The project was implemented by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in collaboration with the National Meteorological Services of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Chad, Côte d´Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo with funds provided by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Norwegian Government but also by the Government of Greece and minor contributions from AEMET (Spain), EUMETSAT and WMO regular budget.Published by: WMO ; 2019
The project was implemented by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in collaboration with the National Meteorological Services of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Chad, Côte d´Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo with funds provided by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Norwegian Government but also by the Government of Greece and minor contributions from AEMET (Spain), EUMETSAT and WMO regular budget.
Format: Digital (Free)The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) defined that the suitability is a function of crop climate requirements and land characteristics and it is a measure of how will the qualities of land unit matches the requirements of a particular form of land use. The aim of this research is to improve maize production in the lowlands of Lesotho, this is one of the agro-ecological zones with the most arable land and good soils so it is best to determine the suitability of each crop across this region. This will be achieved by quantitatively and qualitatively looking at the climate conditions require ...Published by: Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology ; 2019
The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) defined that the suitability is a function of crop climate requirements and land characteristics and it is a measure of how will the qualities of land unit matches the requirements of a particular form of land use. The aim of this research is to improve maize production in the lowlands of Lesotho, this is one of the agro-ecological zones with the most arable land and good soils so it is best to determine the suitability of each crop across this region. This will be achieved by quantitatively and qualitatively looking at the climate conditions required by maize and also looking at the physio-chemical soil properties that suffices for the maximum production of the crop.
Climatic potential of maize under dryland farming in the lowlands of Lesotho was investigated using five climatic suitability indices namely: probability of receiving heat units of greater than 1320GDD, probability of a frost-free growing season, probability of seasonal rainfall of more than 650mm and the slope of an area. Also the physio-chemical properties of the soils found in the area of study were investigated looking at 6 soil parameters (pH, porosity, permeability, infiltration, organic matter, moisture equivalence) which are crucial to maize growth. For each of the above parameters a coverage layer was prepared in GIS environment and the layers were overlaid to obtain the agro-climatic suitability map of maize in the lowlands of Lesotho. Weighted overlay method is used for suitability analysis. The spatial analysis show that suitable soils are distributed throughout the whole lowlands but they are highly concentrated in the middle parts of the lowlands and with water requirement, the north-most part of the lowlands is highly suitable while the central part is moderately suitable.
The overall maize suitability in the lowlands of Lesotho indicate that 45.7% of the area is moderately suitable and this are concentrated in the middle to northern lowlands. 49.3% of the lowlands are found to be suitable for maize growth and are distributed throughout the whole lowlands but with the highest concentration in the north-most parts. Of the 5% remaining only 4.3% is highly suitable and it some area in the central part of Maseru near Moshoeshoe-I station.
Future projections show that there will be an improvement of growing degree days across the whole lowlands due to an increase in temperature but as of water requirement satisfaction there is a notable change of reduction especially in Mafeteng and Moshoeshoe-I this is due to reduction in annual accumulated rainfall, this is the case for both two (RCP 4.5, RCP 4.5) scenarios undertaken in this study.
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Format: DigitalThe METAGRI project was implemented by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in collaboration with the National Meteorological Services of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Côte d´Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo with funds provided by the State Meteorological Agency of Spain (AEMET).
WMO and AEMET agreed to launch a project on Agrometeorology to support West African Agriculture following the October 2007 Conference of Directors of National Meteorological and Hydrological Services of West Africa. ...Published by: WMO ; 2019
The METAGRI project was implemented by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in collaboration with the National Meteorological Services of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Côte d´Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo with funds provided by the State Meteorological Agency of Spain (AEMET).
WMO and AEMET agreed to launch a project on Agrometeorology to support West African Agriculture following the October 2007 Conference of Directors of National Meteorological and Hydrological Services of West Africa. This programme called METAGRI was formulated around the concept of Roving Seminars on Weather, Climate and Farmers and on the basis of the Mali experience on agrometeorology for farmers (AGROMET).
The objective of METAGRI was to increase awareness of farmers on weather and climate risk management, the use of weather and climate information and services to improve rural production and better prepare against the weather threats emerging from climate change.
The objective of the project is in line with the MDG 1 “Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger” and its relevance is confirmed by scientific studies and technical reports.
The high relevance of the project is testified by scientific and practical knowledge as well as by farmers’ perception.
Format: Digital (Free)Published by: WMO ; 2018
Report on Responses to the Questionnaire on Climate Services for Agriculture in Regional Association V (South-West Pacific)
Format: Digital (Free)This is the report on the project to create the Seasonal Climate Forecast - Course Package T.O.P. The goal of this online course package is to allow the transfer of seasonal climate forecast knowledge to improve and increase the operational capabilities of the targeted users. The package provides both a theoretical and a practical set of knowledge on seasonal forecast and predictability models, climate and data analysis, forecast verification, and specific application of seasonal forecast for agriculture and water management.Published by: WMO ; 2018
Seasonal Climate Forecast - COURSE PACKAGE T.O.P.: Theory and Operational Principles, Project Report
This is the report on the project to create the Seasonal Climate Forecast - Course Package T.O.P. The goal of this online course package is to allow the transfer of seasonal climate forecast knowledge to improve and increase the operational capabilities of the targeted users. The package provides both a theoretical and a practical set of knowledge on seasonal forecast and predictability models, climate and data analysis, forecast verification, and specific application of seasonal forecast for agriculture and water management.
