The project was implemented by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in collaboration with the National Meteorological Services of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Chad, Côte d´Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo with funds provided by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Norwegian Government but also by the Government of Greece and minor contributions from AEMET (Spain), EUMETSAT and WMO regular budget.Published by: WMO ; 2019
The project was implemented by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in collaboration with the National Meteorological Services of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Chad, Côte d´Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo with funds provided by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Norwegian Government but also by the Government of Greece and minor contributions from AEMET (Spain), EUMETSAT and WMO regular budget.
Format: Digital (Free)The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) defined that the suitability is a function of crop climate requirements and land characteristics and it is a measure of how will the qualities of land unit matches the requirements of a particular form of land use. The aim of this research is to improve maize production in the lowlands of Lesotho, this is one of the agro-ecological zones with the most arable land and good soils so it is best to determine the suitability of each crop across this region. This will be achieved by quantitatively and qualitatively looking at the climate conditions require ...Published by: Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology ; 2019
The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) defined that the suitability is a function of crop climate requirements and land characteristics and it is a measure of how will the qualities of land unit matches the requirements of a particular form of land use. The aim of this research is to improve maize production in the lowlands of Lesotho, this is one of the agro-ecological zones with the most arable land and good soils so it is best to determine the suitability of each crop across this region. This will be achieved by quantitatively and qualitatively looking at the climate conditions required by maize and also looking at the physio-chemical soil properties that suffices for the maximum production of the crop.
Climatic potential of maize under dryland farming in the lowlands of Lesotho was investigated using five climatic suitability indices namely: probability of receiving heat units of greater than 1320GDD, probability of a frost-free growing season, probability of seasonal rainfall of more than 650mm and the slope of an area. Also the physio-chemical properties of the soils found in the area of study were investigated looking at 6 soil parameters (pH, porosity, permeability, infiltration, organic matter, moisture equivalence) which are crucial to maize growth. For each of the above parameters a coverage layer was prepared in GIS environment and the layers were overlaid to obtain the agro-climatic suitability map of maize in the lowlands of Lesotho. Weighted overlay method is used for suitability analysis. The spatial analysis show that suitable soils are distributed throughout the whole lowlands but they are highly concentrated in the middle parts of the lowlands and with water requirement, the north-most part of the lowlands is highly suitable while the central part is moderately suitable.
The overall maize suitability in the lowlands of Lesotho indicate that 45.7% of the area is moderately suitable and this are concentrated in the middle to northern lowlands. 49.3% of the lowlands are found to be suitable for maize growth and are distributed throughout the whole lowlands but with the highest concentration in the north-most parts. Of the 5% remaining only 4.3% is highly suitable and it some area in the central part of Maseru near Moshoeshoe-I station.
Future projections show that there will be an improvement of growing degree days across the whole lowlands due to an increase in temperature but as of water requirement satisfaction there is a notable change of reduction especially in Mafeteng and Moshoeshoe-I this is due to reduction in annual accumulated rainfall, this is the case for both two (RCP 4.5, RCP 4.5) scenarios undertaken in this study.
Notes: If you wish to download the full text, please contact library(at)wmo.int (Please replace (at) by @).
Format: DigitalThe METAGRI project was implemented by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in collaboration with the National Meteorological Services of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Côte d´Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo with funds provided by the State Meteorological Agency of Spain (AEMET).
WMO and AEMET agreed to launch a project on Agrometeorology to support West African Agriculture following the October 2007 Conference of Directors of National Meteorological and Hydrological Services of West Africa. ...Published by: WMO ; 2019
The METAGRI project was implemented by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in collaboration with the National Meteorological Services of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Côte d´Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo with funds provided by the State Meteorological Agency of Spain (AEMET).
WMO and AEMET agreed to launch a project on Agrometeorology to support West African Agriculture following the October 2007 Conference of Directors of National Meteorological and Hydrological Services of West Africa. This programme called METAGRI was formulated around the concept of Roving Seminars on Weather, Climate and Farmers and on the basis of the Mali experience on agrometeorology for farmers (AGROMET).
The objective of METAGRI was to increase awareness of farmers on weather and climate risk management, the use of weather and climate information and services to improve rural production and better prepare against the weather threats emerging from climate change.
The objective of the project is in line with the MDG 1 “Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger” and its relevance is confirmed by scientific studies and technical reports.
The high relevance of the project is testified by scientific and practical knowledge as well as by farmers’ perception.
Format: Digital (Free)Published by: WMO ; 2018
Report on Responses to the Questionnaire on Climate Services for Agriculture in Regional Association V (South-West Pacific)
Format: Digital (Free)This is the report on the project to create the Seasonal Climate Forecast - Course Package T.O.P. The goal of this online course package is to allow the transfer of seasonal climate forecast knowledge to improve and increase the operational capabilities of the targeted users. The package provides both a theoretical and a practical set of knowledge on seasonal forecast and predictability models, climate and data analysis, forecast verification, and specific application of seasonal forecast for agriculture and water management.Published by: WMO ; 2018
Seasonal Climate Forecast - COURSE PACKAGE T.O.P.: Theory and Operational Principles, Project Report
This is the report on the project to create the Seasonal Climate Forecast - Course Package T.O.P. The goal of this online course package is to allow the transfer of seasonal climate forecast knowledge to improve and increase the operational capabilities of the targeted users. The package provides both a theoretical and a practical set of knowledge on seasonal forecast and predictability models, climate and data analysis, forecast verification, and specific application of seasonal forecast for agriculture and water management.
Format: Digital (Free)Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika (BMKG) ; World Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; Sekolah Lapang Iklim - WMO, 2018The Climate Field School, CFS, is a program that has a goal to increase farmer's knowledge's and understandings on climate information's with a concept of learning by doing and learning by experiencing to reach a success in farming activity to support the increase in yields of agricultural sectors.PermalinkThis educational video describes the approach to implementing rovin seminars. Organized as part of the METAGRI project, roving seminars aim to increase the resilience of rural producers to climate change.PermalinkBadan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika (BMKG) ; World Meteorological Organization (WMO) - WMO, 2018PermalinkCette vidéo éducative décrit l'approche de mise en oeuvre des séminaires itinérants. Organisés dans le cadre du projet METAGRI, les séminaires itinérants visent à renforcer la résilience des producteurs ruraux face au changement climatique.PermalinkAgriculture is the largest employer in the world and is probably the most dependent on the climate of all human activities. In recent years there have been events that have put in evidence the vulnerability of global food security to major meteorological phenomena, both in global agricultural markets and the world economy. The food price crisis and the subsequent economic crisis reduced the purchasing power of large segments of the population in many developing countries, which seriously reduced their access to food and thus undermined their food security. During the years 2009 and 2010 in Ven ...PermalinkClimate is one of the key factors that affect agriculture. Climate change and climate variability have been observed, typically shown as global warming due to the increased greenhouse gases. The change in climate is even predicted to be rapped and sharp in recent future and the impacts of extreme climate condition associated with climate change will be high on agriculture. Studying the impacts of climate change, especially the effects of temperature and precipitation on agriculture, is important for food safety, agricultural management, and sustainable development.PermalinkThis document presents an overview on the impact of the Dry Corridor phenomenon in Central America, and the work the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) - in collaboration with its partners - is doing to support countries to increase disaster resilience of households, communities and institutions.PermalinkFood and Agriculture Organization (FAO); Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation (MOAI) Myanmar - gov ; Ministry of Livestock, Fisheries and Rural Development (MLFRD) Myanmar - gov ; et al. - FAO, 2015This report assesses the disaster impact of the cyclone Komen on agriculture and rural-based livelihoods of affected populations in Myanmar. The assessment was conducted in the six most-affected regions/states of Ayeyarwady, Bago, Chin, Magway, Rakhine and Sagaing. It was co-led by FAO and WFP under the framework of the Food Security Sector in partnership with UN women, World Vision, CESVI, CARE, JICA and LIFT.PermalinkThis paper presents evidence on how the 2007−2010 drought contributed to the conflict in Syria. It was the worst drought in the instrumental record, causing widespread crop failure and a mass migration of farming families to urban centers. Century-long observed trends in precipitation, temperature, and sea-level pressure, supported by climate model results, strongly suggest that anthropogenic forcing has increased the probability of severe and persistent droughts in this region, and made the occurrence of a 3-year drought as severe as that of 2007−2010 2 to 3 times more likely than by natural ...PermalinkThis paper focuses on the weather and climate aspects of risk and uncertainty in North America, Central America, and the Caribbean. It provides an overview of the weather and climate risks to agriculture in the region and identifies the extreme episodic events that most often threaten agriculture. Examples of these extreme episodic events are documented, quantifying impacts on local agriculture.PermalinkThis report examines the resilience of the global food system to extreme weather.
