Китай является одной из стран, наиболее подверженных воздействию опасных явлений. В период с 1984 по 2014 г. метеорологические опасные явления в среднем ежегодно уносили 4 066 жизней и наносили прямой экономический ущерб в размере 192,2 млрд китайских юаней (30,5 млрд долларов США), что составляет 2 % внутреннего вало- вого продукта Китая. Показатель среднегодовых убытков (отношение прямых экономических убытков к годовому ВВП) снизился наполовину – с 2,08 % в период с 1984 по 2000 г. до 1,03 % в период с 2001 по 2014 г. – благодаря повышению эффективности мер по предотвращению и смягчению посл ...[article]
in Бюллетень > Том 64(2) (2015 г.) . - p.9-12
Китай является одной из стран, наиболее подверженных воздействию опасных явлений. В период с 1984 по 2014 г. метеорологические опасные явления в среднем ежегодно уносили 4 066 жизней и наносили прямой экономический ущерб в размере 192,2 млрд китайских юаней (30,5 млрд долларов США), что составляет 2 % внутреннего вало- вого продукта Китая. Показатель среднегодовых убытков (отношение прямых экономических убытков к годовому ВВП) снизился наполовину – с 2,08 % в период с 1984 по 2000 г. до 1,03 % в период с 2001 по 2014 г. – благодаря повышению эффективности мер по предотвращению и смягчению последствий. Однако этот показатель (1,03 %) в 8 раз выше, чем общемировой средний показатель (0,14 %) и в 3 раза выше, чем показатель для Соединен- ных Штатов Америки (0,36 %). Фактически показатель средних убытков в Китае превышает показатель для всех других стран, также серьезно подверженных воз- действию метеорологических опасных явлений. В этой связи в 2009 г. Китайское метеорологическое управление (КМУ) приняло решение о том, что в Китае обслужива- ние по предоставлению заблаговременных предупреж- дений нуждается в дальнейшем совершенствовании.1 2
Language(s): Russian; Other Languages: English, French, Spanish
Format: Digital (Free), Hard copy[article]La Chine est l’un des pays les plus durement touches par les conditions meteorologiques. Entre 1984 et 2014, ces phenomenes ont provoque en moyenne, chaque annee, la mort de 4 066 personnes et des pertes economiques directes de 192,2 milliards de yuan (30,5 milliards de dollars E. U.) – 2 % du produit interieur brut (PIB). Le coefficient de perte annuel moyen (pertes economiques directes/ PIB annuel) est passe de 2,08 % au cours de la periode 1984–2000 a 1,03 % entre 2001 et 2014, grace a l’amelioration des mesures de prevention et d’attenuation des catastrophes. Meme reduit de moitie, ce coef ...[article]
in Bulletin > Vol. 64(2) (2015)
La Chine est l’un des pays les plus durement touches par les conditions meteorologiques. Entre 1984 et 2014, ces phenomenes ont provoque en moyenne, chaque annee, la mort de 4 066 personnes et des pertes economiques directes de 192,2 milliards de yuan (30,5 milliards de dollars E. U.) – 2 % du produit interieur brut (PIB). Le coefficient de perte annuel moyen (pertes economiques directes/ PIB annuel) est passe de 2,08 % au cours de la periode 1984–2000 a 1,03 % entre 2001 et 2014, grace a l’amelioration des mesures de prevention et d’attenuation des catastrophes. Meme reduit de moitie, ce coefficient reste huit fois plus eleve que la moyenne mondiale (0,14 %) et trois fois plus eleve qu’aux Etats-Unis d’Amerique (0,36 %). En fait, il excede celui de tous les pays qui sont aussi gravement menaces par le temps. L’Administration meteorologique chinoise (CMA) a donc decide, en 2009, qu’il convenait de renforcer les services d’alerte precoce sur le territoire national.12345
Language(s): French; Other Languages: English, Russian, Spanish
Format: Digital (Free), Hard copy[article]Global climate change is remarkably changing the climatic patterns of the Pearl River basin and are significantly impacting the hydrological processes. Projection of future climate change impacts on steamflow variation is potential to provide scientific guidelines for sustainable water resources management and effective prevention and control for flood and drought disasters. In this study, a hydrological modeling system for assessing climate change impacts on runoffin the Pearl River basin was established and were used to simulate historical hydrological process and to project future streamflo ...Published by: Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology ; 2016
Global climate change is remarkably changing the climatic patterns of the Pearl River basin and are significantly impacting the hydrological processes. Projection of future climate change impacts on steamflow variation is potential to provide scientific guidelines for sustainable water resources management and effective prevention and control for flood and drought disasters. In this study, a hydrological modeling system for assessing climate change impacts on runoffin the Pearl River basin was established and were used to simulate historical hydrological process and to project future streamflow variations under certain emission scenarios. Subsequently, the impacts of different delta-change methods on the projected changes in future streamflow were quantified. Furthermore, a bootstrapping resample approach was developed to test the significance of changes of streamflow variability and extremes in response to future climate change.