Format: Digital (Free)Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika (BMKG) ; World Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; Sekolah Lapang Iklim - WMO, 2018The Climate Field School, CFS, is a program that has a goal to increase farmer's knowledge's and understandings on climate information's with a concept of learning by doing and learning by experiencing to reach a success in farming activity to support the increase in yields of agricultural sectors.PermalinkThis educational video describes the approach to implementing rovin seminars. Organized as part of the METAGRI project, roving seminars aim to increase the resilience of rural producers to climate change.PermalinkBadan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika (BMKG) ; World Meteorological Organization (WMO) - WMO, 2018PermalinkCette vidéo éducative décrit l'approche de mise en oeuvre des séminaires itinérants. Organisés dans le cadre du projet METAGRI, les séminaires itinérants visent à renforcer la résilience des producteurs ruraux face au changement climatique.PermalinkAgriculture is the largest employer in the world and is probably the most dependent on the climate of all human activities. In recent years there have been events that have put in evidence the vulnerability of global food security to major meteorological phenomena, both in global agricultural markets and the world economy. The food price crisis and the subsequent economic crisis reduced the purchasing power of large segments of the population in many developing countries, which seriously reduced their access to food and thus undermined their food security. During the years 2009 and 2010 in Ven ...PermalinkClimate is one of the key factors that affect agriculture. Climate change and climate variability have been observed, typically shown as global warming due to the increased greenhouse gases. The change in climate is even predicted to be rapped and sharp in recent future and the impacts of extreme climate condition associated with climate change will be high on agriculture. Studying the impacts of climate change, especially the effects of temperature and precipitation on agriculture, is important for food safety, agricultural management, and sustainable development.PermalinkThis document presents an overview on the impact of the Dry Corridor phenomenon in Central America, and the work the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) - in collaboration with its partners - is doing to support countries to increase disaster resilience of households, communities and institutions.PermalinkFood and Agriculture Organization (FAO); Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation (MOAI) Myanmar - gov ; Ministry of Livestock, Fisheries and Rural Development (MLFRD) Myanmar - gov ; et al. - FAO, 2015This report assesses the disaster impact of the cyclone Komen on agriculture and rural-based livelihoods of affected populations in Myanmar. The assessment was conducted in the six most-affected regions/states of Ayeyarwady, Bago, Chin, Magway, Rakhine and Sagaing. It was co-led by FAO and WFP under the framework of the Food Security Sector in partnership with UN women, World Vision, CESVI, CARE, JICA and LIFT.PermalinkThis paper presents evidence on how the 2007−2010 drought contributed to the conflict in Syria. It was the worst drought in the instrumental record, causing widespread crop failure and a mass migration of farming families to urban centers. Century-long observed trends in precipitation, temperature, and sea-level pressure, supported by climate model results, strongly suggest that anthropogenic forcing has increased the probability of severe and persistent droughts in this region, and made the occurrence of a 3-year drought as severe as that of 2007−2010 2 to 3 times more likely than by natural ...PermalinkThis paper focuses on the weather and climate aspects of risk and uncertainty in North America, Central America, and the Caribbean. It provides an overview of the weather and climate risks to agriculture in the region and identifies the extreme episodic events that most often threaten agriculture. Examples of these extreme episodic events are documented, quantifying impacts on local agriculture.PermalinkThis report examines the resilience of the global food system to extreme weather.
This summary is built on three detailed reports and presents evidence that the global food system is vulnerable to production shocks caused by extreme weather, and that this risk is growing. It highlights evidence that our reliance on increasing volumes of global trade, whilst having many benefits, also creates structural vulnerability via a liability to amplify production shocks in some circumstances. It argues that action is needed to improve the resilience of the global food system to weather-re ...PermalinkThis paper examines agricultural vulnerability to climate change in eight selected rural settlements in Sokoto State, Nigeria.
An integrated approach is used which combines environmental and socio-economic determinants. Results show that while there were downward trends of annual rainfall and raindays in Sokoto, annual mean temperatures show upward trend. Annual droughts were of slight and moderate intensities during the period under review. The results also revealed that unreliable rainfall, desertification, increasing temperatures, scarcity of pastures and inaccessibility to c ...PermalinkThis brief is a country case study of Nepal produced alongside the DFID Topic Guide on Climate Change, Food Security and Agriculture. It highlights how climate change affects the situation of food security and agriculture in Nepal. The aim is to provide country offices with specific guidance on activities, barriers and opportunities for integrating climate change and Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) approaches within the national context.PermalinkCopernicus Publications, 2015This study compares the contributions of climate change and socioeconomic development to potential future changes of agricultural land use in West Africa.
It uses a prototype land use projection (LandPro) algorithm which is based on a balance between food supply and demand, and accounts for the impact of socioeconomic drivers on the demand side and the impact of climate-induced crop yield changes on the supply side. It considers the impact of human decision-making on land use.
The paper argues that without agricultural intensification, the climate-induced decrease ...PermalinkPermalinkThis policy brief identifies possible implications of climate change disturbances on crops and livestock in world production centers by 2030, 2050 and 2080. Most of the studies on food systems under climate change are producer-centric, while this brief looks at options for importing countries, and discusses some recommendations.
