, the report sheds more light on inequity in African cities, and in this respect follows the main theme of the global State of the World’s Cities 2010 report. Through a regional analy ...PermalinkThere has been a remarkable and refreshing interest in urban environment over the past few years. New development means some specific sectors and different sectors economic advancement. Advanced nations are economically developed and no doubt developing countries are more concern about economic development. One of the important sectors of economic development in developing world is manufacturing industries. Developing countries has industries promoted and motivated or controlled by different advanced foreign nations which sometimes contradict with the urban land use and environment and become ...PermalinkClifford Leon - 2010Surface temperature increases appear to be independant of wind speed suggesting that urban heating is not responsible for the long-term observed surface warming trend, according to new research that is to be published shortly.PermalinkPermalinkPermalinkPermalinkThere has been a steady change in the nature of food production over the last few years. In all regions of the world there has been a shift towards organic production methods by limited numbers of producers with a view to a more earth-friendly form of production. There has also been a world-wide development of urban agriculture, particularly in regions with rapidly increasing urban populations, and difficulty in deriving maximum benefit from rural resources to feed the urban population. Likewise, the increase in indoor production has been marked over the last decade. Indoor production allows g ...PermalinkPermalinkObasi G.O.P; World Meteorological Organization (WMO) - WMO, 2001 (SG's lectures, speeches, statements-No. 115)PermalinkDear Richard J.de; World Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) - WMO, 2000 (WMO/TD-No. 1026)PermalinkPermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; United Nations (UN); United Nations Development Programme (UNDP); et al. - WMO, 1997Few would dispute that urban water systems should be both healthy and sustainable. Ideally, along with efficiency, these are central pillars in every urban water strategy. Unfortunately, the narrow pursuit of health can undermine the sustainability of water systems, and vice versa. Such trade-offs must not be rationalised away, but recognised in order to develop diversified and better aimed water strategies. It is crude policies, such as promoting health by providing free water for all, or promoting sustainability by charging everyone high prices, that create the steepest trade-offs. Trade-off ...PermalinkPermalinkBy the turn of the millennium, about half the world's population will be urban dwellers. So, cities will occupy an increasingly important place in human affairs. Profound questions arise regarding climate, weather and water, that all affect cities directly and are at the same time affected by them. This booklet, a contribution to World Meteorological Day 1997, discusses the role of the World Meteorological Organization in sustainable urban development.PermalinkPermalink
PermalinkPermalinkThis booklet, a contribution to the Second United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (HABITAT II) in Istanbul, reviews the relationship between climate and human settlement. Focus is on how urbanization may influence both the local climate and global climate change. It is suggested that any negative influence can be mitigated through planning, building and operating urban areas in harmony with climate.PermalinkPermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) - WMO, 1994 (WMO/TD-No. 647)PermalinkPermalinkPermalinkGladwell John S; Sim Low Kwai; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - UNESCO, 1993PermalinkPermalinkPermalinkPermalink
PermalinkPermalinkPermalinkPermalinkThis publication reviews developments in the fields of urban climatology and meteorology in the period 1973-1976 inclusive. It therefore forms an addendum to WMO Technical Note No. 134 "Review of Urban Climatology 1968-1973" produced earlier by the author. The organization of the report follows that of the earlier one and the combined bibliographies along with that produced by Chandler (WMO Publication No. 276, 1970) provide a reasonably comprehensive coverage of literature in urban climatology.PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) - WMO, 1976 (WMO-No. 441)This report attempts to discuss the systematics of building climatology in relation to building design. Chapter 1 attempts to outline the general scope of building climatology. Chapter 2 provides a detailed analysis of the meteorologist's contribution to the improvement of the safety of buildings exposed to weather extremes of one kind or another. Chapter 3 describes systematic processes for harnessing meteorological data into the actual building design and construction process. It assumes, as a fundamental requirement, that it is important to work out how best to achieve an appropriate balanc ...PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) - WMO, 1976 (WMO-No. 438)As a guide to planners, Chapter 1 of this Technical Note considers the various mass, moisture, heat and momentum exchanges within the urban boundary layer; Chapter 2 describes the conséquences of thèse as they affect the distribution patterns of each of the meteorological éléments; and Chapter 3 considers the implications of urban climates to successful urban design, together with the logistics of the climatic input into the planning process.PermalinkThis report offers some practical guidelines on the processing and use of regular surface and upper-air observations in terms of their climatological influence on transport and diffusion of air pollutants. The concept of a meteorological potential for air pollution is discussed. An attempt was made to include examples of pertinent climatological data for various parts of the world but in fact the data are limited to temperate and northern latitudes of the northern hemisphere. There is a paucity of available meteorological studies relative to air pollution in the tropics, which, unfortunately, ...PermalinkThis publication reviews developments in the field of urban climatology since the Symposium on Urban Climates and Building Climatology held at Brussels in 1968 under the joint sponsorship of the World Health Organization and WMO. During this relatively short period of time the importance of understanding the atmospheric environment of human settlements has become increasingly apparent and the amount of research has greatly expanded. The review is in two parts. The first part deals mainly with observational studies. This begins with a look at work aimed at elucidating the nature of the fundamen ...PermalinkPermalinkPermalinkPermalinkPermalinkPermalinkThe world continues to urbanise. In 2008, for the first time in history more than half of the world's population lived in cities. By 2030, it is estimated that five billion people—80 per cent of humanity—will be urbanised.
For highly urbanised countries, a wrong step in urban policy can have national implications, especially when around 40 per cent of the national population live in just two cities (as is the case for Australia). Aside from city states like Singapore and Monaco, Australia is the most urbanised nation on earth. More than three in four of Australians live in the 18 cities ...Permalink18 April 2012: As part of its Making Cities Resilient Campaign, the UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) has launched the Local Government Self Assessment Tool, to support cities in managing disaster risk. UNISDR reports that 2011 was the worst year on record for economic losses from disasters.
The tool aims to increase understanding of disaster risk reduction (DRR), allowing cities to establish baselines and identify planning and investment gaps for risk reduction and climate change adaptation. According to UNISDR, the new tool has been piloted in over 20 c ...PermalinkThe database contains results of urban outdoor air pollution monitoring from almost 1100 cities in 91 countries. Air quality is represented by annual mean concentration of fine particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5, i.e. particles smaller than 10 or 2.5 microns).PermalinkPermalinkPermalinkPermalink