This summary is built on three detailed reports and presents evidence that the global food system is vulnerable to production shocks caused by extreme weather, and that this risk is growing. It highlights evidence that our reliance on increasing volumes of global trade, whilst having many benefits, also creates structural vulnerability via a liability to amplify production shocks in some circumstances. It argues that action is needed to improve the resilience of the global food system to weather-re ...PermalinkThis paper examines agricultural vulnerability to climate change in eight selected rural settlements in Sokoto State, Nigeria.
An integrated approach is used which combines environmental and socio-economic determinants. Results show that while there were downward trends of annual rainfall and raindays in Sokoto, annual mean temperatures show upward trend. Annual droughts were of slight and moderate intensities during the period under review. The results also revealed that unreliable rainfall, desertification, increasing temperatures, scarcity of pastures and inaccessibility to c ...PermalinkThis brief is a country case study of Nepal produced alongside the DFID Topic Guide on Climate Change, Food Security and Agriculture. It highlights how climate change affects the situation of food security and agriculture in Nepal. The aim is to provide country offices with specific guidance on activities, barriers and opportunities for integrating climate change and Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) approaches within the national context.PermalinkCopernicus Publications, 2015This study compares the contributions of climate change and socioeconomic development to potential future changes of agricultural land use in West Africa.
It uses a prototype land use projection (LandPro) algorithm which is based on a balance between food supply and demand, and accounts for the impact of socioeconomic drivers on the demand side and the impact of climate-induced crop yield changes on the supply side. It considers the impact of human decision-making on land use.
The paper argues that without agricultural intensification, the climate-induced decrease ...PermalinkPermalinkThis policy brief identifies possible implications of climate change disturbances on crops and livestock in world production centers by 2030, 2050 and 2080. Most of the studies on food systems under climate change are producer-centric, while this brief looks at options for importing countries, and discusses some recommendations.
The imperative of climate change adaptation for a resilient food system requires institutional, technological and economic transformation not only in food exporting but also food importing countries. Furthermore, mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions in ...Permalink
This working paper tries to estimate the cost of global climate change impacts for India.
The study finds that climate change will result in significant economic losses for India across sectors, including agricultural production. There is likely to be a need for additional power generation for meeting higher cooling energy needs of India. The paper argues that health impacts should be best measured in terms of deaths due to higher incidence of diseases, including diarrhoea, malaria and dengue. A loss of economic output is also predicted.
The cost o ...PermalinkThis Topic Guide addresses the threat that climate change poses to food security and poverty reduction achievements. The peer-reviewed guide explains how programming around climate-smart agriculture can help adapt and build resilience to climate change – at the same time stimulating economic growth and poverty reduction in the agricultural sector.
The main message from this Topic Guide is that climate change is already affecting food security and agricultural growth under all types of agriculture, and is expected to continue to have an increasingly serious impact on smallholders and lar ...PermalinkThis document showcases case studies of programmes and projects that address climate and disaster risks, through climate change adaptation, disaster risk management and/ or greenhouse gas emissions reduction. This compendium highlights lessons learnt at the programme and project level and may be used as a resource for future initiatives moving forward under the Strategy for Climate and Disaster Resilient Development in the Pacific (SRDP).
This compendium provides a snapshot from initiatives undertaken in recent years, focusing on projects where valuable lessons could be drawn. T ...PermalinkThis report emphasizes that governments at all levels must provide their agencies with the authority and resources required to fulfill their disaster preparedness responsibilities and provincial and federal governments must provide further funding assistance to help empower local authorities. It explains that organizations outside of government as well as the public have preparedness responsibilities which they must come to understand, accept and fulfil. In addition, the report touches upon several recommendations which can be used by governments to successfully work towards better preparednes ...PermalinkБюллетень, Том 62. BMO, 2014Локализация климатической информационной продукции и обслуживания в сельском хозяйстве направлена на оказа- ние полного спектра консультационных услуг, касающихся климата, его воздействия на зерновые культуры, поголо- вье скота, рыболовство, и практики управления, которой нужно следовать, чтобы предотвратить, уменьшить и/или управлять рисками. Специально подготовленная инфор- мация помогает фермерам в принятии управленческих решений, чтобы уменьшить риски и получить пользу от возможностей, которые предоставляет имеющий тенден- цию к изменчивости и изменению климат. Таким образом, она должна вк ...PermalinkThis study argues that annual carbon emissions from global agriculture can be reduced by as much as 50 to 90 per cent by 2030 - the equivalent of removing all the cars in the world. The study highlights 12 key strategies with more specific interventions for philanthropy—led by reduced global beef consumption, reduced food waste and better farm nutrient management and production—that can deliver on climate change while maintaining food security and building resilience. It argues that productivity and sustainability can work hand in hand.
The paper argues that a constructive debate on agr ...PermalinkThis report analyses evidence linking community forest rights with healthier forests and lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from deforestation and forest degradation.
It makes the case for strengthening the rights of indigenous and local communities over their forests as a policy tool for mitigating climate change. The report argues that when Indigenous Peoples and local communities have no or weak legal rights, their forests tend to be vulnerable to deforestation and thus become the source of carbon dioxide emissions. Legal forest rights for communities and government protection of t ...PermalinkAlliance Development Works ; United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS) - UNU, 2014This WorldRiskReport (WRR) consists of an index, a priority topic and case studies. The index describes the disaster risk for various countries and regions. The WorldRiskReport was developed in close cooperation between scientists and practitioners. Combined expertise, i.e. scientific structure and procedure and practical competence distinguish this report from comparable academic studies.PermalinkThis report focuses on the risks of climate change to development in Latin America and the Caribbean, the Middle East and North Africa, and parts of Europe and Central Asia. For each region, the report addresses the regional patterns of climate change, such as heat extremes, extreme precipitation, droughts, tropical cyclones/hurricanes, and sea-level rise.
Building on earlier Turn Down the Heat reports, this new scientific analysis examines the likely impacts of present day (0.8°C), 2°C and 4°C warming above pre-industrial temperatures on agricultural production, water resource ...PermalinkWater, food and energy are fundamental to African development. However, several crucial issues need to be addressed. Are African resources used to meet African needs or are they being exploited to satisfy the needs of other actors facing food and energy insecurity?PermalinkThis report presents a series of tables which analyse the potential impact of a changed climate on the most common diseases afflicting cattle, sheep, goats, camels, donkeys, pigs, and chickens in Mali. For each livestock disease identified, the disease status under current climate was assessed, including the geographical range of the endemic zone, the rate of disease outbreaks within endemic zones, the mode of pathogen transmission, and the relative economic importance to livestock owners. These served as the baseline for an assessment of the likely change in risk of infection under climate sc ...PermalinkIFPRI, 2014This food policy report reviews resilience processes, activities, and outcomes by examining a number of case studies of initiatives by nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to enhance resilience capacity, and draws implications for policymakers and other stakeholders looking to strengthen resilience. It argues that resilience building relies on integrated programming, which is defined as a cross-sectoral approach with a long-term commitment to improving the three critical capacities: absorptive capacity (disaster risk management), adaptive capacity (longer-term livelihood investments), and tran ...PermalinkThis working paper argues that agroforestry and livestock-keeping both have the potential to promote anthropogenic climate change resilience and support each other in this context.
The paper discusses relevant issues in East Africa, where recent agroforestry interventions to support livestock keeping have included the planting of mostly-exotic tree-fodders, and where most parts of the region are expected to become drier in the next decades, although smaller areas may become wetter. It argues that wider cultivation and improved management of fodder trees provides adaptation and mitigatio ...PermalinkPermalink2014Background: The amount and distribution of rainfall and temperature influences household food availability, thus increasing the risk of child under nutrition. However, few studies examined the local spatial variability and the impact of temperature and rainfall on child under nutrition at a smaller scale (resolution). We conducted this study to evaluate the effect of weather variables on child under nutrition and the variations in effects across the three agro ecologies of Ethiopia.
Methods: A longitudinal panel study was conducted. We used crop productions (cereals and oilseeds), lives ...PermalinkThe aim of this study is to compare and combine the results from different conservation agriculture experiments using meta-analysis in the hope of identifying patterns among study results, sources of disagreement among those results, or interesting relationships that may come to light in the context of the different studies.
Conservation agriculture involves reduced or no-tillage, permanent soil cover and crop rotations to enhance soil fertility and crop yields. Conservation agriculture practices are increasingly promoted on smallholder farms in sub-Saharan Africa as a means to overcome ...PermalinkCentral and South America. The report assesses the implications of climate change for agriculture, with a particular focus on those aspects of climate change that will have greatest impact on the crops currently grown in each region. The study investigated the ability of General Circulation Models (GCMs) and downscaled climate change scenarios to reproduce already observed climates, to establish the reliability of future climate projections, as well as projections of how associated crops might grow under future conditions.PermalinkThis study has a focus on climate adaptation strategies for farmers in Malawi.