The imperative of climate change adaptation for a resilient food system requires institutional, technological and economic transformation not only in food exporting but also food importing countries. Furthermore, mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions in ...Permalink
This working paper tries to estimate the cost of global climate change impacts for India.
The study finds that climate change will result in significant economic losses for India across sectors, including agricultural production. There is likely to be a need for additional power generation for meeting higher cooling energy needs of India. The paper argues that health impacts should be best measured in terms of deaths due to higher incidence of diseases, including diarrhoea, malaria and dengue. A loss of economic output is also predicted.
The cost o ...PermalinkThis Topic Guide addresses the threat that climate change poses to food security and poverty reduction achievements. The peer-reviewed guide explains how programming around climate-smart agriculture can help adapt and build resilience to climate change – at the same time stimulating economic growth and poverty reduction in the agricultural sector.
The main message from this Topic Guide is that climate change is already affecting food security and agricultural growth under all types of agriculture, and is expected to continue to have an increasingly serious impact on smallholders and lar ...PermalinkThis document showcases case studies of programmes and projects that address climate and disaster risks, through climate change adaptation, disaster risk management and/ or greenhouse gas emissions reduction. This compendium highlights lessons learnt at the programme and project level and may be used as a resource for future initiatives moving forward under the Strategy for Climate and Disaster Resilient Development in the Pacific (SRDP).
This compendium provides a snapshot from initiatives undertaken in recent years, focusing on projects where valuable lessons could be drawn. T ...PermalinkThis report emphasizes that governments at all levels must provide their agencies with the authority and resources required to fulfill their disaster preparedness responsibilities and provincial and federal governments must provide further funding assistance to help empower local authorities. It explains that organizations outside of government as well as the public have preparedness responsibilities which they must come to understand, accept and fulfil. In addition, the report touches upon several recommendations which can be used by governments to successfully work towards better preparednes ...PermalinkБюллетень, Том 62. BMO, 2014Локализация климатической информационной продукции и обслуживания в сельском хозяйстве направлена на оказа- ние полного спектра консультационных услуг, касающихся климата, его воздействия на зерновые культуры, поголо- вье скота, рыболовство, и практики управления, которой нужно следовать, чтобы предотвратить, уменьшить и/или управлять рисками. Специально подготовленная инфор- мация помогает фермерам в принятии управленческих решений, чтобы уменьшить риски и получить пользу от возможностей, которые предоставляет имеющий тенден- цию к изменчивости и изменению климат. Таким образом, она должна вк ...PermalinkThis study argues that annual carbon emissions from global agriculture can be reduced by as much as 50 to 90 per cent by 2030 - the equivalent of removing all the cars in the world. The study highlights 12 key strategies with more specific interventions for philanthropy—led by reduced global beef consumption, reduced food waste and better farm nutrient management and production—that can deliver on climate change while maintaining food security and building resilience. It argues that productivity and sustainability can work hand in hand.
The paper argues that a constructive debate on agr ...PermalinkThis report analyses evidence linking community forest rights with healthier forests and lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from deforestation and forest degradation.
It makes the case for strengthening the rights of indigenous and local communities over their forests as a policy tool for mitigating climate change. The report argues that when Indigenous Peoples and local communities have no or weak legal rights, their forests tend to be vulnerable to deforestation and thus become the source of carbon dioxide emissions. Legal forest rights for communities and government protection of t ...PermalinkAlliance Development Works ; United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS) - UNU, 2014This WorldRiskReport (WRR) consists of an index, a priority topic and case studies. The index describes the disaster risk for various countries and regions. The WorldRiskReport was developed in close cooperation between scientists and practitioners. Combined expertise, i.e. scientific structure and procedure and practical competence distinguish this report from comparable academic studies.PermalinkThis report focuses on the risks of climate change to development in Latin America and the Caribbean, the Middle East and North Africa, and parts of Europe and Central Asia. For each region, the report addresses the regional patterns of climate change, such as heat extremes, extreme precipitation, droughts, tropical cyclones/hurricanes, and sea-level rise.
Building on earlier Turn Down the Heat reports, this new scientific analysis examines the likely impacts of present day (0.8°C), 2°C and 4°C warming above pre-industrial temperatures on agricultural production, water resource ...PermalinkWater, food and energy are fundamental to African development. However, several crucial issues need to be addressed. Are African resources used to meet African needs or are they being exploited to satisfy the needs of other actors facing food and energy insecurity?PermalinkThis report presents a series of tables which analyse the potential impact of a changed climate on the most common diseases afflicting cattle, sheep, goats, camels, donkeys, pigs, and chickens in Mali. For each livestock disease identified, the disease status under current climate was assessed, including the geographical range of the endemic zone, the rate of disease outbreaks within endemic zones, the mode of pathogen transmission, and the relative economic importance to livestock owners. These served as the baseline for an assessment of the likely change in risk of infection under climate sc ...PermalinkIFPRI, 2014This food policy report reviews resilience processes, activities, and outcomes by examining a number of case studies of initiatives by nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to enhance resilience capacity, and draws implications for policymakers and other stakeholders looking to strengthen resilience. It argues that resilience building relies on integrated programming, which is defined as a cross-sectoral approach with a long-term commitment to improving the three critical capacities: absorptive capacity (disaster risk management), adaptive capacity (longer-term livelihood investments), and tran ...PermalinkThis working paper argues that agroforestry and livestock-keeping both have the potential to promote anthropogenic climate change resilience and support each other in this context.
