The World Meteorological Organization dispatched an expert mission to Mozambique to assess the requirements and capabilities of the National Institute of Meteorology (INAM) and the National Directorate of Water Resources Management (DNGRH) and their coordination with the National Disaster Management Institute (INGC) for an End-to-End Multi-Hazard Early Warning System in the context of disaster risk management. The results of the mission should inform plans and investments in strengthening the Early Warning System and disaster risk management in the country, particularly during reconstruction t ...Published by: WMO ; 2019
Reducing vulnerability to extreme hydro-meteorological hazards in Mozambique after Cyclone IDAI: WMO mission report following tropical cyclone IDAI (29 April–7 May 2019)
The World Meteorological Organization dispatched an expert mission to Mozambique to assess the requirements and capabilities of the National Institute of Meteorology (INAM) and the National Directorate of Water Resources Management (DNGRH) and their coordination with the National Disaster Management Institute (INGC) for an End-to-End Multi-Hazard Early Warning System in the context of disaster risk management. The results of the mission should inform plans and investments in strengthening the Early Warning System and disaster risk management in the country, particularly during reconstruction to ensure building back better and overall strengthening of resilience.
Format: Digital (Free)This lesson introduces forecasters to the physical processes and impacts of tropical cyclone storm surge. It provides an overview of the factors that affect storm surge, how it is measured, and the limitations associated with storm surge data. This online lesson is part of the Tropical Cyclone Storm Surge: Forecasting and Communication course.Published by: The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research ; 2015
This lesson introduces forecasters to the physical processes and impacts of tropical cyclone storm surge. It provides an overview of the factors that affect storm surge, how it is measured, and the limitations associated with storm surge data. This online lesson is part of the Tropical Cyclone Storm Surge: Forecasting and Communication course.
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Format: Digital (Standard Copyright)The Policy Brief is primarily aimed at a human rights audience, and intends to both inform human rights policymakers and provide guidance on how international human rights law, institutions and mechanisms might contribute to more effective, just and sustainable policy responses (at the international and national levels) to climate change and crossborder displacement.
It reflects primary and secondary research; the outcome of a meeting during the 25th session of the Human Rights Council (the Council) on the ‘human rights implications of displacement in the context of disasters’ o ...Published by: Universal Rights Group (URG) ; 2015
Human rights, climate change and cross-border displacement: the role of the international human rights community in contributing to effective and just solutions
The Policy Brief is primarily aimed at a human rights audience, and intends to both inform human rights policymakers and provide guidance on how international human rights law, institutions and mechanisms might contribute to more effective, just and sustainable policy responses (at the international and national levels) to climate change and crossborder displacement.
It reflects primary and secondary research; the outcome of a meeting during the 25th session of the Human Rights Council (the Council) on the ‘human rights implications of displacement in the context of disasters’ organised by the URG, the Nansen Initiative on Disaster-Induced Cross-Border Displacement (the Nansen Initiative) and the Governments of Costa Rica, Norway and Switzerland; and a range of interviews with state delegates, and other stakeholders, dealing with human rights, climate change and displacement.
Part I describes past progress, driven by the international human rights community, to establish and leverage the relationship between human rights and climate change, and explains key contemporary debates as well as challenges to further progress. Part II looks at the particular case of cross-border displacement in the context of climate change and disasters, which has often been raised as an issue of concern in the Council but has never been grasped in a meaningful way. Part III offers ideas and recommendations for future action.
Format: Digital (Free)
ISBN (or other code): 978-2-9700961-5-3This research paper explores the ‘atlas of the locally adopted strategies’ to cope with adverse effects of cyclone Aila in southwest coastal Bangladesh. Particularly, this research has explored the community level practices in agriculture, housing, water resources, communication and employment generations. An empirical survey was undertaken with 145 respondents by using semi-structured interviews with selected social groups and their households’ assistants. Besides face-to-face interviews, this survey applied group level qualitative assessment methods i.e. FGD (focus group discussion), Social ...Published by: Science and Education Publishing (SciEP) ; 2015
Adaptation strategies after cyclone in southwest coastal Bangladesh, pro poor policy choices: In American Journal of Rural Development, Vol. 3, No. 2
This research paper explores the ‘atlas of the locally adopted strategies’ to cope with adverse effects of cyclone Aila in southwest coastal Bangladesh. Particularly, this research has explored the community level practices in agriculture, housing, water resources, communication and employment generations. An empirical survey was undertaken with 145 respondents by using semi-structured interviews with selected social groups and their households’ assistants. Besides face-to-face interviews, this survey applied group level qualitative assessment methods i.e. FGD (focus group discussion), Social Domain Analyses, and In-depth Interviews to collect the data.