This paper assesses farmers’ incentives and conditioning factors that hinder or promote adaptation strategies and evaluates its impact on crop productivity by utilizing household level data collected in 2011 from nationally representative sample households in Malawi. The study distinguishes between (i) exposure to climatic disruptions, (ii) bio-physical sensitivity to such disruptions, (iii) household adaptive capacity in terms of farmers’ ability to prepare and adjust to the resulting stress, and, finally, ( ...PermalinkGovernment of Canada, 2014This report focuses on new information and knowledge, assessing advances made in understanding climate change impacts and adaptation from a sectoral perspective, based primarily on literature published up to the end of 2012. It draws from the individual chapters of Canada's national-scale science assessment of climate change impacts and adaptation, which include an overview of Canada’s changing climate (Ch. 2), thematic chapters focused on sectors (Ch. 3 to 8) and the concluding chapter on adaptation research and practice (Ch. 9). The rest of the synthesis is structured around high-level concl ...PermalinkThis paper documents a significant impact of climate variation on urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa, primarily in more arid countries. By lowering farm incomes, reduced moisture availability encourages migration to nearby cities, while wetter conditions slow migration. The paper also provides evidence for rural-urban income links. In countries with a larger industrial base, reduced moisture shrinks the agricultural sector and raises total incomes in nearby cities. However, if local cities are entirely dependent on servicing agriculture so their fortunes move with those of agriculture, reduced ...PermalinkRusinga O. - 2014PermalinkThis case study aims to illustrate how the Western Province in Sri Lanka is promoting urban and peri-urban agriculture and forestry as a strategy to reduce vulnerability to climate change, while at the same time enhancing urban liveability and livelihoods. Key messages include that the province is promoting the rehabilitation of flood zones through their productive use as a strategy to improve storm water infiltration and mitigate flood risks. It is recommended that future upscaling of these interventions will need new urban design concepts and the development of a provincial climate change ...PermalinkThis paper is the first in a series of Evaluation Reviews, which are intended to highlight and distil findings from published evaluations of climate change related programme interventions. This paper is aimed at sharing some design, monitoring, and evaluation (DME) ‘lessons learned’ that are pertinent to Climate Change Adaptation (CCA), which have been drawn from a small selection of agriculture/food security (AFS) programmes across Asia. The paper is organised into five sections. It begins with a brief overview of climate change in Asia and the implications for agriculture and food security, ...PermalinkThis working paper summarises work on the costs and benefits of climate change adaptation for the water sector in Africa. It reviews adaptation cost estimates for the continent and the main economic appraisal methods used, then summarises results. It focuses on adaptation to climate impacts on the water sector, such as damage to water infrastructure, rather than impacts from water on other sectors, such as agricultural drought. The paper identifies two key priorities for future appraisals: 1) greater focus on the costs and benefits of ‘soft’, non-infrastructure adaptation interventions 2) use ...PermalinkThis paper deals with the consequences of climate change for farmers in Africa, including increasing temperatures and changing rainfall, increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide content and impacts on agricultural production. The paper attempts to illustrate local conditions that must be taken into account to understand the impacts/consequences of climate change for African farmers and how they may cope with them. The review is in three parts; climate change is approached by dealing with the three sides from which the danger comes: (i) global warming, (ii) increasing climate variability, (iii) mo ...PermalinkThis paper highlights the impact of climate change on agriculture. It argues that the erratic climate of the region has strongly impacted the local food system especially the seed availability and therefore food security in general. This paper identifies some of the innovation in water use efficiency, water management at crop levels, and proposes some agriculture interventions in order to achieve a sustainable local seed systems, participatory breeding, livestock adaptation measures and improvement of existing agroforestry as well as knowledge management.PermalinkThe CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE), led by the International Water Management Institute (IWMI), and partners organized a two day international workshop which was held on May 7- 8, 2013. The workshop titled “Moving from Water Problems to Water Solutions: Research Needs Assessment for the Eastern Gangetic Plains” focused on reviewing the state of knowledge, institutions and successful practices to enhance productivity of land and water resources within the region. The proceedings of the workshop are highlighted in this report.Permalinkis an issue of Bulletin. OMM, 2013Permalinkis an issue of Bulletin. WMO, 2013PermalinkThere exists a wealth of largely overlooked experience that has been accrued over generations by small-scale farmers and pastoralists in poor countries as they cope with climatic extremes and increasing uncertainty – climate-change related or otherwise. IIED has 40 years’ experience of working with these producers; this Gatekeeper paper draws lessons from this wealth of knowledge in order to inform adaptation planning efforts at all levels. The paper underscores how measures to increase climate change resilience must view food, energy, water and waste management systems as interconnected and m ...PermalinkEuropean Commission, 2013In the wake of the Sahelian droughts and the resulting food insecurity crises of the 1970s and mid-1980s, the international community and national governments alike have focused on early warning systems as a mechanism to prevent famines and avert acute malnutrition. Thirty years later, food insecurity still prevails in many areas of the globe, amidst rapidly evolving geopolitics. A different and innovative way to tackle the problem of the fluctuating food availability attracted the attention of development agencies and governments in developing countries some 15 years ago: index-based crop ins ...PermalinkThis report evaluates the extent to which farms facing higher levels of drought risk are more likely to participate in conservation programs, and finds a strong link between drought risk and program participation. It examines drought risk adaptation, defined as the choices that farmers make in response to drought risk exposure, and addresses the policy uncertainty by examining the role of drought risk within agricultural conservation programs and considering potential changes in conservation program design, such as adjustments in contract ranking criteria or changes in eligibility requirements ...PermalinkDrawing upon several sources of information and types of analysis, including literature reviews, field visits and rapid participatory assessments, this paper provides a critical assessment of land-related development policies and projects over the past two decades in Central America. Reflections on past land-related development policies and projects in Central America are based on their contributions to growth and poverty reduction. The paper calls for future projects to better integrate poverty reduction and development goals, natural resource management, disaster risk management and climate ...PermalinkThis report explores how Britain can achieve Carbon neutrality. Building upon the groundwork laid by the Zero Carbon Britain project over the last six years, the authors incorporate the latest developments in science and technology, plus more detailed research in two main areas: balancing highly variable energy supply and demand; and the nutritional implications of a low carbon diet. The report highlights the need for further research on adaptation, economic transition and policy that would achieve sufficient greenhouse gas emissions reductions quickly and equitably. From a broader viewpoint, ...PermalinkThis assessment was conducted in 2012. Field research focused on Gulu, Lira, Luweero, Mbale, Isingiro, and Kasese, USAID/Feed the Future priority districts that include important cropping systems, represent different agro-ecological zones, and are near weather stations that have collected consistent rainfall and temperature data for a long period of time.
The research and analysis show how current climate patterns shape – and how future climate patterns may influence – key crop value chains and the livelihoods of households that depend on them.PermalinkThis publication seeks to identify promoted policy entry points to support the implementation of priority adaptation strategies, and identifies policy mechanisms as appropriate interventions to allow agropastoralists to buffer the effects of climate variability and change. The purpose of this project is to co-generate methods, information and solutions between local communities, local and international scientists, policymakers and other actors involved in climate change and adaptation programs, for coping mechanisms and adapting strategies to climate change and variability in West and Southern ...PermalinkThe main objective of this strategic intervention is to reduce the impacts of climate change and land degradation on rural farm lands by intensifying the production of fruit trees. This will generate income and help farmers adapt to climate change.
Most farmland areas are devoid of plantations and natural vegetation forests making them susceptible to the impacts of climate change. These areas could experience more soil erosion because of the reduced rainfall and the increase in temperature. The introduction of fruit trees on the farmland or near the households could create a greener env ...PermalinkPlan International, 2013This study shows that climate change and environmental degradation are causing pronounced negative effects on food, water and energy, with two distinctive features – gender and geographic inequality, where men, women and children are disproportionately affected and where some areas are more vulnerable and hit much harder than others. The study also reveals that the effects of climate change have a tendency of being accompanied by other human-induced impacts such as resource over-exploitation, which are already posing a major environmental challenge in Africa. These factors represent a major ch ...PermalinkThis case study is designed to provide a practical example of how to use climate information to support adaptation planning and policy-making. The paper focuses on the Bagamoyo district in coastal Tanzania. Local livelihoods are mostly based on natural resources, including small-scale agriculture, seaweed farming, traditional fishing and small-scale eco-tourism. People living on the coast report that climate variability and climate change are affecting their lives due to factors such as unreliable timing and intensity of rainfall, major flooding and sea-level rise. These impacts have increased ...PermalinkThe goal of this research was to examine the likely impacts of climate change on agriculture in Bangladesh, and develop recommendations to policymakers to help farmers adapt to the changes. A variety of research methods were used. When taken together, the results indicate that adaptation efforts in Bangladesh should include adjusting planting dates, using improved cultivars better suited for climate change, improving fertilizer application, exploring increased maize production, and bolstering flood and pest protection for farmers.PermalinkAccording to this report, the global livestock sector contributes a significant share to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, but it can also deliver a significant share of the necessary mitigation effort. The authors call for urgent, concerted and collective action from all sector stakeholders to ensure that existing and promising mitigation strategies are implemented. They also highlight a need to reduce the sector’s emissions and its environmental footprint, especially in view of its continuing expansion to ensure food security and feed a growing, richer and more urbanized world populati ...PermalinkSub-Saharan Africa is particularly vulnerable to global challenges such as food insecurity, climate change, rural poverty, malnutrition and environmental protection. This puts pressure on the fragile food production system.