The paper discusses relevant issues in East Africa, where recent agroforestry interventions to support livestock keeping have included the planting of mostly-exotic tree-fodders, and where most parts of the region are expected to become drier in the next decades, although smaller areas may become wetter. It argues that wider cultivation and improved management of fodder trees provides adaptation and mitigatio ...PermalinkPermalink2014Background: The amount and distribution of rainfall and temperature influences household food availability, thus increasing the risk of child under nutrition. However, few studies examined the local spatial variability and the impact of temperature and rainfall on child under nutrition at a smaller scale (resolution). We conducted this study to evaluate the effect of weather variables on child under nutrition and the variations in effects across the three agro ecologies of Ethiopia.
Methods: A longitudinal panel study was conducted. We used crop productions (cereals and oilseeds), lives ...PermalinkThe aim of this study is to compare and combine the results from different conservation agriculture experiments using meta-analysis in the hope of identifying patterns among study results, sources of disagreement among those results, or interesting relationships that may come to light in the context of the different studies.
Conservation agriculture involves reduced or no-tillage, permanent soil cover and crop rotations to enhance soil fertility and crop yields. Conservation agriculture practices are increasingly promoted on smallholder farms in sub-Saharan Africa as a means to overcome ...PermalinkCentral and South America. The report assesses the implications of climate change for agriculture, with a particular focus on those aspects of climate change that will have greatest impact on the crops currently grown in each region. The study investigated the ability of General Circulation Models (GCMs) and downscaled climate change scenarios to reproduce already observed climates, to establish the reliability of future climate projections, as well as projections of how associated crops might grow under future conditions.PermalinkThis study has a focus on climate adaptation strategies for farmers in Malawi.
This paper assesses farmers’ incentives and conditioning factors that hinder or promote adaptation strategies and evaluates its impact on crop productivity by utilizing household level data collected in 2011 from nationally representative sample households in Malawi. The study distinguishes between (i) exposure to climatic disruptions, (ii) bio-physical sensitivity to such disruptions, (iii) household adaptive capacity in terms of farmers’ ability to prepare and adjust to the resulting stress, and, finally, ( ...PermalinkGovernment of Canada, 2014This report focuses on new information and knowledge, assessing advances made in understanding climate change impacts and adaptation from a sectoral perspective, based primarily on literature published up to the end of 2012. It draws from the individual chapters of Canada's national-scale science assessment of climate change impacts and adaptation, which include an overview of Canada’s changing climate (Ch. 2), thematic chapters focused on sectors (Ch. 3 to 8) and the concluding chapter on adaptation research and practice (Ch. 9). The rest of the synthesis is structured around high-level concl ...PermalinkThis paper documents a significant impact of climate variation on urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa, primarily in more arid countries. By lowering farm incomes, reduced moisture availability encourages migration to nearby cities, while wetter conditions slow migration. The paper also provides evidence for rural-urban income links. In countries with a larger industrial base, reduced moisture shrinks the agricultural sector and raises total incomes in nearby cities. However, if local cities are entirely dependent on servicing agriculture so their fortunes move with those of agriculture, reduced ...PermalinkRusinga O. - 2014PermalinkThis case study aims to illustrate how the Western Province in Sri Lanka is promoting urban and peri-urban agriculture and forestry as a strategy to reduce vulnerability to climate change, while at the same time enhancing urban liveability and livelihoods. Key messages include that the province is promoting the rehabilitation of flood zones through their productive use as a strategy to improve storm water infiltration and mitigate flood risks. It is recommended that future upscaling of these interventions will need new urban design concepts and the development of a provincial climate change ...PermalinkThis paper is the first in a series of Evaluation Reviews, which are intended to highlight and distil findings from published evaluations of climate change related programme interventions. This paper is aimed at sharing some design, monitoring, and evaluation (DME) ‘lessons learned’ that are pertinent to Climate Change Adaptation (CCA), which have been drawn from a small selection of agriculture/food security (AFS) programmes across Asia. The paper is organised into five sections. It begins with a brief overview of climate change in Asia and the implications for agriculture and food security, ...PermalinkThis working paper summarises work on the costs and benefits of climate change adaptation for the water sector in Africa. It reviews adaptation cost estimates for the continent and the main economic appraisal methods used, then summarises results. It focuses on adaptation to climate impacts on the water sector, such as damage to water infrastructure, rather than impacts from water on other sectors, such as agricultural drought. The paper identifies two key priorities for future appraisals: 1) greater focus on the costs and benefits of ‘soft’, non-infrastructure adaptation interventions 2) use ...PermalinkThis paper deals with the consequences of climate change for farmers in Africa, including increasing temperatures and changing rainfall, increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide content and impacts on agricultural production. The paper attempts to illustrate local conditions that must be taken into account to understand the impacts/consequences of climate change for African farmers and how they may cope with them. The review is in three parts; climate change is approached by dealing with the three sides from which the danger comes: (i) global warming, (ii) increasing climate variability, (iii) mo ...PermalinkThis paper highlights the impact of climate change on agriculture. It argues that the erratic climate of the region has strongly impacted the local food system especially the seed availability and therefore food security in general. This paper identifies some of the innovation in water use efficiency, water management at crop levels, and proposes some agriculture interventions in order to achieve a sustainable local seed systems, participatory breeding, livestock adaptation measures and improvement of existing agroforestry as well as knowledge management.PermalinkThe CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE), led by the International Water Management Institute (IWMI), and partners organized a two day international workshop which was held on May 7- 8, 2013. The workshop titled “Moving from Water Problems to Water Solutions: Research Needs Assessment for the Eastern Gangetic Plains” focused on reviewing the state of knowledge, institutions and successful practices to enhance productivity of land and water resources within the region. The proceedings of the