Los servicios climáticos son fundamentales para respaldar el esfuerzo de Haití de reconstruir el país, tras las devastadoras consecuencias del terremoto que tuvo lugar a principios de este año.[article]
in Boletín > Vol. 59(2) (2010) . - p.87-90
Los servicios climáticos son fundamentales para respaldar el esfuerzo de Haití de reconstruir el país, tras las devastadoras consecuencias del terremoto que tuvo lugar a principios de este año.
Language(s): Spanish; Other Languages: English, French, Russian
Format: Digital (Free), Hard copy[article]SAN FRANCISCO — Five days before approximately 200 tornadoes swept through six states in the Southeastern United States between April 25 and April 28, local meteorologists were alerted to the possibility of unusually severe weather by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellite data.[article]
in Space News > Vol. 22 Issue 19 (May 16, 2011) . - p.16
SAN FRANCISCO — Five days before approximately 200 tornadoes swept through six states in the Southeastern United States between April 25 and April 28, local meteorologists were alerted to the possibility of unusually severe weather by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellite data.
Format: Digital[article]Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Huang M.; Carmichael Gregory R.; Spak S.N.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Chronic high surface ozone (O3) levels and the increasing sulfur oxides (SOx = SO2+SO4) ambient concentrations over South Coast (SC) and other areas of California (CA) are affected by both local emissions and long-range transport. In this paper, multi-scale tracer, full-chemistry and adjoint simulations using the STEM atmospheric chemistry model are conducted to assess the contribution of local emission sourcesto SC O3 and to evaluate the impacts of transported sulfur and local emissions on the SC sulfur budgetduring the ARCTAS-CARB experiment period in 2008. Sensitivity simulations quantify c ...[article]
Multi-scale modeling study of the source contributions to near-surface ozone and sulfur oxides levels over California during the ARCTAS-CARB period
M. Huang ; Gregory R. Carmichael ; S.N. Spak ; B. Adhikary ; S. Kulkarni ; Y. Cheng ; C. Wei ; Y. Tang ; A. D'Allura ; P.O. Wennberg ; G.L. Huey ; J.E. Dibb ; J.L. Jimenez ; M.J. Cubison ; A.J. Weinheimer ; A. Kaduwela ; C. Cai ; M. Wong ; R. Bradley Pierce ; J.A. Al-Saadi ; D.G. Streets ; Q. Zhang
in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) > Vol. 11. N° 7 [04/01/2011] . - p.3173-3194
Chronic high surface ozone (O3) levels and the increasing sulfur oxides (SOx = SO2+SO4) ambient concentrations over South Coast (SC) and other areas of California (CA) are affected by both local emissions and long-range transport. In this paper, multi-scale tracer, full-chemistry and adjoint simulations using the STEM atmospheric chemistry model are conducted to assess the contribution of local emission sourcesto SC O3 and to evaluate the impacts of transported sulfur and local emissions on the SC sulfur budgetduring the ARCTAS-CARB experiment period in 2008. Sensitivity simulations quantify contributions of biogenic and fire emissions to SC O3 levels. California biogenic and fire emissions contribute 3–4 ppb to near-surface O3 over SC, with larger contributions to other regions in CA. During a long-range transport event from Asia starting from 22 June, high SOx levels (up to ~0.7 ppb of SO2 and ~1.3 ppb of SO4) is observed above ~6 km, but they did not affect CA surface air quality. The elevated SOx observed at 1–4 km is estimated to enhance surface SOx over SC by ~0.25 ppb (upper limit) on ~24 June. The near-surface SOx levels over SC during the flight week are attributed mostly to local emissions. Two anthropogenic SOx emission inventories (EIs) from the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are compared and applied in 60 km and 12 km chemical transport simulations, and the results are compared withobservations. The CARB EI shows improvements over the National Emission Inventory (NEI) by EPA, but generally underestimates surface SC SOx by about a factor of two. Adjoint sensitivity analysis indicated that SO2 levels at 00:00 UTC (17:00 local time) at six SC surface sites were influenced by previous day maritime emissions over the ocean, the terrestrial emissions over nearby urban areas, and by transported SO2 from the north through both terrestrial and maritime areas. Overall maritime emissions contribute 10–70% of SO2 and 20–60% fine SO4 on-shore and over the most terrestrial areas, with contributions decreasing with in-land distance from the coast. Maritime emissions also modify the photochemical environment, shifting O3 production over coastal SC to more VOC-limited conditions. These suggest an important role for shipping emission controls in reducing fine particle and O3 concentrations in SC.