The term ‘Sustainable Intensification’ – ‘producing more outputs with more efficient use of all inputs on a durable basis, while reducing environmental damage and building resilience, natural capital and the flow of environmental services’ – has become synonymous with big, industrial agriculture. The writers of the report are concerned that as the world’s population ...PermalinkWith agriculture being the main source of both employment and income for southern Africa’s rural population, there is great concern regarding the potential impact of climate change. This study, produced by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), represents a comprehensive analysis of ways to foster agricultural development and food security to reduce such impacts. Several weather-based scenarios have been developed by the authors, describing how climate change may affect the region up to 2050. National contributors from Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Swa ...PermalinkThe anticipated changes in water availability, temperature rise, soil degradation and the suggested increase in extreme weather events are likely to greatly affect agriculture in India. This paper aims to develop the vulnerability profile of agricultural systems of the Indian states to the changing climate scenarios. It develops two sub indices: Bio-Physical vulnerability index and Socio-Economic vulnerability index to develop the final overall vulnerability index.
The contribution of agriculture to India’s GDP has been declining over recent years, but agriculture still provides employm ...PermalinkIn 2010, FAO prepared guidelines to support policy-makers in integrating climate change concerns into new or existing forest policies and national forest programmes. This document serves as a companion to those 2010 guidelines in order to aid sustainable forest management.
This document provides guidance on what forest managers should consider in assessing vulnerability, risk, mitigation options, and actions for adaptation, mitigation and monitoring in response to climate change.PermalinkThis study analyzes the range of plausible impacts of climate change by the year 2050, focusing almost entirely on crops. It builds on previous research that focused on regional and global effects of climate change. The first chapter provides a regional overview for southern Africa. Eight chapters look at the effects of climate change on eight countries in southern Africa: Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. It is intended to provide policymakers and others concerned with climate change, agriculture, and food policy with guidance on the range o ...PermalinkCambodia is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change because of the predicted changes in temperature and precipitation, the share of labour in agriculture, and low adaptive capacity due to widespread poverty. This study uses climate data from four general circulation models (GCMs) to evaluate the impact of climate change on agriculture in Cambodia by 2050.
An evaluation of crop yields was undertaken as well as exploring potential gains from changing fertiliser levels and using irrigation to compensate for rainfall changes. A survey of 45 communes was also conducted using f ...PermalinkThis Issues Brief is based on the proceedings of the Expert Group Meeting on the Impact of Climate Change on ASEAN Food Security held in June 2013. This meeting called for higher priority to be given to research on climate shifts, a greater focus on agricultural research and development and also highlighted the need for resource and knowledge inputs from those involved in food value chains across Southeast Asia.PermalinkICARDA, 2013There are hundreds of Multilateral Environmental Agreements(MEAs) dealing with various environmental issues and they are the main method available under international law for countriesto work together on global issues.The assessment of the implementation, compliance and effectiveness of multilateral environmental agreements is in many cases complicated and plagued with gaps in data, conceptual difficulties and methodological problems. Most Supreme Audit Institutions (SAIs) with their specific competencies are uniquely poised to assess these gaps and report to parliament and inform the national ...PermalinkThis document examines the ways in which farmers in rural India are adapting to climate change in order to preserve their livelihoods. The document is comprised of seven sections: (i) section one introduces the idea of indigenous knowledge in relation to climate change; (ii) section two explains the agricultural impacts of climate change in India; (iii) section three discusses methods of climate change adaptation; (iv) section four outlines the methodology and scope of this study; (v) section five presents and discusses extensively the results of the study regarding the ways in which farmers h ...PermalinkIFPRI, 2013This report explores the challenges and opportunities for building human, organizational, and institutional capacity for more effective climate change adaptation in developing countries. It particularly focuses on climate change issues related to the agriculture sector and rural livelihoods in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Kenya, and Mali.
The report is part of a larger research project titled “Enhancing women’s assets to manage risk under climate change: potential for group-based approaches,” which is being conducted to help organizations better understand ways in which development pr ...PermalinkThis study assesses the response of farmers to climate change, impacts of climate change to their livelihoods, and the potential of the three agricultural systems, agro-forestry, conservation agriculture and conventional agriculture, as adaptation strategies to climate change in Ts’akholo and Kolo communities in Mafeteng District, Lesotho. The study has contributed to knowledge in the field of global environmental change and its relationship with agriculture, food security and general livelihoods, especially for farmers and policy-makers in Lesotho.PermalinkThis report aims to assist decision-makers in Jordan and Lebanon in understanding the specific challenges and opportunities posed by climate change in the agricultural sector and to develop local-level priorities, informed by stakeholder input, in order to build agricultural resilience in the two countries. The report is divided into four chapters: (i) chapter one introduces the background of the study and the structure of the report; (ii) chapter two provides a synthesis of evidence of climate variability and change in Jordan and Lebanon; (iii) chapter three explains the methodology of the st ...PermalinkThis report provides illustrative examples of the variety of work on climate change adaptation that is underway in the United States and insight into the resultant gaps and opportunities available for advancing this essential aspect of sustainability. The report focuses on four areas of activity: agriculture, natural resources, human communities, and policy.PermalinkRobinson S.; Ethiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI) ; International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) - EDRI, 2013This paper uses spatially-explicit analyses of climate change effects on selected key sectors of Ethiopia’s economy to estimate both sector-wise and economy-wide estimates of impacts and adaptation costs. It also provides sector-specific insights on impacts and adaptation options in agriculture, road transport, and hydropower. In particular, rapid development of Ethiopia’s hydro-potential, upgrading of the road design standards, and gradual diversification of the economy away from the more climate vulnerable sectors are likely to be important elements of any climate-resilient development strat ...PermalinkAgbongiarhuoyi A. E. - 2013Changing climate and weather patterns are predicted to have severe negative impacts on food production, food security and natural resources in the immediate and coming years. Climate change alters the development of cocoa pods, insect pests and pathogens which translate into lower crop yields and impact farm income. This study examined the climate change adaptation strategies of cocoa producing farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria.
Findings include: most farmers observed an extension beyond the normal dry months: November-February. The main climate change strategies adopted by farmers includ ...PermalinkThis policy brief by the Asian Development Bank argues that, given the negative impact of climate change on Mongolia, it is crucial to select mitigation actions that reduce vulnerability to climate change, support the achievement of national development goals, and are feasible given local constraints.PermalinkClimate change is already affecting the foundations on which Latin American societies rely for sustenance and welfare. Addressing these impacts, this report was prepared by a task force of the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), and the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLAC).
Although the carbon footprint of Latin America and the Caribbean is modest and appears to be decreasing, efforts to further reduce that footprint are required if global climate stabilization goals are to be achieved. A substantial contribution of this r ...PermalinkThis manual provides users with the information, tools and training skills required to deliver Capacity Enhancement Workshops (CEWs) to rural women farmers and rural elected women leaders to raise their awareness of the causes and effects of climate change, especially on agriculture and food security; help empower them to adapt successfully to projected changes by being aware of available government plans and programmes and field-based adaptation models by non-government actors; make them aware of gender-differentiated impacts and the different roles that men and women need to play in adapting ...PermalinkICRAF, 2013Decline in agricultural productivity due to severe land degradation is a common issue in many farming systems in Ethiopia. Several places, including the high potential agricultural areas, are dealing with highly degraded landscapes and severe soil loss.PermalinkCCAFS, 2013This report summarizes the proceedings of the international expert roundtable on “Developing a Methodology to Evaluate Climate Services for Farmers in Africa and South Asia” held in Kaffrine, Senegal on May 19-25, 2013. The roundtable brought together global experts in the area of gender-responsive impact assessment for farmers, to develop a useable monitoring and evaluation (M&E) protocol to guide baseline data collection, identify the locally-specific function, benefits, and beneficiaries of climate services, and measure the added-value of climate services for farmers. This protocol links to ...PermalinkThis report presents a brief and interactive summary of the Climate Change in Africa research and capacity program’s chief contributions. It provides a guided tour of the program’s efforts and legacy – its aims and means, the principal outcomes of the funding and mentoring it provided to African researchers, and the lessons it offers for future adaptation efforts in Africa and elsewhere. Throughout this report, there are links to programme and project resources, and directions for delving further into its scientific findings.PermalinkCurrent approaches to identify the costs and benefits of adaptation are primarily quantitative, using top-down methodologies that may grossly underestimate the true costs. This policy brief argues that global policies require credible evidence from the local level. Given that a single generic adaptation model is unworkable, the policy brief introduces a new analytical costing framework – Participatory Social Return on Investment (PSROI) – which has been piloted successfully in subsistence farming communities in East and West Africa.