workshop are highlighted in this report.Permalinkis an issue of Bulletin. OMM, 2013Permalinkis an issue of Bulletin. WMO, 2013PermalinkThere exists a wealth of largely overlooked experience that has been accrued over generations by small-scale farmers and pastoralists in poor countries as they cope with climatic extremes and increasing uncertainty – climate-change related or otherwise. IIED has 40 years’ experience of working with these producers; this Gatekeeper paper draws lessons from this wealth of knowledge in order to inform adaptation planning efforts at all levels. The paper underscores how measures to increase climate change resilience must view food, energy, water and waste management systems as interconnected and m ...PermalinkEuropean Commission, 2013In the wake of the Sahelian droughts and the resulting food insecurity crises of the 1970s and mid-1980s, the international community and national governments alike have focused on early warning systems as a mechanism to prevent famines and avert acute malnutrition. Thirty years later, food insecurity still prevails in many areas of the globe, amidst rapidly evolving geopolitics. A different and innovative way to tackle the problem of the fluctuating food availability attracted the attention of development agencies and governments in developing countries some 15 years ago: index-based crop ins ...PermalinkThis report evaluates the extent to which farms facing higher levels of drought risk are more likely to participate in conservation programs, and finds a strong link between drought risk and program participation. It examines drought risk adaptation, defined as the choices that farmers make in response to drought risk exposure, and addresses the policy uncertainty by examining the role of drought risk within agricultural conservation programs and considering potential changes in conservation program design, such as adjustments in contract ranking criteria or changes in eligibility requirements ...PermalinkDrawing upon several sources of information and types of analysis, including literature reviews, field visits and rapid participatory assessments, this paper provides a critical assessment of land-related development policies and projects over the past two decades in Central America. Reflections on past land-related development policies and projects in Central America are based on their contributions to growth and poverty reduction. The paper calls for future projects to better integrate poverty reduction and development goals, natural resource management, disaster risk management and climate ...PermalinkThis report explores how Britain can achieve Carbon neutrality. Building upon the groundwork laid by the Zero Carbon Britain project over the last six years, the authors incorporate the latest developments in science and technology, plus more detailed research in two main areas: balancing highly variable energy supply and demand; and the nutritional implications of a low carbon diet. The report highlights the need for further research on adaptation, economic transition and policy that would achieve sufficient greenhouse gas emissions reductions quickly and equitably. From a broader viewpoint, ...PermalinkThis assessment was conducted in 2012. Field research focused on Gulu, Lira, Luweero, Mbale, Isingiro, and Kasese, USAID/Feed the Future priority districts that include important cropping systems, represent different agro-ecological zones, and are near weather stations that have collected consistent rainfall and temperature data for a long period of time.
The research and analysis show how current climate patterns shape – and how future climate patterns may influence – key crop value chains and the livelihoods of households that depend on them.PermalinkThis publication seeks to identify promoted policy entry points to support the implementation of priority adaptation strategies, and identifies policy mechanisms as appropriate interventions to allow agropastoralists to buffer the effects of climate variability and change. The purpose of this project is to co-generate methods, information and solutions between local communities, local and international scientists, policymakers and other actors involved in climate change and adaptation programs, for coping mechanisms and adapting strategies to climate change and variability in West and Southern ...PermalinkThe main objective of this strategic intervention is to reduce the impacts of climate change and land degradation on rural farm lands by intensifying the production of fruit trees. This will generate income and help farmers adapt to climate change.
Most farmland areas are devoid of plantations and natural vegetation forests making them susceptible to the impacts of climate change. These areas could experience more soil erosion because of the reduced rainfall and the increase in temperature. The introduction of fruit trees on the farmland or near the households could create a greener env ...PermalinkPlan International, 2013This study shows that climate change and environmental degradation are causing pronounced negative effects on food, water and energy, with two distinctive features – gender and geographic inequality, where men, women and children are disproportionately affected and where some areas are more vulnerable and hit much harder than others. The study also reveals that the effects of climate change have a tendency of being accompanied by other human-induced impacts such as resource over-exploitation, which are already posing a major environmental challenge in Africa. These factors represent a major ch ...PermalinkThis case study is designed to provide a practical example of how to use climate information to support adaptation planning and policy-making. The paper focuses on the Bagamoyo district in coastal Tanzania. Local livelihoods are mostly based on natural resources, including small-scale agriculture, seaweed farming, traditional fishing and small-scale eco-tourism. People living on the coast report that climate variability and climate change are affecting their lives due to factors such as unreliable timing and intensity of rainfall, major flooding and sea-level rise. These impacts have increased ...PermalinkThe goal of this research was to examine the likely impacts of climate change on agriculture in Bangladesh, and develop recommendations to policymakers to help farmers adapt to the changes. A variety of research methods were used. When taken together, the results indicate that adaptation efforts in Bangladesh should include adjusting planting dates, using improved cultivars better suited for climate change, improving fertilizer application, exploring increased maize production, and bolstering flood and pest protection for farmers.PermalinkAccording to this report, the global livestock sector contributes a significant share to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, but it can also deliver a significant share of the necessary mitigation effort. The authors call for urgent, concerted and collective action from all sector stakeholders to ensure that existing and promising mitigation strategies are implemented. They also highlight a need to reduce the sector’s emissions and its environmental footprint, especially in view of its continuing expansion to ensure food security and feed a growing, richer and more urbanized world populati ...PermalinkSub-Saharan Africa is particularly vulnerable to global challenges such as food insecurity, climate change, rural poverty, malnutrition and environmental protection. This puts pressure on the fragile food production system.