Notes: If you wish to download the full text, please contact the author (yinyinsan86(at)gmail.com) or library(at)wmo.int (Please replace (at) by @).
Format: Digital (Available online for logged-in users)Aerosols are small, micrometer-sized particles, whose optical effects coupled with their impact on cloud properties is a source of large uncertainty in climate models. Aerosols when inhaled are believed to have significant and detrimental effects on human health. Their presence also affects photosynthesis and agricultural production. Aerosol measurements are urgently required for the complete understanding and modeling their role in the climate system. This study builds on the analysis of Aerosol Optical depth (AOD) using Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) and sun photometer measurements then ...Published by: Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology ; 2016
Analysis of aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieved from light detection and ranging (LIDAR) and sunphotometer measurements
Aerosols are small, micrometer-sized particles, whose optical effects coupled with their impact on cloud properties is a source of large uncertainty in climate models. Aerosols when inhaled are believed to have significant and detrimental effects on human health. Their presence also affects photosynthesis and agricultural production. Aerosol measurements are urgently required for the complete understanding and modeling their role in the climate system. This study builds on the analysis of Aerosol Optical depth (AOD) using Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) and sun photometer measurements then compare the AOD measured by the two systems. Passive (sunphotmetry) and active (lidar) measurements were employed to retrieve extensive optical signals (AOD and extinction coefficient respectively) and compared the optical coherency of these retrievals over a variety of aerosol in Pukou, Nanjing. Data for the year 2013 collected by both instruments were analyzed and compared at 532nm. The retrievals were performed using an existing deconvolution method applied to the sun photometry data and an algorithm based on Klett inversion method. Results of the lidar measurements showed that the AOD variations at different time intervals were mainly high at noon time. Differences and similarities in the AOD data trend were observed but generally, AOD value calculated from Lidar data are higher than that calculated from sunphotometer measurements.
Notes: If you wish to download the full text, please contact the author (mahi92.saleh(at)gmail.com) or library(at)wmo.int (Please replace (at) by @).
Format: Digital (Available online for logged-in users)This paper examines the aerosol extinction coefficient profiles measured by Rayleigh-Raman-Mie-Lidar (RRML) system in Nanjing, China. I introduced two lidars methods (Raman and Fernald) and detection principle, and two lidars data Using Raman analysis method and Fernald analysis method to obtained aerosol extinction coefficient. Aerosol profiles at 607 nm and 532 nm over ranges from 6 km to 10 km were obtained using respectively Raman lidar and Rayleigh lidar in Nanjing.Published by: Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology ; 2016
This paper examines the aerosol extinction coefficient profiles measured by Rayleigh-Raman-Mie-Lidar (RRML) system in Nanjing, China. I introduced two lidars methods (Raman and Fernald) and detection principle, and two lidars data Using Raman analysis method and Fernald analysis method to obtained aerosol extinction coefficient. Aerosol profiles at 607 nm and 532 nm over ranges from 6 km to 10 km were obtained using respectively Raman lidar and Rayleigh lidar in Nanjing.
Notes: If you wish to download the full text, please contact the author (dadjataro(at)gmail.com) or library(at)wmo.int (Please replace (at) by @).