Although the Kenyan example is very specific, the PSRO ...PermalinkAgricultural transformation agenda among other things aims at making Nigeria food secure. This mission stands to be threatened by the negative impact of climate change, hence, innovations that will help overcome the threats is paramount. Such innovations could be developed in the universities if the needed enabling environment is provided. This study examines the capabilities of universities in combating the problems of climate change towards increased food production. A total sample size of 79 respondents selected from universities in Southeast, Nigeria was used. Data were collected with the ...PermalinkProviding a detailed picture of the value of trees for local people in the tropics is a difficult undertaking. Not only does this represent the difficulty in accounting for values outside formal markets, but it also reflects the multiplicity of the species involved and the many different ways in which trees are used. In these circumstances, one approach that can b used to gain insight is to focus on a narrower range of species such as tree commodity crops commonly grown by smallholders, where more data on economic value are available. Another method can be employed to provide an overview of us ...PermalinkWith the intention of providing elements useful for decision making, this study by the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) analyses the potential impacts of climate change on the agricultural sector in Belize. The document is organised into six chapters. The first chapter contains a review of the literature related to the impact of climate change on the agricultural sector, emphasising the work in the region and Belize. The second chapter provides an overview of the current situation in the agricultural sector, as well as the strategies adopted by the Belizean gover ...PermalinkIn Mesoamerica, coffee is an important part of agricultural GDP and export revenues which supports about half a million farmers, and employs millions of people on the farms and all along the supply chain. This policy brief summarises the potential risks and impacts of climate change on coffee farming in the region. Traditional coffee agroforests provide important ecosystem services and conserve significant carbon stocks. Climate change threatens coffee production, as projected increases in temperature and changes in rainfall will likely reduce crop suitability in most current growing areas. Op ...PermalinkThis paper identifies sixteen cases of large-scale actions in the agriculture and forestry sectors that have adaptation and/or mitigation outcomes, and distils lessons from the cases. The cases cover policy and strategy development (including where climate-smart objectives were not the initial aim), climate risk management through insurance, weather information services and social protection, and agricultural initiatives that have a strong link to climate change adaptation and mitigation.PermalinkUNEP, 2013The change to a green and better fed world depends on the development of low carbon agriculture. Improving food and nutrition security while protecting the earth’s natural resource base will require a smarter, more innovative, better focused and cost-effective approach.PermalinkThis Africa Adaptation Programme (AAP) report details the achievements and lessons learned, as told by those who implemented it. It features interviews with representatives from almost every AAP country and seeks to chronicle the successes of the Programme by giving a voice to the people on the ground who made it happen. The AAP was launched by UNDP in 2008 as a four-year programme with US$ 92.1 million from the Government of Japan.PermalinkClimate change is now a global phenomenon with growth, poverty, food security, and stability implications. Because of significant dependence on the agricultural sector for production, employment, and export revenues, Ethiopia is seriously threatened by climate change, which contributes to frequent drought, flooding, and rising average temperatures. To examine the impact of climate change on agricultural production and to quantify the resulting lost output, this study conducts a time series analysis using country and regional level data. The econometric application on the appropriate production ...PermalinkThis brief focuses on the key disaster risk reduction (DRR) activities that the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) carries out in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (WBGS). It seeks to give an overview of FAO's DRR strategy and briefly describe their activities in WBGS to protect livelihoods from shocks, to make food production systems more resilient and more capable of absorbing the impact of, and recovering from, disruptive events, such as floods, droughts, earthquakes, animal and plants pests and diseases.PermalinkThis report focuses on the risks of climate change to development in Sub-Saharan Africa, South East Asia and South Asia. Building on the 2012 report, Turn Down the Heat: Why a 4°C Warmer World Must be Avoided, this new scientific analysis gives a more detailed look at how the negative impacts of climate change already in motion could create devastating conditions especially for those least able to adapt. It asserts that the case for resilience has never been stronger. This report demands action. It reinforces the fact that climate change is a fundamental threat to economic development and the ...PermalinkThe rapid expansion of commodity agriculture in tropical forest landscapes is a key driver of deforestation. To meet the growing demand from a more prosperous and expanding global population, it is imperative to develop sustainable commodity supply chains that support higher agricultural productivity, and that enable improved environmental, economic, and social outcomes. Interventions by community, market, and state actors can enhance the sustainability of supply chains by affecting where and how agricultural production occurs. These interventions—in the form of novel or moderated instit ...PermalinkThis paper uses spatially - explicit analyses of climate change effects on selected key sectors of Ethiopia’s economy to analyse both sector-wise and economy-wide estimates of impacts and adaptation costs. Using four models to bracket the uncertainty surrounding future climate outcomes, the paper finds that by 2050 climate change could cause GDP to be eight to ten per cent smaller than under a no-climate change baseline; it could induce a two-fold increase in variability of growth in agriculture; and it would affect more severely the poor and certain parts of the country. The paper also finds ...PermalinkVermeulen Sonja J. - 2013We present a framework for prioritizing adaptation approaches at a range of timeframes. The framework is illustrated by four case studies from developing countries, each with associated characterization of uncertainty. Two cases on near-term adaptation planning in Sri Lanka and on stakeholder scenario exercises in East Africa show how the relative utility of capacity vs. impact approaches to adaptation planning differ with level of uncertainty and associated lead time. An additional two cases demonstrate that it is possible to identify uncertainties that are relevant to decision making in spec ...PermalinkClimate-smart interventions are highly location-specific and knowledge-intensive. Therefore, considerable efforts are required to develop the knowledge and capacities to make climate-smart agriculture (CSA) a reality. The purpose of this sourcebook is to further elaborate the concept of CSA and demonstrate its potential, as well as its limitations. It is aimed as a reference tool for planners, practitioners and policymakers working in agriculture, forestry and fisheries at national and subnational levels, dealing with the effects of climate change.PermalinkThrough two participatory case studies, this paper examines the impact of climate change on the indigenous peoples of Namibia. The objectives of the case studies are three-fold: to document how the indigenous peoples are affected by climate change; to analyse how they perceive, adapt to and leverage opportunities from climate change; and provide recommendations for strengthening the indigenous peoples’ engagement in national and international public climate change policy.PermalinkThe problem of climate change in Africa has the potential of undermining sustainable development efforts if steps are not taken to respond to its adverse consequences. This study reviews existing and available literature on farmers’ perceptions and adaptations to climate change in sub-Sahara Africa.