The term ‘Sustainable Intensification’ – ‘producing more outputs with more efficient use of all inputs on a durable basis, while reducing environmental damage and building resilience, natural capital and the flow of environmental services’ – has become synonymous with big, industrial agriculture. The writers of the report are concerned that as the world’s population ...PermalinkWith agriculture being the main source of both employment and income for southern Africa’s rural population, there is great concern regarding the potential impact of climate change. This study, produced by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), represents a comprehensive analysis of ways to foster agricultural development and food security to reduce such impacts. Several weather-based scenarios have been developed by the authors, describing how climate change may affect the region up to 2050. National contributors from Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Swa ...PermalinkThe anticipated changes in water availability, temperature rise, soil degradation and the suggested increase in extreme weather events are likely to greatly affect agriculture in India. This paper aims to develop the vulnerability profile of agricultural systems of the Indian states to the changing climate scenarios. It develops two sub indices: Bio-Physical vulnerability index and Socio-Economic vulnerability index to develop the final overall vulnerability index.
The contribution of agriculture to India’s GDP has been declining over recent years, but agriculture still provides employm ...PermalinkIn 2010, FAO prepared guidelines to support policy-makers in integrating climate change concerns into new or existing forest policies and national forest programmes. This document serves as a companion to those 2010 guidelines in order to aid sustainable forest management.
This document provides guidance on what forest managers should consider in assessing vulnerability, risk, mitigation options, and actions for adaptation, mitigation and monitoring in response to climate change.PermalinkThis study analyzes the range of plausible impacts of climate change by the year 2050, focusing almost entirely on crops. It builds on previous research that focused on regional and global effects of climate change. The first chapter provides a regional overview for southern Africa. Eight chapters look at the effects of climate change on eight countries in southern Africa: Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. It is intended to provide policymakers and others concerned with climate change, agriculture, and food policy with guidance on the range o ...PermalinkCambodia is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change because of the predicted changes in temperature and precipitation, the share of labour in agriculture, and low adaptive capacity due to widespread poverty. This study uses climate data from four general circulation models (GCMs) to evaluate the impact of climate change on agriculture in Cambodia by 2050.
An evaluation of crop yields was undertaken as well as exploring potential gains from changing fertiliser levels and using irrigation to compensate for rainfall changes. A survey of 45 communes was also conducted using f ...PermalinkThis Issues Brief is based on the proceedings of the Expert Group Meeting on the Impact of Climate Change on ASEAN Food Security held in June 2013. This meeting called for higher priority to be given to research on climate shifts, a greater focus on agricultural research and development and also highlighted the need for resource and knowledge inputs from those involved in food value chains across Southeast Asia.PermalinkICARDA, 2013There are hundreds of Multilateral Environmental Agreements(MEAs) dealing with various environmental issues and they are the main method available under international law for countriesto work together on global issues.The assessment of the implementation, compliance and effectiveness of multilateral environmental agreements is in many cases complicated and plagued with gaps in data, conceptual difficulties and methodological problems. Most Supreme Audit Institutions (SAIs) with their specific competencies are uniquely poised to assess these gaps and report to parliament and inform the national ...PermalinkThis document examines the ways in which farmers in rural India are adapting to climate change in order to preserve their livelihoods. The document is comprised of seven sections: (i) section one introduces the idea of indigenous knowledge in relation to climate change; (ii) section two explains the agricultural impacts of climate change in India; (iii) section three discusses methods of climate change adaptation; (iv) section four outlines the methodology and scope of this study; (v) section five presents and discusses extensively the results of the study regarding the ways in which farmers h ...PermalinkIFPRI, 2013This report explores the challenges and opportunities for building human, organizational, and institutional capacity for more effective climate change adaptation in developing countries. It particularly focuses on climate change issues related to the agriculture sector and rural livelihoods in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Kenya, and Mali.