Format: Digital (Available online for logged-in users)China is one of the countries most affected by meteorological hazards. From 1984 to 2014, on average per annum meteorological hazards caused 4 066 deaths and 192.2 billion Chinese Yuan Renminbi (CNY, US$ 30.5 billion) direct economic losses – 2% of the Chinese Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The annual average loss ratio (direct economic losses/annual GDP) halved from 2.08% from 1984 to 2000 to 1.03% from 2001 to 2014, thanks to improved disaster prevention and mitigation measures. That 1.03% ratio is still 8 times higher than the global average (0.14%) and 3 times higher than that of the United ...PermalinkAmong the most dramatic and far-reaching geopolitical developments of the post-Cold War era is the shift in the locus of global power away from the West with the simultaneous emergence as major powers of former colonies and other countries in the South, which were long on the periphery of international capitalism. As they clock rapid GDP growth, these “emerging economies” are trying to assert their new identities and interests in a variety of ways. These include a demand for reforming the structures of global governance and the United Nations system (especially the Security Council) and the fo ...Permalink
PermalinkTwo fundamental requirements for effective running of the World Weather Watch (WWW) are adequacy of human resources and of physical infrastructure. When the WWW was established in the 1960s, these two requirements formed the most important obstacles for WMO and its partners to deliver an efficient and effective cooperation framework for global weather monitoring. Since the inception of the WWW, WMO has cooperated with diverse partners in order to respond to the human resources needs of developing countries through its Education and Training Programme. Through strategic interventions considerab ...PermalinkThis report examines four topics: (i) disasters in 2012, with a focus on recurring disasters; (ii) the role of regional organizations in disaster risk management; (iii) wildfires; and (iv) the important role of women in disaster risk management. It highlights the value given by governments and other actors in working together to prevent disasters and, to a lesser extent, to respond to disasters occurring in the region. It also features the development of strong regional initiatives and different mechanisms for encouraging collaboration, including frameworks for disaster risk reduction, regiona ...PermalinkShyam K.C.; Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery, the ; World Bank the - World Bank, 2013This note briefly surveys existing evidence in developing countries with regard to the benefits and costs of various disaster risk reduction interventions so as to provide some general lessons for disaster risk reduction (DRR) practitioners on the strengths and limitations of such existing work. In doing so, the note examines evidence on the economics of DRR in developing countries.
The note begins by providing a comparative guideline for analysis. This is followed by a summary diagnostic of seventeen case studies along five key dimensions comprising the guideline as follows: ( ...PermalinkThis report focuses on the specific issue of urban food security, describing the demographic and environmental trends as well as food production and infrastructure challenges that impact supply and demand for food in urban areas. Before providing specific examples of the food security challenges faced by cities around the world, the authors propose a framework, or matrix, of issues for policymakers to use in developing and assessing urban food security strategies. The report focuses on case studies in the United States before looking in depth at Chicago, highlighting the city’s challenges as w ...PermalinkThis report, produced by Adapting to Climate Change in China amongst others, identifies key opportunities and avenues for South-South learning and cooperation to address climate change, is a critical tool for international development organisations, national governments and policy-makers. It outlines how best to channel resources to share China's and developing countries' experiences of integrating climate adaptation into the development process, thereby facilitating developing countries’ improved adaptation, learning from each other and avoiding the risk of maladaptation to climate change. Th ...PermalinkADB, 2013Th is guide describes a practical approach to bridge the gap between theoretical analyses of climate change impacts and the planning decisions that need to be made by city authorities and utility managers to increase climate change resilience of the water sector in the city of Wuhan, Hubei Province in the People’s Republic of China (PRC). It focuses on answering the questions currently being asked by city planners and managers all over the world.PermalinkIFRC, 2013This short pamphlet sets out some preliminary findings from a 2-year comparative study of legislation for disaster risk reduction in 26 countries.PermalinkThis report offers an overview of climate change policy issues across the world. It focuses on: 1) Brazil, China, India, Europe and the United States, which represent the majority of global greenhouse gas emissions but vary widely in terms of economic development, natural resource endowment, political system and climate policy; 2) The economic sectors that represent the greatest potential for greenhouse gas mitigation; and 3) A defined set of policy issues within these regions and key sectors that most affect climate change. For each of the sectors covered, the report provides facts and data a ...PermalinkThis report aims rather to contribute to a better understanding of the issues and challenges involved in drawing up baseline scenarios, by