It is evident that the majority of farmers in sub-Sahara Africa are aware of warmer temperatures and changes in precipitation patterns. To respond to these changes, farmers have adopted crop diversification, planting different crop varieties, changing planting and harvesting dates to corres ...PermalinkUNCCD, 2013"In this issue of UNCCD News, we highlight some of the meeting’s major outcomes and offer insights into useful science-based actions that can successfully address drought. You will see that although we cannot stop droughts from happening, we, the actors from the international community, do have the knowledge and the experience to put in place measures that will help to prevent the associated crises. What we need now is to complete the shift to this new paradigm, away from reaction and towards risk management and resilience building. Together, we won’t let our future dry up"PermalinkAttention to gender and climate change has increased steadily over the last decade. Much of the emerging policy-focused literature resembles to a considerable degree the gender and environment literature from the 1990s, with the nature of women’s work being used to justify placing women at the centre of climate change policy. However, in contrast with the portrayal of women in earlier literature as knowledgeable guardians of the environment, the women at the centre of gender and climate change policy are typically portrayed as vulnerable, weak, poor, and socially isolated. Arguably, this is a ...PermalinkThis study examines farmer's perception of the causes, constraints and strategies towards effective climate change adaptation in northern Nigeria. Data were collected from 500 respondents using both qualitative and quantitative approaches through a multistage random sampling technique. The study results show that the respondents were informed of the incidence of climate change as regards uncertainties in terms of higher temperatures, unpredictability of rainfall patterns, extreme weather events and increased farming problems such as loss of soil fertility. Respondents perceived the causes of c ...PermalinkThe study used the innovation system approach to ascertain the intensity and trends of linkages among key actors in the climate change and food security innovation system in Nigeria, Sierra Leone and Liberia. Data were collected through the use of semi structured interview schedule, key informant interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) and analyzed using percentages, mean scores and trend analysis. Only 1.8% of the
farmers from Nigeria, 2.5% from Sierra Leone and 0.7% from Liberia possessed special training on climate change adaptation and food security issues. The presence of loc ...PermalinkThis book examines the food security threats facing 11 west African countries — Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo — and explores how climate change will increase the efforts needed to achieve sustainable food security throughout the region. Through the use of hundreds of scenario maps, models, figures and detailed analysis, the publication presents plausible future scenarios that combine economic and biophysical characteristics to explore the possible consequences for agriculture, food security and resources management to ...PermalinkRecha J.; CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) - CCAFS, 2013This paper reports on a field assessment of risks associated with climate variability in eastern Kenya by the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS). It also includes the compilations of climate related agricultural risks gathered from a Kamba radio dialogue with local communities, aired in 2012. It highlights the potential for mitigating climate change through improved management of agricultural land and crop and livestock husbandry practices, as well as on tapping into the wide range of traditional knowledge of the local communities. The report conclu ...PermalinkThis review of national greenhouse gas mitigation planning in the agriculture sector has two objectives: to provide national policymakers and others in the agriculture sector with an overview of national mitigation planning processes and aid then in identifying the relevance of these processes for promoting agricultural development; and to provide policymakers and advisors involved in low-emission development planning processes with an overview of mitigation planning in the agriculture sector and in particular to highlight the relevance of agriculture to national mitigation plans and actions. ...PermalinkUganda has been regarded as a development success story due to its increasing economic growth and declining poverty. Nevertheless, the country’s economic dependence on agriculture makes it very sensitive to climate variability and change. Temperatures in Uganda have been steadily increasing and climate hazards such as floods and droughts have become more frequent and intense, a trend expected to continue. Ugandan smallholder farmers already know and apply various global best practices to reduce climate risks, but much remains to be done to improve these local responses. This report argues that ...PermalinkACCC, 2013Climate change poses a serious risk to food security and agriculture in China. Agriculture is of critical importance to China, because 54 per cent of the country’s population lives in rural areas. This policy brief outlines the key research highlights to date on the impacts of climate change on agriculture. This work is part of the ongoing research by the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science (CAAS) for the Adapting to Climate Change in China (ACCC) project.PermalinkIFPRI, 2013Vietnam is likely to be among the countries hardest hit by climate change, threatening its legacy as a champion in leveraging agriculture for development. This paper examines how a changing climate may affect rice production and how Vietnamese farmers are likely to adapt to various climatic conditions using an innovative yield function approach, taking into account sample selection bias and endogeneity of inputs. Model results suggest that although climate change can potentially reduce rice production, farmers will respond mainly by adjusting the production portfolio and levels of input use. H ...Permalink
Adaptation inspiration book: 22 implemented cases of local climate change adaptation to inspire European citizensAl-Bakri J.T. - 2013Focusing on the climate problem, it is now clear that developing countries, especially fast-growing regions such as those in the so-called BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China), will have a major impact on future emission dynamics and will play a major role in climate negotiations.PermalinkYengoh Genesis T. - 2013Just how influential is rainfall on agricultural production in the Sudan-Sahel of Africa? And, is there evidence that support for small-scale farming can reduce the vulnerability of crop yields to rainfall in these sensitive agro-ecological zones? These questions are explored based on a case study from Cameroon’s Sudan-Sahel region. Climate data for 20 years and crop production data for six major food crops for the same years are used to find patterns of correlation over this time period. Results show a distinction of three periods of climatic influence of agriculture: one period before 1989, ...PermalinkClimate-related hazards, including drought, floods, cyclones, sea-level rise and extreme temperatures, have enormous impact on the socio-economic development of a society. The frequency, magnitude and duration of damaging climate conditions are changing. It is now widely understood that efforts to address the impacts of adverse climatic conditions on human development must be undertaken within the context of a longerterm vision of development. UNDP is supporting a wide range of countries to manage risks related to climate variability and change through the Climate Risk Management Technical Ass ...PermalinkThis report is a product of the Climate Risk Management – Technical Assistance Support Project, which is supported by UNDP’s Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery and Bureau for Development Policy. This is one in a series of reports that examines high-risk countries and focusses on a specific socio-economic sector in each country. The series illustrates how people in different communities and across a range of socio-economic sectors may have to make adaptations to the way they generate income and cultivate livelihoods in the face of a changing climate. These reports present an evidence ...PermalinkThis report is a product of the Climate Risk Management – Technical Assistance Support Project, which is supported by UNDP’s Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery and Bureau for Development Policy. This is one in a series of reports that examines high-risk countries and focusses on a specific socio-economic sector in each country. The series illustrates how people in different communities and across a range of socio-economic sectors may have to make adaptations to the way they generate income and cultivate livelihoods in the face of a changing climate. These reports present an evidence ...PermalinkThis report is a product of the Climate Risk Management – Technical Assistance Support Project, which is supported by UNDP’s Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery and Bureau for Development Policy. This is one in a series of reports that examines high-risk countries and focusses on a specific socio-economic sector in each country. The series illustrates how people in different communities and across a range of socio-economic sectors may have to make adaptations to the way they generate income and cultivate livelihoods in the face of a changing climate. These reports present an evidence ...PermalinkThis brief deals with adapting Australia’s agriculture to climate change, especially broadacre farming, and is based mainly, but not exclusively, on experiences in southern South Australia. It highlights key needs to support future adaptation, including investment in education, social science research, seasonal weather predictions and policy certainty and adaptability.PermalinkEl clima es tanto un recurso como un riesgo. En la medida que es capaz de aprovechar la información y los servicios climáticos en beneficio de los responsables de la toma de decisiones, el sector agrícola estará perfectamente posicionado para ofrecer alimentos a un mundo cada vez más poblado y que cuenta con un creciente carácter urbano.PermalinkКлимат может быть полезным ресурсом и в то же время может представлять опасность. Благодаря использованию климатической информации и климатического обслуживания лицами, принимающими решения, сельское хозяйство более успешно справится с задачей обеспечения продовольствием населения Земли, которое растет и все больше сосредоточивается в городах.PermalinkClimate is both a resource and a hazard. By harnessing climate information and services for decision-makers, the agriculture sector will be better placed to provide food for a more crowded and increasingly urban world.PermalinkIIED, 2012This paper explores the links between farmer organisations, Fairtrade and adaptation to climate change, and the extent to which such institutions and market arrangements can enhance the adaptive capacity of smallholder farmers. It looks in detail at two Fairtrade producer organisations in Uganda and Malawi and asserts that joining a producer organisation and Fairtrade certification can strengthen the capacity of smallholders to adapt to climate change on several fronts. It also introduces some key enabling factors such as higher income, access to newer technologies, better farmer training, and ...PermalinkPermalinkThis document presents a range of experiences, publications and organisations involved in the strategies used to build capacities for climate change adaptation in the Latin American region, by: (i) improving natural resource conservation; (ii) providing access to new technologies; (iii) capturing traditional knowledge and practices; and (iv) maintaining water resources and agrobiodiversity. It concludes with lessons that could prove useful to other mountain regions of the world.PermalinkThis report reviews the interventions of the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida) that have strong implications for increasing resilience and reducing vulnerability to natural disasters, and it aims at improving the understanding of how Sida has worked with these issues so far and how the work can be further strengthened. The report combines findings from a mapping phase with more in-depth analysis of resilience initiatives related to climate change adaptation, agriculture and water hazards.PermalinkWarner Koko; CARE France ; Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN); et al. - UNU, 2012This report explores the interrelationships among rainfall variability, food and livelihood security, and human mobility in a diverse set of research sites in eight countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America. While climate change affects nearly all aspects of food security – from production and availability, to the stability of food supplies, access to food, and food utilization – the Rainfalls research focuses on linkages between shifting rainfall patterns and food production and the stability of food supplies.PermalinkThis study examines the innovative adaptive measures used by farmers in northern Nigeria to respond to the effects of climate change. Quantitative and qualitative approaches (rapid rural appraisal, focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews) were used to gather information from 500 farmers. The findings indicate that 84 per cent and 79 per cent of the farmers were aware and knowledgeable of climate change issues, respectively, while 81 per cent of them noted that they had experienced climate change incidences. The paper highlights adaptive measures used by the farmers in northern N ...PermalinkIn Latin America, as in Africa and Asia, 15-25% of the population lives in semi-arid areas, mostly in small isolated rural communities that are often the most severely affected by climate change. Strategies employed to build adaptive capacity in Brazil’s semi-arid areas focused on improved water supply, management and use, while at the same time promoting access to technology and improved production techniques, all with a focus on knowledge sharing and multi-level collaboration. The lessons from Brazil’s response will be useful for policymakers and community organisations in other semi-arid re ...PermalinkIndia Government, 2012This bilingual guide book highlights that we can't avoid future earthquakes, but preparedness and safe building construction practices can certainly reduce the extend of damage and loss. To take necessary action it is mandatory for every citizen to have elementary knowledge of earthquake, forces acting on structures, remedial measures to be taken for structural safety and knowledge of do's and don'ts before, during and after an earthquake.