Format: Digital (Free)Elsevier, 2015This study identifies and addresses key challenges concerning monitoring and evaluation (M&E) for climate change adaptation (CCA).
It documents good practices and good practice principles on the development, selection, and use of indicators used in the M&E of adaptation interventions. The study also looks at the steps and contexts M&E personnel should consider when formulating, selecting, adjusting, and/or using indicators. The study also identifies common themes in the literature and gaps in data – including the role of learning in an adaptation M&E system and the identificatio ...Published by: Elsevier ; 2015
The Disaster-Knowledge Matrix – Reframing and evaluating the knowledge challenges in disaster risk reduction: In International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, Volume 13, September 2015
This study identifies and addresses key challenges concerning monitoring and evaluation (M&E) for climate change adaptation (CCA).
It documents good practices and good practice principles on the development, selection, and use of indicators used in the M&E of adaptation interventions. The study also looks at the steps and contexts M&E personnel should consider when formulating, selecting, adjusting, and/or using indicators. The study also identifies common themes in the literature and gaps in data – including the role of learning in an adaptation M&E system and the identification of linkages (or lack thereof) between indicators and policy formulation and decisions.
It argues that CA M&E has a central role to play in shaping the future of adaptation planning, activities, and policy and that the lessons can help orient the strategic direction of adaptation funding/development assistance, and can be integrated into national action plans and shared directly with beneficiaries.
This report was prepared by Climate-Eval, a community of practice hosted by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) Independent Evaluation Office.
Format: Digital (Free)The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 outlines seven clear targets and four priorities for action to prevent new and reduce existing disaster risks: (i) Understanding disaster risk; (ii) Strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk; (iii) Investing in disaster reduction for resilience and; (iv) Enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response, and to "Build Back Better" in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction. It aims to achieve the substantial reduction of disaster risk and losses in lives, livelihoods and health and in the economic, physica ...PermalinkNepal - Government, 2015The report presents a comprehensive post disaster needs assessment exercise, launched simultaneously with response and relief efforts at the request of the Government of Nepal, with the objective to estimate damages and losses caused by the earthquake and to help identify recovery needs as well as strategy required for its implementation. The assessment exercise was led by the National Planning Commission (NPC) with assistance of more than 250 national and international experts who worked round the clock to produce this assessment covering 23 sectors in less than one month.PermalinkThis paper provides an overview of the literature on case studies on planned relocations. For that purpose, it reviews 38 documents, which present case studies on planned relocations.
The main focus of the study lies on case studies focusing on the first and second category of relocations (1. in anticipation of disasters, environmental change, and/or the effects of climate change, and 2. as a response to disasters, environmental change, and/or the effects of climate change), which this paper will call anticipatory and reactive relocations.
The paper provides an ov ...PermalinkSciaccaluga Giovanni; International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) - IFRC, 2015The book offers a critique of the dominant trends in thinking about adaptation and climate change, particularly social dimensions.
It presents a framework for making sense of choices around resilience (stability), transition (incremental social change and the exercising of existing rights) and transformation (new rights claims and changes in political regimes).