documenting and drawing lessons from the breadth of existing practices in a range of countries. This existing diversity is both a key asset for gradually increasing the robustness of baseline scenarios, but also the reason for a lack of comparability.PermalinkICIMOD, 2013This publication contains a summary of each of eight case studies in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region, as well as an overview of the status of flash flood risk management in the region and a list of regional recommendations to be brought to the attention of policy makers.PermalinkWorld Bank, 2013This report provides Mayors and other policymakers with a policy framework and diagnostic tools to anticipate and implement strategies that can prevent their cities from locking into irreversible physical and social structures, including: improving living conditions, especially in slums and hazard-prone areas; bridging the divided cities (inclusion); expanding the coverage and quality of basic infrastructure services; and managing the city’s physical form.Permalinkis an issue of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters. Science Press, 2012PermalinkToward an Environmentally Sustainable Future presents the results of a 2-year effort to update environmental assessment in the People’s Republic of China (PRC). The research was a collaborative effort involving the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the Ministry of Environmental Protection, the National Development and Reform Commission, and numerous other technical and research institutions in the PRC. Based on this research and extensive consultations, ADB proposes a wide range of programs and policies that will help improve environmental quality despite new and emerging sources of pollution and ...PermalinkFour of five cities classified as extreme risks among the world’s fastest growing urban areas are in Asia. The region accounts for half of the estimated economic cost of disasters over the past 20 years. By one estimate, floods and landslides cost the People’s Republic of China some $18 billion in 2010 alone, and Thailand an estimated $45 billion in 2011. Policymakers need to recognize that investments in disaster risk management are an essential means to sustain growth.PermalinkThe purpose of this evaluation is to formulate a reasoned opinion on the relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, impact and sustainability of the funded project. The evaluator has examined the outcomes of the project in the light of the objectives fixed. He/she has also reviewed the execution and functioning of the project in its different phases of implementation and monitoring.PermalinkMany studies carried out have shown evidence of regional temperature and precipitation variability along with global climate changes. A key issue is whether these variability follow trends that are uniform or others have increasing trends while others decreasing trend. And this study was carried out using Mann-Kendall trend test method and regression analysis method with the data observed by a total of 20stations to investigate the trends of temperature and precipitation in northern China. 10stations were selected from urban areas (section 1.4.2: table 1.1) and another 10stations were selected ...PermalinkChina - Government, 2012This white paper released by the National Development and Reform Commission of the People’s Republic of China provides an overview of the extreme weather and climate events of 2011 in China. Section two asserts addresses climate change and reports that during the 11th Five-Year Plan period, China strengthened scientific research in and impact evaluation of climate change, improved relevant laws and policies, and enhanced the capability of key sectors to adapt to climate change, so as to reduce the negative impact of climate change on economic and social development and people's lives. The sect ...PermalinkThis study will assess advances in management practices, institutional and technological innovations for managing water scarcity sustainably under a changing climate. The impetus for this analysis comes from the World Bank’s concept note ‘Towards Green Water Defense (GWD) in East Asia’ study, specifi cally one of the building blocks of the GWD concept: Managing water scarcity by “producing more with less” or increasing water productivity and reducing undesirable externalities.PermalinkClimate ExChange is a fully illustrated 250-page book with over 100 authors relating their work in weather, climate and water services at international, regional, national and local levels. The commentaries draw upon experiences around the world reflecting how people are using climate information to improve their lives. Climate ExChange reflects the progress and challenges in these fields, highlighting good practices in a wide variety of societies and disciplines.PermalinkUNESCO, 2012This collection of papers, presented at the symposium ‘Climate change, water stress, conflict and migration’ held on 21 September 2011 in the Netherlands, highlight how climate change, water stress and other environmental problems threaten human security. For example, the paper by Muniruzzaman ilustrates how water ignores political and community boundaries, and how decisions in one place can significantly affect water use elsewhere. India’s plans to build more dams could, for instance, have devastating affects for Pakistan’s agricultural productivity which is highly dependent on water supply f ...PermalinkDARA, 2012The Climate Vulnerability Monitor 2nd Edition reveals that climate change has already held back global development and inaction is a leading global cause of death. Harm is most acute for poor and vulnerable groups but no country is spared either the costs of inaction or the benefits of an alternative path.