This guide will serve as a reference tools to sensitize citizens about the issues of concerning preparedness measures for an earthquake.
PermalinkWorld Bank, 2012This report presents an extensive review of the World Bank’s experience dealing with climate variability and climate change, offering valuable lessons on adaptation efforts worldwide. It answers questions in three areas: (i) dealing with climate variability; (ii) factoring climate change risks into investment projects; and (iii) anticipating climate change. In addition to this learning-focused agenda, the evaluation also asks how the Bank Group has performed against climate adaptation goals of the Bank Group’s Strategic Framework for Development and Climate Change (FY09-11).
The evalua ...PermalinkPermalinkThe report analyses the effects of climate change on U.S. agriculture on the basis of research needs categorized within a vulnerability framework addressing specific actions that would improve understanding of the exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity to: (i) improve projections of future climate conditions, including extreme temperatures, precipitation, and related variables; (ii) evaluate and develop process-level understanding of the sensitivity of plant and animal production systems; and (iii) develop and extend the knowledge, management strategies and tools needed by U.S. agricultur ...PermalinkRecent food crises and growing concerns about global climate change have placed agriculture on top of the international agenda. Decision-makers have recognised the strong link between the dual goals of eradicating hunger and making agriculture sustainable. Achieving these goals will require a significant increase in agricultural investment but, more importantly, it will require improving the quality of this investment. This annual flagship report by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) reviews the economic and social rationale for agricultural investment, examines the causes of underinv ...PermalinkAdapting to climate change is not a new phenomenon for the Arab world. For thousands of years, the people in Arab countries have coped with the challenges of climate variability by adapting their survival strategies to changes in rainfall and temperature. Their experience has contributed significantly to the global knowledge on climate change and adaptation. But over the next century global climatic variability is predicted to increase, and Arab countries may well experience unprecedented extremes in climate. Temperatures may reach new highs, and in most places there may be a risk of less rain ...PermalinkThe indigenous cloud forests in the Taita Hills, Kenya, have suffered substantial degradation due to agricultural expansion. Currently, only one per cent of the original forested area remains preserved. Furthermore, climate change imposes an imminent threat for local economy and environmental sustainability. In such circumstances, elaborating tools to conciliate socio-economic growth and natural resources conservation is an enormous challenge. This article aims to tackle essential aspects for understanding the ongoing agricultural activities in the area and their environmental consequences. An ...PermalinkThis publication, Guidelines for Climate Proofing Investment in Agriculture, Rural Development, and Food Security aims to present a step-by-step methodological approach to assist project teams to assess and incorporate climate change adaptation measures into agriculture, rural development, and food security investment projects. While the Guidelines focus on the project level, an improved understanding of climate change impacts should also be used to incorporate climate change considerations into agriculture planning and policy at the country level. Though rural development projects include irr ...PermalinkIn the context of the impact assessment for the policy document "Blueprint to safeguard Europe's waters", the European Commission has developed a common baseline scenario bringing together climate, land use and socio-economic scenarios and looking at the implications for water resources availability and use under different policy scenarios. This study was carried out by the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission with the support of Stella Consulting SPRL, Brussels. It shows the impact of no-regret natural water retention measures on water quantity which can, in turn, be used to quant ...PermalinkGerman Government, 2012This publication aims to pinpoint commonalities between disaster risk management and adaptation to climate change. It describes the experience gathered from German development cooperation’s work in seven countries, which we see as a stimulus to aim for more effective and efficient interaction between the two fields and to work towards a significant reduction of risk in our partner countries by implementing risk management measures adapted to the respective conditions.PermalinkClimate change is a serious threat to crop productivity in regions that are already food insecure. We assessed the projected impacts of climate change on the yield of eight major crops in Africa and South Asia using a systematic review and meta-analysis of data in 52 original publications from an initial screen of 1144 studies. Here we show that the projected mean change in yield of all crops is 8% by the 2050s in both regions. Across Africa, mean yield changes of 17% (wheat), 5% (maize), 15% (sorghum) and 10% (millet) and across South Asia of 16% (maize) and 11% (sorghum) were estimated. No m ...PermalinkCrop production must meet the demands of feeding a growing population in an increasingly degraded environment amid uncertainties resulting from climate change. there is a pressing need to adapt farming systems to meet these challenges. one of agriculture’s greatest assets in meeting them is nature itself: many of the ecosystem services provided by nature – such as nutrient cycling, pest regulation and pollination – directly contribute to agricultural production. the healthy functioning of these ecosystem services ensures the sustainability of agriculture as it intensifies to meet growing deman ...PermalinkThornton Philip K.; CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) - CCAFS, 2012PermalinkThornton P.; CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) - CCAFS, 2012^An analysis of the effects of climate change on 22 critical agricultural commodities and three important natural resources in the developing world reveals a number of cross-cutting themes: The world’s agricultural systems face an uphill struggle in feeding a projected nine to ten billion people by 2050. Climate change introduces a significant hurdle in this struggle.
- Securing and maintaining necessary levels of calories, protein and nutrients for populations around the world will be an exceptional challenge.
- Recalibrating agriculture in the face of climate change is more t ...PermalinkEnvironment and Security Initiative (ENVSEC); United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP); Zoï Environment Network (Zoï) - ENVSEC, 2012PermalinkClimate ExChange is a fully illustrated 250-page book with over 100 authors relating their work in weather, climate and water services at international, regional, national and local levels. The commentaries draw upon experiences around the world reflecting how people are using climate information to improve their lives. Climate ExChange reflects the progress and challenges in these fields, highlighting good practices in a wide variety of societies and disciplines.PermalinkAlthough poverty remains widespread in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, substantial progress has been made especially in the past three decades. Nevertheless, this report stresses that climate change is likely to reduce agricultural productivity, which will directly affect poor people's livelihood assets including health, access to water and other natural resources, homes and infrastructure. Increasing climatic variability will make poor households even more vulnerable to extreme weather conditions, which could in turn exacerbate the incidence, severity and persistence of poverty in developi ...PermalinkThis study predicts the potential impacts that climate change will have on the production of maize and beans, the two most important food crops in Central America. Using state-of-the-art climate models and GIS tools, agronomic research and socio-economic analyses, it makes recommendations to climate change adaptation strategies tailored to El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. The results of the study are intended to fill a critical gap in the knowledge of the impacts of climate change on maize/bean production in Central America, in order for stakeholders to shift from a position of ...PermalinkChaudhury M.; Kristjanson Patty; Kyagazze Florence; et al. - Climate Change Agriculture Food Security, 2012The researchers investigated if and how farming practices are being modified to deal with a changing environment, and the constraints and opportunities these changes pose for both men and women. The field research covered three main research priorities for the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Climate Change (CCAFS), relating to the climate change, agricultural development and food security ‘nexus’: How to enable farmers, both men and women, to visit farms of the future, i.e. visit climate analogue sites; How to ensure equality in access and usage of seasonal weather fo ...PermalinkAgriculture is highly sensitive to climate variability and weather extremes. Various impact studies have considered the effects of projected long-run trends in temperature, precipitation and carbon dioxide concentrations caused by climate change on global food production and prices. However, according to this study, an area that remains underexplored is the food price impacts that may result from an expected increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. The study uses a global dynamic multi-region computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to explore the potential food pri ...PermalinkCCAFS, 2012The document attempts to distil what is currently known about the likely impacts of climate change on the commodities and natural resources that comprise the mandate of CGIAR and its 15 Centres. It was designed as one background document for a review carried out by the High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition (HLPE) at the behest of the UN Committee on World Food Security (CFS) on what is known about the likely effects of climate change on food security and nutrition, with a focus on the most affected and vulnerable regions and populations. A total of 25 summaries covering 22 ...PermalinkUNESCO, 2012This collection of papers, presented at the symposium ‘Climate change, water stress, conflict and migration’ held on 21 September 2011 in the Netherlands, highlight how climate change, water stress and other environmental problems threaten human security. For example, the paper by Muniruzzaman ilustrates how water ignores political and community boundaries, and how decisions in one place can significantly affect water use elsewhere. India’s plans to build more dams could, for instance, have devastating affects for Pakistan’s agricultural productivity which is highly dependent on water supply f ...PermalinkThis strategy highlights the need to consider links between climate change mitigation and adaptation with an aim of producing better results from research that includes projects with dual benefits. The strategy also recognizes adaptation and international research collaboration as important areas to be targeted under future funding rounds.PermalinkAchieving food security under climate change is one