Format: Digital (Free)[article]Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Markovic M.Z.; Hayden K.L.; Murphy J.G.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011The Border Air Quality and Meteorology Study (BAQS-Met) was an intensive, collaborative field campaign during the summer of 2007 that investigated the effects of transboundary pollution, local pollution, and local meteorology on air quality in southwestern Ontario. This analysis focuses on the measurements of the inorganic constituents of particulate matter with diameter of less than 1 μm (PM1), with a specific emphasis on nitrate. We evaluate the ability of AURAMS, Environment Canada's chemical transport model, to represent regional air pollution in SW Ontario by comparing modelled aerosol in ...[article]
The effect of meteorological and chemical factors on the agreement between observations and predictions of fine aerosol composition in southwestern Ontario during BAQS-Met
in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) > Vol. 11. N° 7 [04/01/2011] . - p.3195-3210
The Border Air Quality and Meteorology Study (BAQS-Met) was an intensive, collaborative field campaign during the summer of 2007 that investigated the effects of transboundary pollution, local pollution, and local meteorology on air quality in southwestern Ontario. This analysis focuses on the measurements of the inorganic constituents of particulate matter with diameter of less than 1 μm (PM1), with a specific emphasis on nitrate. We evaluate the ability of AURAMS, Environment Canada's chemical transport model, to represent regional air pollution in SW Ontario by comparing modelled aerosol inorganic chemical composition with measurements from Aerosol Mass Spectrometers (AMS) onboard the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada Twin Otter aircraft and at a ground site in Harrow, ON. The agreement between modelled and measured pNO3− at the ground site (observed mean (Mobs) = 0.50 μg m−3; modelled mean (Mmod) = 0.58 μg m−3; root mean square error (RSME) = 1.27 μg m−3) was better than aloft (Mobs = 0.32 μg m−3; Mmod = 0.09 μg m−3; RSME = 0.48 μg m−3). Possible reasons for discrepancies include errors in (i) emission inventories, (ii) atmospheric chemistry, (iii) predicted meteorological parameters, or (iv) gas/particle thermodynamics in the model framework. Using the inorganic thermodynamics model, ISORROPIA, in an offline mode, we find that the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium is consistent with observations of gas and particle composition at Harrow. We develop a framework to assess the sensitivity of PM1 nitrate to meteorological and chemical parameters and find that errors in both the predictions of relative humidity and free ammonia (FA ≡ NH3(g) + pNH4+ − 2 · pSO42-) are responsible for the poor agreement between modelled and measured values.
Format: Digital (Free)[article]Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 5. Lee S.-H.; Kim S.-W.; Angevine W.M.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011The performance of different urban surface parameterizations in the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) in simulating urban boundary layer (UBL) was investigated using extensive measurements during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006 field campaign. The extensive field measurements collected on surface (meteorological, wind profiler, energy balance flux) sites, a research aircraft, and a research vessel characterized 3-dimensional atmospheric boundary layer structures over the Houston-Galveston Bay area, providing a unique opportunity for the evaluation of the physical parameterizations. The m ...[article]
Evaluation of urban surface parameterizations in the WRF model using measurements during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006 field campaign
in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) > Vol. 11. N° 5 [03/11/2011] . - p.2127-2143
The performance of different urban surface parameterizations in the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) in simulating urban boundary layer (UBL) was investigated using extensive measurements during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006 field campaign. The extensive field measurements collected on surface (meteorological, wind profiler, energy balance flux) sites, a research aircraft, and a research vessel characterized 3-dimensional atmospheric boundary layer structures over the Houston-Galveston Bay area, providing a unique opportunity for the evaluation of the physical parameterizations. The model simulations were performed over the Houston metropolitan area for a summertime period (12–17 August) using a bulk urban parameterization in the Noah land surface model (original LSM), a modified LSM, and a single-layer urban canopy model (UCM). The UCM simulation compared quite well with the observations over the Houston urban areas, reducing the systematic model biases in the original LSM simulation by 1–2 °C in near-surface air temperature and by 200–400 m in UBL height, on average. A more realistic turbulent (sensible and latent heat) energy partitioning contributed to the improvements in the UCM simulation. The original LSM significantly overestimated the sensible heat flux (~200 W m−2) over the urban areas, resulting in warmer and higher UBL. The modified LSM slightly reduced warm and high biases in near-surface air temperature (0.5–1 °C) and UBL height (~100 m) as a result of the effects of urban vegetation. The relatively strong thermal contrast between the Houston area and the water bodies (Galveston Bay and the Gulf of Mexico) in the LSM simulations enhanced the sea/bay breezes, but the model performance in predicting local wind fields was similar among the simulations in terms of statistical evaluations. These results suggest that a proper surface representation (e.g. urban vegetation, surface morphology) and explicit parameterizations of urban physical processes are required for accurate urban atmospheric numerical modeling.