The resilience– transition–transformation framework is supported by three detailed case study chapters. These also illustrate the diversity of contexts in which adaption is unfolding, from organisations to ...PermalinkAlliance Development Works ; United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS) - UNU, 2014This WorldRiskReport (WRR) consists of an index, a priority topic and case studies. The index describes the disaster risk for various countries and regions. The WorldRiskReport was developed in close cooperation between scientists and practitioners. Combined expertise, i.e. scientific structure and procedure and practical competence distinguish this report from comparable academic studies.PermalinkThe Vulnerability Sourcebook sourcebook provides a standardised approach to vulnerability assessments covering a broad range of sectors and topics (e.g. water sector, agriculture, fisheries, different ecosystems) as well as different spatial levels (community, sub-national, national) and time horizons (e.g. current vulnerability or vulnerability in the medium- to long-term). It refers to vulnerability as ‘the degree to which a system is susceptible to, and unable to cope with, adverse effects of climate change, including climate variability and extremes. Vulnerability is a function of the char ...PermalinkThe anticipated changes in water availability, temperature rise, soil degradation and the suggested increase in extreme weather events are likely to greatly affect agriculture in India. This paper aims to develop the vulnerability profile of agricultural systems of the Indian states to the changing climate scenarios. It develops two sub indices: Bio-Physical vulnerability index and Socio-Economic vulnerability index to develop the final overall vulnerability index.
The contribution of agriculture to India’s GDP has been declining over recent years, but agriculture still provides employm ...PermalinkUN/ISDR, 2013The proceedings of the Fourth Session of the Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction highlight the four days of deliberations, discussions and presentations via various forums, which called for a shared vision and commitment for the next 30 years – a trans-generational compact for the sustainability of development. This Session generated critical and substantive advice for the preparation of the post-2015 framework for disaster risk reduction, commonly called “HFA2”, and for the Third World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction, which will take place Sendai City, Miyagi Prefecture in March ...PermalinkUN/ISDR, 2013This post-2015 framework for disaster risk reduction background paper is being developed based on five sub-regional studies conducted by UNISDR on this issues of vulnerability with specific reference to gender in the Asia Pacific Region, and the consultations conducted by the Stakeholder Group on Gender and Women’s Issues, UNISDR Asia Partnership (IAP).
The paper was reviewed by the Asia Pacific Regional Coordination Mechanism Thematic Working Group on Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (RCM TWG-GEEW), and shared with the UN Gender Group in the Pacific and the Pacific ...PermalinkYCI, 2013This report summarizes lessons learnt from the Y Care International supported Sierra Leone YMCA project to carry out a disaster risk reduction (DRR) pilot project in two urban slum communities of Freetown in 2012. The project is a good example of youth participation in DRR, collaboration with other agencies, and learning through research on youth volunteerism. The aim of this pilot project was to learn the best ways of reducing the risk of disasters such as flooding and cholera in urban slum communities of Freetown through involving young people in preparing for, carrying out activities to red ...PermalinkThis case study asserts that indigenous knowledge plays an important role in the way communities interact with their climate in many countries, particularly in Bolivia. It contributes to weather forecasting at the community level, and to the preservation of vital ecosystem functions that help to buffer communities against climate change impacts. However, the increasing incidence of extreme weather events and disasters is taking a toll. This situation calls for new partnerships between indigenous people and the scientific community – an area where Bolivia could lead the way.PermalinkUtrecht University, 2013This report explores the need for a shift in flood risk management strategies (FRMSs), such as risk prevention, flood defense, mitigation, preparation and recovery, in order to create a more resilient Europe, and the governance challenges which such a shift in FRMSs may pose to society. The aim of this report is to identify questions for further research.
This report is the second in a series of four which were compiled by the STAR-FLOOD project.PermalinkACT, 2013This paper presents ACT Alliance's position on the post 2015 framework for disaster risk reduction. Asserting that disaster risk reduction can only be effective through participatory and coordinated action by the affected people, civil society organizations and governments, it introduces some questions that need to be discussed: (i) recognising the impact of everyday disasters on lives, livelihoods and assets; (ii) prioritising the most at risk, poorest and marginalised people; (iii) tackling the underlying cause of people’s vulnerability to disasters; (iv) mobilising political commitment by f ...PermalinkAIDMI, 2013This statement offers a brief overview of how All India Disaster Mitigation Institute’s (AIDMI) humanitarian and risk reduction initiatives and their results have contributed to the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) goals and how they can help shape the post-2015 development agenda from the bottom-up.PermalinkThis report shows the relationship of specific activities to the five priorities for action of the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) and the strategic objectives governing them. It reveals the overall connection of national efforts to the expectations of the HFA and makes clear the significance of the progress that has been made since 2005, as described in voluntary self-reporting from countries and regional organizations. The report: (i) highlights some catalysts that engender progress in disaster risk reduction (DRR); (ii) presents an overview provided by individual countries regarding progre ...PermalinkCEPAL, 2012Este documento es el primero de una serie de textos que se han elaborado en el marco del Estudio regional de los efectos del cambio climático en la costa de América Latina y el Caribe. La zona de estudio comprende una longitud total de costa de aproximadamente 72.182 km distribuidos en cuatro zonas geográficas: Norteamérica, Centroamérica, Sudamérica y las Islas del Caribe. En el dominio de estudio se han analizado los cambios detectados en las dinámicas costeras, la influencia de la variabilidad climática, información diversa sobre la vulnerabilidad presente en las costas de la región, abarca ...PermalinkThis review analyses some of the major events and trends related to natural disasters and humanitarian disaster response and looks at the experience of developed countries with natural disasters in 2011. Highlighting evidences from the Japanese earthquake-tsunami-nuclear accident, the earthquake in Christchurch, New Zealand, floods in Australia, and tornadoes, hurricanes and drought in the United States, it reminds that natural hazards affect all regions of the world and even rich countries have much to learn about both disaster risk reduction and disaster response.