of the biggest challenges of the 21st century. The challenge becomes even greater when contextualised within our current limited understanding of how the food system functions as a complex, adaptive socioecological system, with food security as one of its outcomes. Adding climate change into this already complex and uncertain mix creates a ‘wicked problem’ that must be solved through the development of adaptive food governance. The thesis has 4 key aims: 1. To move beyond an understanding of food security that is dependent solely on agricultu ...PermalinkIslamic Relief Worldwide, 2012This report shows the positive difference Islamic Relief Worldwide is beginning to make in the area of disaster risk reduction (DRR) by highlighting how village disaster committees and earthworks to raise people’s houses have reduced the impact of seasonal flooding in north-western Bangladesh. It shows how irrigated vegetable growing and microfinance loans for small businesses are helping former pastoralists to build new livelihoods in north-eastern Kenya that are less vulnerable to drought. It provides evidence that being better prepared can save money as well as lives and shows that it can b ...PermalinkSince the Global Conference on Climate Change, Food Security and Agriculture held at the Hague in 2010, the concept of climate-smart agriculture (CSA) has gained increasing attention at international and national levels, with several countries initiating related activities. The objective of this paper is to highlight recent experiences with country-level implementation of CSA to identify some key lessons to incorporate in ongoing efforts to expand the use of the approach in developing countries. Section 1 describes the evolution of the concept of CSA since the Hague conference. Section 2 i ...PermalinkAgriculture has to address simultaneously three intertwined challenges: ensuring food security through increased productivity and income, adapting to climate change and contributing to climate change mitigation. To accomplish this, food systems have to become, at the same time, more efficient and resilient, at every scale from the farm level to the global level. Radical changes are needed in agricultural and food systems. These changes can play an essential role in greening the economy and contributing to sustainable development. This paper considers the intertwined challenges of food sec ...PermalinkQueensland’s climate is already changing and is likely to change further in the future, posing significant risks for the state. The next chapter of the climate story is about how Queenslanders, and Australians, can find solutions that minimise the risks of climate change while providing extra benefits for our health, community, economy and environment.PermalinkThis concept paper aims at: (i) providing the background information on climate risks in Indonesia; (ii) describing in detail the Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) frameworks and the Climate Risk Management (CRM) concept; (iii) discussing advantages and challenges of adopting the CRM methodology; (iv) reviewing examples and good practices of projects that incorporate both CCA and DRR components in Indonesia; and (v) finally highlighting strategic entry points for a joint CCA/DRR approach in Indonesia. It is intended to offer the Government of Indonesia a practic ...PermalinkBhutan is classified as one of the forty-eight least developed countries with farmers comprising more than two-thirds of its total population. The agriculture sector, which is a significant contributor to the country’s gross domestic product, has been vulnerable to extreme climate events in recent decades. As an effort to address the potential challenges it will face under climate change, this thesis projects the yields of three primary crops grown in Bhutan, rice, wheat and maize, for the period 2030 to 2050, based on climate projections by the PRECIS regional climate model.
In this st ...PermalinkContinued population growth, urbanization and rising incomes are likely to continue to put pressure on food demand. International prices for most agricultural commodities are set to remain at 2010 levels or higher, at least for the next decade (OECD-FAO, 2010). Small-scale producers in many developing countries were not able to reap the benefits of high food prices during the 2007-2008 food price crises. Yet, this upward food price trend could have been an opportunity for them to increase their incomes and food security. The opportunity that high food prices could have provided as a pat ...PermalinkThis analysis suggests that climate change will affect us all sooner than we expected. The aim of the report is to encourage further debate and instigate action among policy makers and business leaders.PermalinkWe explore the relationship between farming practice changes made by households coping with the huge demographic, economic, and ecological changes they have seen in the last 10 years and household food security. We examine whether households that have been introducing new practices, such as improved management of crops, soil, land, water, and livestock (e.g. cover crops, micro-catchments, ridges, rotations, improved pastures, and trees) and new technologies (e.g. improved seeds, shorter-cycle and drought-tolerant varieties) are more likely to be food secure than less innovative farming househo ...PermalinkThe consequences of climate change for agriculture and food security in developing countries are of serious concern. Due to their reliance on rain-fed agriculture, both as a source of income and consumption, many low-income countries are considered to be the most vulnerable to climate change. This paper estimates the impact of climate change on food security in Tanzania. Representative climate projections are used in calibrated crop models to predict crop yield changes for 110 districts in the country. The results are in turn imposed on a highly-disaggregated, recursive dynamic economy-wide mo ...PermalinkClimate change is making extreme weather much more likely. As the 2012 drought in the USA shows, extreme weather means extreme food prices.
Our failure to slash greenhouse gas emissions presents a future of greater food price volatility, with severe consequences for the precarious lives and livelihoods of people living in poverty.
This briefing draws on new research commissioned by Oxfam which models the impact of extreme weather – like droughts, floods and heat waves – on the prices of key international staple crops in 2030. It suggests that existing research, wh ...PermalinkADB, 2012On 12 July 2012, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Plus Three intergovernmental agreement establishing the ASEAN Plus Three Emergency Rice Reserve (APTERR) entered into force. In this paper, lead author Roehlano Briones, a senior research fellow at the Philippine Institute for Development Studies, assesses the effectiveness of APTERR as a mechanism for addressing food security in light of the rising challenges of climate change and price volatility. Using Riceflow, a model of the global rice economy, he studies the possible impacts of APTERR releases on the rice market by simu ...PermalinkPermalinkThis document illustrates the relationship between climate change and agriculture; reviews and demonstrates how current climate change policy responses fall short of addressing the realities of poor rural farmers who are the most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change; and paints an alternative way forward by defining Climate Resilient Sustainable Agriculture (CRSA) and suggesting recommendations to national governments. CRSA prioritises the right to food, environmental conservation, and long-term community resilience in order to reduce food insecurity at the local level, and contribute t ...PermalinkThe Management for Adaptation to Climate Change (MACC) project in Malawi is implemented by Total Land Care (TLC) with funding from the Royal Norwegian Embassy in Malawi and a 5 years time frame from 2008 to mid 2013. The key objectives of the project are to reduce deforestation, to improve household food security and incomes, and to develop rural-based enterprises. The review team found the project in line with Malawian as well as Norwegian development policy. TLC also has an extensive and good cooperation with Malawian NGOs as well as with international organisations, both in Malawi and abroa ...PermalinkThis report analyses the connected problem of food security and climate change. It observes that a social vulnerability lens is essential to understand why certain individuals, households or communities experience differences in food insecurity risks, even when they are in the same geographic region. Examples of strategies for community-based adaptation include improving water management practices, adopting practices to conserving soil moisture, organic matter and nutrients, and setting up community-based seeds and grain banks. The report includes the following recommendations: integrate food ...PermalinkThis study investigates the choice of occupational focus versus diversification between household members in rural Bangladesh as an autonomous and proactive adaptation strategy against ex ante local rainfall variability risks. The analysis combines nationally representative household level survey data with historical climate variability information at the Upazila level. The authors note that flood prone Upazilas may face reduced risks from local rainfall variability as compared with non-flood prone Upazilas. They find that two members of the same household are less likely to be self-employed i ...PermalinkPermalinkThis final report of the AVEMAC study presents an assessment of the potential vulnerability of European agriculture to changing climatic conditions in the coming decades. The analysis is based on weather data generated from two contrasting realizations of the A1B emission scenario of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for the time horizons 2020 and 2030.PermalinkWorld Bank, 2012The purpose of this report is to improve the knowledge base for facilitating investments in land management technologies that sequester soil organic carbon. While there are many studies on soil carbon sequestration, there is no single unifying volume that synthesizes knowledge on the impact of different land management practices on soil carbon sequestration rates across the world. A meta-analysis was carried out to provide soil carbon sequestration rates in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. This is one important element in decision-making for sustainable agricultural intensification, agro-ecosy ...PermalinkTogether, both women and men play a significant role in safeguarding food security. It is important to understand their respective roles and responsibilities to ensure that they benefit equally from climate-smart agriculture practices. However, insufficient research has been undertaken to understand how they are adapting to climate change, mitigating emissions and maintaining food security. To address the gap, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security have jointly come up with this training guide. Its ...PermalinkStarting with an overview of the concept of climate change, the course then looks at its impact on food security. After examining strategies for mitigating or adapting to the effects of climate change, it suggests concrete ways to make sure agriculture is “climate smart”.
The course is aimed at policy makers and people working in development agencies, who need to better understand how climate change affects agriculture and food systems, and what concrete actions can be taken.
The course also includes face to face training materials, such as exercises, trainer’s no ...Permalink