The report is part of a larger research project titled “Enhancing women’s assets to manage risk under climate change: potential for group-based approaches,” which is being conducted to help organizations better understand ways in which development pr ...PermalinkThis study assesses the response of farmers to climate change, impacts of climate change to their livelihoods, and the potential of the three agricultural systems, agro-forestry, conservation agriculture and conventional agriculture, as adaptation strategies to climate change in Ts’akholo and Kolo communities in Mafeteng District, Lesotho. The study has contributed to knowledge in the field of global environmental change and its relationship with agriculture, food security and general livelihoods, especially for farmers and policy-makers in Lesotho.PermalinkThis report aims to assist decision-makers in Jordan and Lebanon in understanding the specific challenges and opportunities posed by climate change in the agricultural sector and to develop local-level priorities, informed by stakeholder input, in order to build agricultural resilience in the two countries. The report is divided into four chapters: (i) chapter one introduces the background of the study and the structure of the report; (ii) chapter two provides a synthesis of evidence of climate variability and change in Jordan and Lebanon; (iii) chapter three explains the methodology of the st ...PermalinkThis report provides illustrative examples of the variety of work on climate change adaptation that is underway in the United States and insight into the resultant gaps and opportunities available for advancing this essential aspect of sustainability. The report focuses on four areas of activity: agriculture, natural resources, human communities, and policy.PermalinkRobinson S.; Ethiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI) ; International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) - EDRI, 2013This paper uses spatially-explicit analyses of climate change effects on selected key sectors of Ethiopia’s economy to estimate both sector-wise and economy-wide estimates of impacts and adaptation costs. It also provides sector-specific insights on impacts and adaptation options in agriculture, road transport, and hydropower. In particular, rapid development of Ethiopia’s hydro-potential, upgrading of the road design standards, and gradual diversification of the economy away from the more climate vulnerable sectors are likely to be important elements of any climate-resilient development strat ...PermalinkAgbongiarhuoyi A. E. - 2013Changing climate and weather patterns are predicted to have severe negative impacts on food production, food security and natural resources in the immediate and coming years. Climate change alters the development of cocoa pods, insect pests and pathogens which translate into lower crop yields and impact farm income. This study examined the climate change adaptation strategies of cocoa producing farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria.
Findings include: most farmers observed an extension beyond the normal dry months: November-February. The main climate change strategies adopted by farmers includ ...PermalinkThis policy brief by the Asian Development Bank argues that, given the negative impact of climate change on Mongolia, it is crucial to select mitigation actions that reduce vulnerability to climate change, support the achievement of national development goals, and are feasible given local constraints.PermalinkClimate change is already affecting the foundations on which Latin American societies rely for sustenance and welfare. Addressing these impacts, this report was prepared by a task force of the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), and the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLAC).
Although the carbon footprint of Latin America and the Caribbean is modest and appears to be decreasing, efforts to further reduce that footprint are required if global climate stabilization goals are to be achieved. A substantial contribution of this r ...PermalinkThis manual provides users with the information, tools and training skills required to deliver Capacity Enhancement Workshops (CEWs) to rural women farmers and rural elected women leaders to raise their awareness of the causes and effects of climate change, especially on agriculture and food security; help empower them to adapt successfully to projected changes by being aware of available government plans and programmes and field-based adaptation models by non-government actors; make them aware of gender-differentiated impacts and the different roles that men and women need to play in adapting ...PermalinkICRAF, 2013Decline in agricultural productivity due to severe land degradation is a common issue in many farming systems in Ethiopia. Several places, including the high potential agricultural areas, are dealing with highly degraded landscapes and severe soil loss.PermalinkCCAFS, 2013This report summarizes the proceedings of the international expert roundtable on “Developing a Methodology to Evaluate Climate Services for Farmers in Africa and South Asia” held in Kaffrine, Senegal on May 19-25, 2013. The roundtable brought together global experts in the area of gender-responsive impact assessment for farmers, to develop a useable monitoring and evaluation (M&E) protocol to guide baseline data collection, identify the locally-specific function, benefits, and beneficiaries of climate services, and measure the added-value of climate services for farmers. This protocol links to ...PermalinkThis report presents a brief and interactive summary of the Climate Change in Africa research and capacity program’s chief contributions. It provides a guided tour of the program’s efforts and legacy – its aims and means, the principal outcomes of the funding and mentoring it provided to African researchers, and the lessons it offers for future adaptation efforts in Africa and elsewhere. Throughout this report, there are links to programme and project resources, and directions for delving further into its scientific findings.PermalinkCurrent approaches to identify the costs and benefits of adaptation are primarily quantitative, using top-down methodologies that may grossly underestimate the true costs. This policy brief argues that global policies require credible evidence from the local level. Given that a single generic adaptation model is unworkable, the policy brief introduces a new analytical costing framework – Participatory Social Return on Investment (PSROI) – which has been piloted successfully in subsistence farming communities in East and West Africa.