Format: Digital (Free)[article]Atmosphere-ocean, Vol. 49 No.1. McKendry I.G.; Strawbridge K.B.; Jones A. - Canadian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society, 2011CORALNet-UBC was installed in April 2008 as a “proof of concept” and the first facility in a proposed cross-Canada network of similar lidars. Despite its location on the wet West Coast of Canada, data recovery ranged from a low of 45% of the total time in December, when heavy snowfall interrupted operations, to a high of 90% in July. The facility has been a spectacular success in terms of its operational characteristics (as measured by data recovery), the range of phenomena observed and the research that it has spawned. Examples are provided of the types of phenomena observed since its initial ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Sommariva R.; Brown S.S.; Roberts J.M.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011During the Texas Air Quality Study II (TexAQS 2006) campaign, a PEroxy Radical Chemical Amplifier (PERCA) was deployed on the NOAA research vessel R/V Brown to measure total peroxy radicals (HO2+Σ RO2). Day-time mixing ratios of HO2+Σ RO2 between 25 and 110 ppt were observed throughout the study area – the Houston/Galveston region and the Gulf coast of the US – and analyzed in relation to measurements of nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOC) and photolysis rates to assess radical sources and sinks in the region.PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Barletta B.; Nissenson P.; Meinardi S.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011This work presents results from the NASA Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) study. Whole air samples were obtained on board research flights that flew over California during June 2008 and analyzed for selected volatile organic compounds, including several halogenated species. Samples collected over the South Coast Air Basin of California (SoCAB), which includes much of Los Angeles (LA) County, were compared with samples from inflow air masses over the Pacific Ocean. The levels of many halocarbon species were enhanced significantly over t ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. He H.; Tarasick D.W.; Hocking W.K.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Twice-daily ozonesondes were launched from Harrow, in southwestern Ontario, Canada, during the BAQS-Met (Border Air Quality and Meteorology Study) field campaign in June and July of 2007. A co-located radar windprofiler measured tropopause height continuously. These data, in combination with continuous surface ozone measurements and geo-statistical interpolation of satellite ozone observations, present a consistent picture and indicate that a number of significant ozone enhancements in the troposphere were observed that were the result of stratospheric intrusion events. The combined observatio ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Carrio G.G.; Cotton William R. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011This paper examines the feasibility of mitigating the intensity of hurricanes by enhancing the CCN concentrations in the outer rainband region. Increasing CCN concentrations would cause a reduced collision and coalescence, resulting in more supercooled liquid water to be transported aloft which then freezes and enhances convection via enhanced latent heat of freezing. The intensified convection would condense more water ultimately enhancing precipitation in the outer rainbands. Enhanced evaporative cooling from the increased precipitation in the outer rainbands would produce stronger and more ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Bon D.M.; Ulbrich I.M.; de Gouw J.A.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Volatile organic compound (VOC) mixing ratios were measured with two different instruments at the T1 ground site in Mexico City during the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign in March of 2006. A gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) quantified 18 light alkanes, alkenes and acetylene while a proton-transfer-reaction ion-trap mass spectrometer (PIT-MS) quantified 12 VOC species including oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) and aromatics. A GC separation system was used in conjunction with the PIT-MS (GC-PIT-MS) to evaluate PIT-MS measurements an ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Slowik J.G.; Brook J.; Chang R.Y.