The review ...PermalinkUNU, 2012The WorldRiskIndex seeks answers to the following questions: How probable is an extreme natural event, and will it affect people?
How vulnerable are the people to the natural hazards? To what extent can societies cope with acute disasters? Is a society taking preventive measures to face natural hazards to be reckoned with in the future?PermalinkFernandez Rogelio; Sanahuj Haris; United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT); et al. - UN/ISDR, 2012This document presents an analysis of the connections among population dynamics, urbanization processes and disaster risk reduction. Amongst the main findings are that public policies should increase governance and guide urban sustainable development in order to anticipate future levels of exposure, by enhancing land-use plans, climate change adaptation strategies and considering disaster risk management.PermalinkThis report presents the activities to reduce disaster risk as implemented under the Community-based Disaster Risk Reduction (CBDRR) programme between 2005 and 2011 by the Bangladesh Red Crescent Society. It is structured in three sections: (i) Section A reviews the background of the programme and the evaluation; (ii) section B includes the key findings, relating to relevance, effectiveness, impact, efficiency and sustainability; and (iii) section C presents the implications of those findings.PermalinkThis publication aims to raise awareness on the importance of gender equality and women’s empowerment. It aims to tell the story behind the larger issues and show the visible force behind lasting change. For example, how a girl saved her father’s life from drowning; how a woman is devoting all her time and energy into teaching ethnic minority children how to better protect themselves; how girls express their concerns for an uncertain future in their own innovative way; how working with women in disaster preparedness and response can achieve better results, and through many more truly inspirati ...PermalinkThe primary conviction of this report is driven by a concern that people’s exposure and vulnerability, experienced individually and collectively, continue to be twin challenges for the Asia-Pacific region. Faced with growing economic losses and increasingly vulnerable populations, this report has analyzed the drivers of risks and the strategies that are in place to deal with the growing risks.
The report has pursued three primary questions that all dedicated collaborators in the region need to join, “How do they and the people with whom they work understand the disaster risks in ...PermalinkTo mark International day for Disaster Risk reduction (IDDR) 2012, Oxfam has published a new collection of programme insights papers bringing together experiences, lessons and good practice from Oxfam and its partners work in emergencies and on disaster risk reduction (DRR). As the number and complexity of hazards and disasters are increasing rapidly, and with the ample evidence that women and girls are often more vulnerable to disasters than men and boys, the series features five case studies on gender and DRR or humanitarian programming in DR Congo, Pakistan, Indonesia, Vietnam and Kenya. Th ...PermalinkCCAFS, 2012The document attempts to distil what is currently known about the likely impacts of climate change on the commodities and natural resources that comprise the mandate of CGIAR and its 15 Centres. It was designed as one background document for a review carried out by the High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition (HLPE) at the behest of the UN Committee on World Food Security (CFS) on what is known about the likely effects of climate change on food security and nutrition, with a focus on the most affected and vulnerable regions and populations. A total of 25 summaries covering 22 ...PermalinkODI, 2012This Background Note discusses potential indicators and targets for including a specific goal on disaster resilience in the post-2015 development framework, as well as considering the opportunities for building disaster resilience into indicators for other sector goals, and what these might be.