Commissioned by the world’s most vulnerable countries and backed by high-level and technical panels, the new Monitor estimates human and economic impacts of climate change and the carbon economy for 184 countries in 2010 and 2030, across 34 indicators.PermalinkOn 12 July 2012, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Plus Three intergovernmental agreement establishing the ASEAN Plus Three Emergency Rice Reserve (APTERR) entered into force. In this paper, lead author Roehlano Briones, a senior research fellow at the Philippine Institute for Development Studies, assesses the effectiveness of APTERR as a mechanism for addressing food security in light of the rising challenges of climate change and price volatility. Using Riceflow, a model of the global rice economy, he studies the possible impacts of APTERR releases on the rice market by simu ...PermalinkThis publication presents a shift in the People’s Republic of China from flood control depending on structural measures to integrated flood management using both structural and non-structural measures. The core of the new concept of integrated flood management is flood risk management. Flood risk management is based on an analysis of flood hazard, exposure to flood hazard, and vulnerability of people and property to danger. It is recommended that people learn to live with flood risks, gaining and promoting a clear understanding of flood risks, quantifying and modifying the flood hazard, regula ...PermalinkGFDRR, 2012This report – Avoiding Future Famines: Strengthening the Ecological Basis of Food Security through
Sustainable Food Systems - has been a unique collaboration of 12 leading scientists and
experts involved in world food systems including marine and inland fisheries.
The institutions involved include the UN Environment Programme, the International Fund
for Agricultural Development, the Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations,
the World Bank, the World Food Programme and the World Resources Institute. The report provides
detai ...PermalinkCities contribute an estimated 70 percent of the world's energy-related greenhouse gases (GHG). Their locations, often in low-elevation coastal zones, and large populations make them particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. But cities often take steps, even ahead of national governments, to reduce GHG emissions. So it is with China's cities, which are well placed to chart a low-carbon growth path to help reach China's national targets for reducing the energy and carbon intensity of its economy. China's cities will need to act on multiple fronts, in some cases scaling up elemen ...Permalink2012Les glaciers de l'Himalaya fondent lentement, mais une partie d'entre eux sont dans un état stable, voire regagnent légèrement du volume : c'est ce qui ressort de deux articles scientifiques parus dans les revues Science du 20 avril et Nature Geoscience du 15 avril.PermalinkQuarterly Natural Sciences Newsletter - A world of science, Vol. 9, No. 3. UNESCO, 2011A Regional Training and Research Centre on Ocean Dynamics and Climate was launched on 9 June in Qingdao City at the host centre, the First Institute of Oceanography, which is part of the State Oceanic Administration of China. The centre is the first to join a network launched in 2008 by UNESCO’s Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC).PermalinkBoletín trimestral del Sector de Ciencias exactas y naturales - Un Mundo de Ciencia, Vol. 9, No. 3. UNESCO, 2011Un Centro de Formación y de Investigación sobre la Diná-mica y el Clima Oceánicos fue inaugurado, el 9 de junio, en Qingdao, en la sede del Primer Instituto de Oceanografía, que depende de la Administración Oceánica Nacional de China. Este Centro es el primer eslabón de una red lanzada en 2008 por la Comisión Oceanográfica Intergubernemental (COI) de la UNESCO.PermalinkBulletin trimestriel du Secteur des sciences exactes et naturelles - Planète science, Vol. 9, No. 3. UNESCO, 2011Un Centre de formation et de recherches sur la dynamique et le climat océaniques a été inauguré, le 9 juin, à Qingdao, au siège du Premier institut d’océanographie, qui dépend de l’Administration océanique nationale de Chine. Ce Centre est le premier maillon d’un réseau lancé en 2008 par la Commission océanographique intergouvernementale (COI) de l’UNESCO.PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Xing J.; Wang S.X.; Chatani S.