-W.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011As part of the BAQS-Met 2007 field campaign, Aerodyne time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometers (ToF-AMS) were deployed at two sites in southwestern Ontario from 17 June to 11 July 2007. One instrument was located at Harrow, ON, a rural, agriculture-dominated area approximately 40 km southeast of the Detroit/Windsor/Windsor urban area and 5 km north of Lake Erie. The second instrument was located at Bear Creek, ON, a rural site approximately 70 km northeast of the Harrow site and 50 km east of Detroit/Windsor. Positive matrix factorization analysis of the combined organic mass spectral dataset ...PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; U.S. Department of Commerce ; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) - WMO, 2011World Weather Records (WWR) have been published since 1927, and include monthly mean values of pressure, temperature, precipitation, and where available, station metadata notes documenting observation practices and station configurations. Data were supplied by National Meteorological Services as members of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).PermalinkUNFCCC, 2011The SBI at its 33rd session requested the secretariat to organize, before its thirty-fifth session, a workshop to identify gaps and challenges in the implementation of risk management approaches to the adverse effects of climate change, building on the lessons learned and practical experience of international, regional and national organizations and the private sector.PermalinkPermalinkThe Japanese Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT), the Dutch Rijkswaterstaat, the United Kingdom Environment Agency, and the United States Army Corps of Engineers agreed in 2009 to develop a document to explore risk-informed approaches as being practiced and developed primarily in those four countries. This document, the result of that collaboration, reflects contributions from agencies within the four participating nations but is not an official position of any government or international organization. It is organized around a conceptual framework developed to encomp ...PermalinkNations Unies, 2011PermalinkUnited Nations, 2011This report (available in English and French), summarizes the efforts undertaken by the United Nations system and its partners, in support to the Haitian people and their government, to answer the multiple humanitarian crises, to accompany the electoral calendar and to advance on the road to recovery.PermalinkWorld Bank, 2011This adaptation coalition toolkit was developed to promote the strategic empowerment of people by creating more inclusive, cohesive, and accountable societies in the face of climate change. Its purpose is to guide facilitating groups or teams of development practitioners in pursuing participatory collaboration with communities to research and implement adaptation coalitions to assist the locality in adapting to the local manifestations of climate change and facilitate the adaptation of vulnerable communities.
The framework for this toolkit was developed from testing its implementation ...PermalinkThis book presents lessons to be learned from Haiti with the aim of improving the health sector’s response in major, sudden-onset disasters in the future. It also identifies opportunities provided by the disaster for making significant changes in health services in Haiti. One of the key lessons of the Haiti tragedy is that coordination can only be effective where national authorities are equipped to assume leadership and establish relief and recovery priorities.PermalinkThe Met.Office, 2011Understanding the potential impacts of climate change is essential for informing both adaptation strategies and actions to avoid dangerous levels of climate change.
But assessing the impacts is scientifically challenging and has, until now, been fragmented. To date, only a limited amount of information about past climate change and its future impacts has been available at national level, while approaches to the science itself have varied between countries.