It looks at how to measure these, what baselines exist and whether data are available. It also examines some of the opportunities and challenges, such as options for including humanitarian assistance within a new framework.
It concludes by setting out criteria that can be u ...PermalinkDARA, 2012The Climate Vulnerability Monitor 2nd Edition reveals that climate change has already held back global development and inaction is a leading global cause of death. Harm is most acute for poor and vulnerable groups but no country is spared either the costs of inaction or the benefits of an alternative path.
Commissioned by the world’s most vulnerable countries and backed by high-level and technical panels, the new Monitor estimates human and economic impacts of climate change and the carbon economy for 184 countries in 2010 and 2030, across 34 indicators.PermalinkThis Report focuses on the notion of prosperity and its realisation in urban areas. It calls for a new type of city – one that: (i) is more 'people-centred;' (ii) includes vital dimensions such as quality of life, adequate infrastructures, equity and environmental sustainability; (iii) reduces disaster risks and vulnerabilities for the poor; (iv) builds resilience; (v) creates harmony; and (vi) promotes prosperity; and stimulates local job creation and social diversity. It recommends that those engaged in development work need to explore a more inclusive notion of prosperity and development.PermalinkAIDMI, 2012This document evaluates the design of the eight missions of India's National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC), which were created to advance India's development and define its approach to climate mitigation and adaptation: (i) National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture; (ii) National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency; (iii) National Mission for a Green India; (iv) National Mission on Sustainable Habitat; (v) National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem; (vi) National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change; (vii) National Solar Mission; and (viii) National Wate ...PermalinkThis report demonstrates that shortage of food is only part of the severe and life-threatening crisis facing children in the Sahel region of west Africa in 2012. It focuses in particular on the experience of children, and makes detailed recommendations around disaster risk reduction, nutrition, and social protection to build resilience. The report also addresses the urgent need for political ambition to change the international system and end the everyday emergencies.PermalinkHayden Jacqueline; Cologon Kathy; Asia-Pacific Regional Network for Early Childhood (ARNEC); et al. - ARNEC, 2012This guidebook provides background information on Early Childhood Development (ECD) and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), and sets out processes for assessing the capacity and needs at community levels to further identify future steps to improve ECD in DRR. Furthermore, it addresses the vulnerability faced by children and the efforts to mitigate underlying causes of these vulnerabilities. Beyond national and international, policy and political issues, DRR occurs within communities and at the programme level. DRR processes and activities have the potential to address the special needs of young chi ...PermalinkThis paper reviews the role of climate change vulnerability in identifying least developed countries (LDCs). Taking a sustainable development perspective, it argues that climate change should be seen as an aggravating factor of existing handicaps and many indicators used to identify LDCs already capture relevant structural vulnerabilities to climate change. However, the paper proposes some refinements in the LDC criteria to better capture vulnerabilities from natural disasters and in coastal areas. These refinements affected the vulnerability ranking in the recent triennial review, but had no ...PermalinkThis study aims to understand the extent to which refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) have perceived, experienced and responded to climatic variability and long-term negative climatic change in the east and Horn of Africa. The report is based on discussions with 150 IDPs and refugees from Ethiopia and Uganda, many of whom were farmers and pastoralists from Eritrea, Somalia and eastern Sudan. Key findings include: many of the refugees interviewed had perceived discernible shifts in weather in their home countries over the past 10 to 15 years; where movement away from homelands was ...PermalinkFernandez Rogelio; Sanahuj Haris; United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT); et al. - UN/ISDR, 2012PermalinkBulletin, Vol. 60 (1). WMO, 2011PermalinkAlam M.; Asian Institute of Technology ; International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) - Adaptation Knowledge Platform, 2011This report presents the findings of desktop research that examined the extent to which Southeast Asian countries are prepared for anticipated climate change impacts. It is divided into separate country profiles and includes analysis of the following countries: Lao PDR, Viet Nam, the Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, Cambodia, Union of Myanmar and Malaysia. Each profile describes an individual country’s attributes, anticipated climate change impacts, vulnerability, necessary adaptation measures and cross-sectoral institutional settings. Each profile concludes with a summary of key gaps, constr ...Permalink, 2011The aim of the workshops was to identify, compile and analyze relevant indigenous and local