Although the Kenyan example is very specific, the PSRO ...PermalinkAgricultural transformation agenda among other things aims at making Nigeria food secure. This mission stands to be threatened by the negative impact of climate change, hence, innovations that will help overcome the threats is paramount. Such innovations could be developed in the universities if the needed enabling environment is provided. This study examines the capabilities of universities in combating the problems of climate change towards increased food production. A total sample size of 79 respondents selected from universities in Southeast, Nigeria was used. Data were collected with the ...PermalinkProviding a detailed picture of the value of trees for local people in the tropics is a difficult undertaking. Not only does this represent the difficulty in accounting for values outside formal markets, but it also reflects the multiplicity of the species involved and the many different ways in which trees are used. In these circumstances, one approach that can b used to gain insight is to focus on a narrower range of species such as tree commodity crops commonly grown by smallholders, where more data on economic value are available. Another method can be employed to provide an overview of us ...PermalinkWith the intention of providing elements useful for decision making, this study by the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) analyses the potential impacts of climate change on the agricultural sector in Belize. The document is organised into six chapters. The first chapter contains a review of the literature related to the impact of climate change on the agricultural sector, emphasising the work in the region and Belize. The second chapter provides an overview of the current situation in the agricultural sector, as well as the strategies adopted by the Belizean gover ...PermalinkIn Mesoamerica, coffee is an important part of agricultural GDP and export revenues which supports about half a million farmers, and employs millions of people on the farms and all along the supply chain. This policy brief summarises the potential risks and impacts of climate change on coffee farming in the region. Traditional coffee agroforests provide important ecosystem services and conserve significant carbon stocks. Climate change threatens coffee production, as projected increases in temperature and changes in rainfall will likely reduce crop suitability in most current growing areas. Op ...PermalinkThis paper identifies sixteen cases of large-scale actions in the agriculture and forestry sectors that have adaptation and/or mitigation outcomes, and distils lessons from the cases. The cases cover policy and strategy development (including where climate-smart objectives were not the initial aim), climate risk management through insurance, weather information services and social protection, and agricultural initiatives that have a strong link to climate change adaptation and mitigation.PermalinkUNEP, 2013The change to a green and better fed world depends on the development of low carbon agriculture. Improving food and nutrition security while protecting the earth’s natural resource base will require a smarter, more innovative, better focused and cost-effective approach.PermalinkThis Africa Adaptation Programme (AAP) report details the achievements and lessons learned, as told by those who implemented it. It features interviews with representatives from almost every AAP country and seeks to chronicle the successes of the Programme by giving a voice to the people on the ground who made it happen. The AAP was launched by UNDP in 2008 as a four-year programme with US$ 92.1 million from the Government of Japan.PermalinkClimate change is now a global phenomenon with growth, poverty, food security, and stability implications. Because of significant dependence on the agricultural sector for production, employment, and export revenues, Ethiopia is seriously threatened by climate change, which contributes to frequent drought, flooding, and rising average temperatures. To examine the impact of climate change on agricultural production and to quantify the resulting lost output, this study conducts a time series analysis using country and regional level data. The econometric application on the appropriate production ...PermalinkThis brief focuses on the key disaster risk reduction (DRR) activities that the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) carries out in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (WBGS). It seeks to give an overview of FAO's DRR strategy and briefly describe their activities in WBGS to protect livelihoods from shocks, to make food production systems more resilient and more capable of absorbing the impact of, and recovering from, disruptive events, such as floods, droughts, earthquakes, animal and plants pests and diseases.PermalinkThis report focuses on the risks of climate change to development in Sub-Saharan Africa, South East Asia and South Asia. Building on the 2012 report, Turn Down the Heat: Why a 4°C Warmer World Must be Avoided, this new scientific analysis gives a more detailed look at how the negative impacts of climate change already in motion could create devastating conditions especially for those least able to adapt. It asserts that the case for resilience has never been stronger. This report demands action. It reinforces the fact that climate change is a fundamental threat to economic development and the ...PermalinkThe rapid expansion of commodity agriculture in tropical forest landscapes is a key driver of deforestation. To meet the growing demand from a more prosperous and expanding global population, it is imperative to develop sustainable commodity supply chains that support higher agricultural productivity, and that enable improved environmental, economic, and social outcomes. Interventions by community, market, and state actors can enhance the sustainability of supply chains by affecting where and how agricultural production occurs. These interventions—in the form of novel or moderated instit ...PermalinkThis paper uses spatially - explicit analyses of climate change effects on selected key sectors of Ethiopia’s economy to analyse both sector-wise and economy-wide estimates of impacts and adaptation costs. Using four models to bracket the uncertainty surrounding future climate outcomes, the paper finds that by 2050 climate change could cause GDP to be eight to ten per cent smaller than under a no-climate change baseline; it could induce a two-fold increase in variability of growth in agriculture; and it would affect more severely the poor and certain parts of the country. The paper also finds ...PermalinkVermeulen Sonja J. - 2013We present a framework for prioritizing adaptation approaches at a range of timeframes. The framework is illustrated by four case studies from developing countries, each with associated characterization of uncertainty. Two cases on near-term adaptation planning in Sri Lanka and on stakeholder scenario exercises in East Africa show how the relative utility of capacity vs. impact approaches to adaptation planning differ with level of uncertainty and associated lead time. An additional two cases demonstrate that it is possible to identify uncertainties that are relevant to decision making in spec ...PermalinkClimate-smart interventions are highly location-specific and knowledge-intensive. Therefore, considerable efforts are required to develop the knowledge and capacities to make climate-smart agriculture (CSA) a reality. The purpose of this sourcebook is to further elaborate the concept of CSA and demonstrate its potential, as well as its limitations. It is aimed as a reference tool for planners, practitioners and policymakers working in agriculture, forestry and fisheries at national and subnational levels, dealing with the effects of climate change.PermalinkThrough two participatory case studies, this paper examines the impact of climate change on the indigenous peoples of Namibia. The objectives of the case studies are three-fold: to document how the indigenous peoples are affected by climate change; to analyse how they perceive, adapt to and leverage opportunities from climate change; and provide recommendations for strengthening the indigenous peoples’ engagement in national and international public climate change policy.PermalinkThe problem of climate change in Africa has the potential of undermining sustainable development efforts if steps are not taken to respond to its adverse consequences. This study reviews existing and available literature on farmers’ perceptions and adaptations to climate change in sub-Sahara Africa.
It is evident that the majority of farmers in sub-Sahara Africa are aware of warmer temperatures and changes in precipitation patterns. To respond to these changes, farmers have adopted crop diversification, planting different crop varieties, changing planting and harvesting dates to corres ...Permalink