In April 2011, we were asked by the United Kingdom's Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change to begi ...PermalinkTypically, climate change is described in terms of average changes in temperature or precipitation, but most of the social and economic costs associated with climate change will result from shifts in the frequency and severity of extreme events. This fact is illustrated by a large number of costly weather disasters in 2010, which tied 2005 as the warmest year globally since 1880. Incidentally, both years were noted for exceptionally damaging weather events, such as Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the deadly Russian heat wave in 2010. Other remarkable events of 2010 include Pakistan’s bigge ...PermalinkThis paper constructs an integrated assessment model of tropical cyclones in order to quantify the impact that climate change may have on tropical cyclone damages in countries around the world. The paper relies on a tropical cyclone generator in each ocean and several climate models to predict tropical cyclones with and without climate change. A damage model is constructed to compute the resulting damage when a cyclone strikes each country. Economic development is expected to double global tropical cyclone damages because more will be in harm's way. Climate change is expected to double global ...PermalinkThe increased pressures on the world’s natural resources and ecological systems in the past century, has been accompanied by rapid urban population growth. Urban centres themselves have ecological reputations since they drive unsustainable environmental change, rapidly increasing the use of fossil fuels and carbon dioxide emissions due to increasing per capita consumption levels. They also lead to high levels of resource use and waste generation, causing serious ecological consequences locally, regionally and globally, especially in terms of climate change. However, addressing the issue of urb ...PermalinkThe focus of this report is the nearshore zone, the vital ecological link between watersheds, tributaries, wetlands, groundwater, and offshore waters of the Great Lakes. Most people live in the nearshore and get their drinking water from this zone. The nearshore also supports critical habitat for fish, invertebrate and wildlife populations. Beach losings, nuisance algal growth, the establishment of alien invasive species, and habitat loss are just some of the troublesome developments in the nearshore that act as harbingers of future changes in offshore waters. A revised Agreement should be ...PermalinkIn response to the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO), the National Research Council appointed a committee operating under the auspices of the Naval Studies Board to study the national security implications of climate change for U.S. naval forces. In conducting his study, the committee found that even the most moderate current trends in climate, if continued, will present new national security challenges for the U.S. Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard. While the timing, degree, and consequences of future climate change impacts remain uncertain, many changes are already underway in regions around ...PermalinkECLAC, 2005-[...], 2011The Yearbook covers demographic, social, economic issues; it also provides data on natural resources and environment.PermalinkPermalinkIDB, 2011Este documento contiene los indicadores de riesgos de desastres y gestión del riesgo calculados para El Salvador (IDD, IVP, IDL e IGR) según la metodología desarrollada por el Banco. Este documento se refiere forma el Sistema de Indicadores cubre diferentes perspectivas de la problemática de riesgos de El Salvador y tiene en cuenta aspectos como: condiciones de daño o pérdidas potenciales debido a la probabilidad de eventos extremos, desastres o efectos sufridos de manera recurrente, condiciones socio-ambientales que facilitan que se presenten desastres, capacidad de recuperación macroeconómic ...PermalinkDans son 15e Rapport biennal sur la qualité de l'eau dans les Grands Lacs, la Commission formule 32 recommandations d'actions à mettre en ouvre par les autorités fédérales, étatiques, provinciales et locales. Les recommandations soulignent, en particulier, le besoin pour les États-Unis et le Canada d'approuver une version réviséé de l'Accord relatif à la qualité de l'eau dans les Grands Lacs qui traite des menaces pouvant peser sur la qualité de l'eau, afin d'en prévenir ou d'en réduire l'impact sur la santé humaine et la santé écologique.PermalinkThe purpose of climate monitoring is to collect relevant,
inter-comparable data over sustained periods of time so as
to allow quantification of change within a system for
decision-making purposes. This is the motivation of the
“Canada’s Three Oceans” (C3O) project, a Canadian
contribution to the International Polar Year (IPY: 2007–
2009). C3O aims to (1) build an integrated, consilient view
of the physical, chemical and biological oceanic structure
of subarctic and arctic waters around Canada; and (2) use
this informati ...PermalinkThis study examined the relationship between the boreal spring (April-May) Antarctic Oscillation (AAO) and the North American summer monsoon (NASM) (July-September) for the period of 1979-2008. The results show that these two systems are closely related. When the spring AAO was stronger than normal, the NASM tended to be weaker, and there was less rainfall over the monsoon region. The opposite NASM situation corresponded to a weaker spring AAO. Further analysis explored the possible mechanism for the delayed impact of the boreal spring AAO on the NASM. It was found that the tropical Atlantic s ...PermalinkGRID Arendal, 2010Climate change – its causes, its global consequences and the magnitude of its expected effects on both ecosystems and human activities – will be one of the greatest challenges of this century. It will significantly alter current patterns of production, distribution and consumption, as well as the overall lifestyles of modern societies. During the present century, countries will be compelled to deal with two simultaneous challenges: adapting to the new climate conditions and working to mitigate them. This will require an international agreement that recognizes historical, but differentiated, re ...PermalinkIn the context of the EU 2010 goal of halting biodiversity loss, researchers have been called upon to evaluate the role of economic instruments for cost-effective decision-making, as well as non-market methods to assess their benefits. This paper reviews a number of methodological challenges of evaluating and designing economic instruments aimed at biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services provision in an existing policy mix. The study draws on experiences from Brazil and Costa Rica.PermalinkPermalinkThis report summarizes the science of climate change and the impacts of climate change on the United States, now and in the future. It is largely based on results of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), and integrates those results with related research from around the world. This report discusses climate-related impacts for various societal and environmental sectors and regions of the nation. It is an authoritative scientific report written in plain language, with the goal of better informing public and private decision making of better informing public and private decision maki ...PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP); International Council for Science (ICSU); et al. - WMO, 2009 (WMO/TD-No. 1490)PermalinkPermalinkThe manual describes procedure for estimating the maximum probable precipitation and the maximum probable flood. This is the third revised version.