observations, knowledge and practices related to understanding climate change impacts, adaptation and mitigation. The workshops will provide a key opportunity to ensure that experience, sources of information and knowledge (scientific, indigenous and local), along with data and literature (scientific and grey), focusing on vulnerable and marginalized regions of the world are made available to the authors of the IPCC 5th Assessment Report and the global community.PermalinkTypologies are a systematic grouping of entities or units of interest based on similarity. Typologies are widely applied in a variety of domains of research and practice including natural resource management, agriculture, health, marketing and development. They are used mainly to reduce complexity in the domain of concern to improve understanding and communication, detect patterns, aid decisions, prioritise and allocate resources, and tailor a variety of activities, strategies and processes. In this paper, we assess the current use of typologies within the realm of climate vulnerability assess ...PermalinkThis paper explores the reduction of food insecurity in Bolivia, adopting a supply side approach that analyzes the role of agricultural spending on vulnerability. Vulnerability to food insecurity is captured by a municipal level composite—developed locally within the framework of World Food Program food security analysis—that combines welfare outcomes, weather conditions and agricultural potential for all 327 municipalities in 2003, 2006 and 2007. Our econometric results indicate that levels of public agricultural spending are positively associated with high or very high vulnerability. The aut ...PermalinkAtmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters, Volume 3 Number 6. Tan Xiao-Wei; Wang Dong-Liang - Science Press, 2010Conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation (CNOP) obtained by the ensemble-based calculation method is employed to find possible sensitive areas for improving 48-h or more than 48-h tropical cyclone (TC) track predictions in several cases affecting China in 2007. These sensitive areas are examined by observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs). Results show that these sensitive areas improve TC track predictions for 48 h or more to different extents. Further analysis is performed to determine the distribution characteristics of sensitive areas in these cases. Results show that areas south ...PermalinkOne of the most spectacular aspects of the climate agenda has been the emergence of carbon markets. This paper demonstrates that the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) provides an opportunity for developing countries, including South Asian countries, to participate in carbon markets.
The document underlines that certified emissions reductions (CER) from CDM projects in developing countries can be used to meet reduction commitments in developed countries. However, excluding India, South Asian countries have been shy to invest in promoting CDM, and CDM projects in the region have f ...PermalinkUSAID, 2010This report discusses the climate change adaptation needs of the Asia-Pacific region; it was undertaken in order to inform USAID’s Regional Development Mission for Asia (RDMA). The report’s analysis is based on stakeholder consultations and literature reviews. It focuses on 19 countries: Cambodia, China, Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Laos, Maldives, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Mongolia, Nepal, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Thailand, Timor Leste, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Vanuatu and Vietnam. The report begins by outlining vulnerability and adaptation priorities in the region. Whil ...Permalink"The eco-region of Sundarbans is unique and fragile because it is one of the most extensive mangrove forests in the world. This report describes the Sundarbans region and the impacts of climate change using evidence from the people who live there, scientific data, and efforts to address the problems of the imminent threats and vulnerabilities to this fragile ecosystem."
Source: eldis.orgPermalinkThe International Workshop on Addressing the Livelihood Crisis of Farmers: Weather and Climate Services is taking place at a time when there is a growing concern about livelihoods of over 500 million smallholder farmers around the world coupled with the increasing climate variability and future climate change. The world population is projected to grow from 6.5 billion today to 8.3 billion in 2030 and nearly 9.2 billion in 2050. All of that growth will be concentrated in developing countries. Global food production will therefore need to increase by more than 50% by 2030, and should nearly doub ...PermalinkUNDP, 2010This guidebook assists planners working at the sub-national levels to identify and map the nature of current and future vulnerability to long-term climate change so that appropriate policies and intervention can be designed and implemented.PermalinkHuman activity is expanding in the Arctic marine environment, in part due to warming ocean temperatures and the dramatic loss of summer sea ice. New and expanding human uses include fishing, shipping and offshore oil and gas development. All have the potential to place major additional stress on ocean ecosystems which are already undergoing profound change related to warming, sea ice loss, and alterations in ocean chemistry.
Because activities conducted in one nation's waters can affect other parts of the region, effective management of some human uses in the Arctic marine environmen ...Permalink