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants in China influence not only local and regional environments but also the global atmospheric environment; therefore, it is important to understand how China's air pollutant emissions will change and how they will affect regional air quality in the future. Emission scenarios in 2020 were projected using forecasts of energy consumption and emission control strategies based on emissions in 2005, and on recent development plans for key industries in China. We developed four emission scenarios: REF (current control legislations and implementation status), ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Xu J.; Li C.; Shi H.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011This study investigated the decadal variation of the direct surface solar radiation (DiSR) and the diffuse surface solar radiation (DfSR) during 1961–2008 in the Shanghai megacity as well as their relationships to Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) under clear-sky conditions. Three successive periods with unique features of long term variation of DiSR were identified for both clear-sky and all-sky conditions: a "dimming" period from the late 1960s to the mid 1980s, a "stabilization"/"slight brightening" period from the mid 1980s to the mid 1990s, and a "renewed dimming" period thereafter. During the ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Ci Z.J.; Zhang X.S.; Wang Z.W.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011The Yellow Sea, surrounded by East China and the Korea Peninsula, is a potentially important receptor for anthropogenic mercury (Hg) emissions from East Asia. However, there is little documentation about the distribution and cycle of Hg in this marine system. During the cruise covering the Yellow Sea in July 2010, gaseous elemental mercury (GEM or Hg(0)) in the atmosphere, total Hg (THg), reactive Hg (RHg) and dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM, largely Hg(0)) in the waters were measured aboard the R/V Kexue III. The mean (±SD) concentration of GEM over the entire cruise was 2.61 ± 0.50 ng m−3 (ra ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Kopacz M.; Mauzerall D.L.; Wang J.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011The remote and high elevation regions of central Asia are influenced by black carbon (BC) emissions from a variety of locations. BC deposition contributes to melting of glaciers and questions exist, of both scientific and policy interest, as to the origin of the BC reaching the glaciers. We use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model to identify the location from which BC arriving at a variety of locations in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau originates. We then calculate its direct and snow-albedo radiative forcing. We analyze the seasonal variation in the origin of BC using an adjoint sensitivity ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Kopacz M.; Mauzerall D.L.; Wang J.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011The remote and high elevation regions of central Asia are influenced by black carbon (BC) emissions from a variety of locations. BC deposition contributes to melting of glaciers and questions exist, of both scientific and policy interest, as to the origin of the BC reaching the glaciers. We use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model to identify the location from which BC arriving at a variety of locations in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau originates. We then calculate its direct and snow-albedo radiative forcing. We analyze the seasonal variation in the origin of BC using an adjoint sensitivity ...PermalinkThe Met.Office, 2011Understanding the potential impacts of climate change is essential for informing both adaptation strategies and actions to avoid dangerous levels of climate change.
But assessing the impacts is scientifically challenging and has, until now, been fragmented. To date, only a limited amount of information about past climate change and its future impacts has been available at national level, while approaches to the science itself have varied between countries.