The first and second editions of this manual were published in 1973 and 1986, respectively. The current edition keeps a majority of the content from the second edition. Newly added content in this third edition primarily results from experiences, since 1986, in directly estimating PMP for the requirements of a given project in a design watershed on probable maximum flood (PMF) in China, the United States of America, Australia and India.PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) - WMO, 2009 (WMO/TD-No. 1476)PermalinkPermalinkis an issue of Exchanges. International CLIVAR Project Office, 2008PermalinkGlobal Climate Observing System (GCOS) ; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC); Climate changes Spatial Planning (CcSP) - 2008PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP); International Council for Science (ICSU); et al. - WMO, 2008 (WMO/TD-No. 1424)PermalinkIUCN, 2008This book follows applications of the Ecosystem Approach over a 5-10 year period in five locations. Key findings include the vital importance of a full stakeholder analysis, of market analysis and of the promotion of institutional evolution.PermalinkThe Finnish Government and the World Meteorological Organization officially launched the SIDSCaribbean Project in November 2000. The Project, initially planned to last three years, was based on the campus of the Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology in Barbados and included Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles and Aruba, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Saint Lucia, Trinidad and Tobago, and Turks and Caicos Islands.
The aim of the project ...PermalinkModeling the geographical distribution of the phase and amplitude of the diurnal change is a challenging problem. This paper addresses the issues of modeling the diurnal mode of precipitation over the Tropics. Largely an early morning precipitation maximum over the oceans and an afternoon rainfall maximum over land areas describe the first-order diurnal variability. However, large variability in phase and amplitude prevails even within the land and oceanic areas. This paper addresses the importance of a multimodel superensemble for much improved prediction of the diurnal mode as compared to wh ...PermalinkThe socio-economic growth of Mexico and the well being of its people have been closely tied to water resources availability and development. Considering the recent rapid growth in population and economic activity, as well as the increasing difficulties in developing new water resources –a large part of the country is either arid or semi-arid– Mexico will continue to be confronted with major critical challenges in the management of its water resources. To address some of these challenges, the Modernization of Water Resources Management Programme (Programa de Modernización del Manejo del Agua – ...PermalinkNew Economics Foundation, 2006This report is an in depth analysis of the impacts of changes wrought by climate change and anthropogenic factors in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) and the responses of the communities, organisations and governments to these changes. Data on the economic and social impact of climate associated natural disasters such as hurricanes and droughts is presented for countries affected. Besides the negative impacts however, numerous case studies are shared in which local success stories are demonstrated. The overall theme of the document is one of adaptation with strong emphasis on the need for ...PermalinkCONAGUA, 2006The National Water Program puts forward the present status of Mexico’s water resources, reviewing the historical evolution of aspects such as water quantity, quality, uses, and their effects. It also analyzes possible long-term scenarios, and defines the vision of the water sector we aim to achieve, the objectives and goals to be met during this period, and the strategies and lines of action that will allow us to progress towards concrete and positive results.Permalink