In April 2011, we were asked by the United Kingdom's Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change to begi ...PermalinkJournal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, Vol. 88. No 4. Chen Ching-Sen; Liu Che-Ling; Yen Ming-Cheng - Meteorological Society of Japan, 2010An afternoon heavy rainfall event in northern Taiwan, observed on June 20, 2000 during the monsoon break, is investigated using surface observation and Doppler radar data and a nonhydrostatic model with a horizontal grid spacing of 1.33 km. Heavy rainfall was brought majorly by two precipitation systems, namely A and B. System A was initiated and developed in Taipei Basin, associated with a local wind convergence line. System B was formed on the western slopes south of Taipei Basin, extended northward of the Taipei Basin, and lasted for 4 h. The formation and maintenance mechanisms of the two ...PermalinkAtmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters, Volume 3 Number 6. Wang Li-Li; Wang Yue-Si; Li Yuan-Yuan - Science Press, 2010An automated procedure employing principal-component analysis and a two-stage cluster analysis was developed to classify the synoptic meteorological conditions prevailing over Urumqi, one of the most heavily polluted cities in the world. Six clusters representing different circulation patterns and air-mass characteristics were classified using surface- and upper-meteorological variables during the heating period from 2001 to 2008, and the relationships between synoptic clusters and air quality were evaluated. The heaviest air-pollution episodes occurred when Urumqi was in either an extremely c ...PermalinkAtmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters, Volume 3 Number 6. Ma Quian; Xie Zheng-Hui; Zhao Lin-Na - Science Press, 2010In this study, the water balance-based Precipitation-Evapotranspiration-Runoff (PER) method combined with the land surface model Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) was used to estimate the spatiotemporal variations of terrestrial water storage (TWS) for two periods, 1982–2005 (baseline) and 2071–2100, under future climate scenarios A2 and B2 in the Yangtze River basin. The results show that the estimated TWS during the baseline period and under the two future climate scenarios have similar seasonal amplitudes of 60–70 mm. The higher values of TWS appear in June during the baseline period and ...PermalinkThe performance of a 1-D soil model in a semiarid area of North China was investigated using observational data from a cropland station at the Tongyu reference site of the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) during the non-growing period, when the ground surface was covered with bare soil. Comparisons between simulated and observed soil surface energy balance components as well as soil temperatures and water contents were conducted to validate the soil model. Results show that the soil model could produce good simulations of soil surface temperature, net radiation flux and sensible he ...PermalinkAtmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters, Volume 3 Number 6. Yu En-Tao; Wang Hui-Jun; Sun Jian-Qi - Science Press, 2010This paper describes a dynamical downscaling simulation over China using the nested model system, which consists of the modified Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) nested with the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). Results show that dynamical downscaling is of great value in improving the model simulation of regional climatic characteristics. WRF simulates regional detailed temperature features better than CAM. With the spatial correlation coefficient between the observation and the simulation increasing from 0.54 for CAM to 0.79 for WRF, the improvement in precipitation simulati ...Permalinkis an issue of 気象研究所技術報告. Saito Kazuo; Kunii Masaru; Hara Masahiro - Meteorological Research Institute, 2010This technical report describes modeling activities by the Meteorological Research Institute
(MRI) for the WWRP Beijing 2008 Olympics Forecast Demonstration Project/Research and
Development Project (B08FDP/RDP). MRI participated in B08RDP in collaboration with the
Numerical Prediction Division (NPD) of the Japan Meteorological Agency (NPD/JMA).PermalinkAtmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters, Volume 3 Number 5. Zhou Li-Bo; Ma Shu-Po; Li Peng; et al. - Science Press, 2010In the summers of 2006 and 2007, the atmospheric CO2 concentration and the wind speed in the Rongbuk Valley on the northern slope of Mt. Everest were measured by an ultrasonic anemometer with an Li-7500 CO2/H2O gas analyzer. The average CO2 concentration was 370.23±0.59 and 367.45±1.91 ppm in June of 2006 and 2007, respectively. The values are much lower than those at sites with similar latitudes and altitudes worldwide. The observed atmospheric CO2 concentration in Rongbuk Valley can be affected by the transportation of prevailing down-valley winds from the up-valley direction to the observat ...PermalinkAtmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters, Volume 3 Number 5. Yang Da-Sheng; Wang Pu-Cai - Science Press, 2010The latitude-altitude distributions of radiative fluxes and heating rates are investigated by utilizing CloudSat satellite data over China during summer. The Tibetan Plateau causes the downward shortwave fluxes of the lower atmosphere over central China to be smaller than the fluxes over southern and northern China by generating more clouds. The existence of a larger quantity of clouds over central China reflects a greater amount of solar radiation back into space. The vertical gradients of upward shortwave radiative fluxes in the atmosphere below 8 km are greater than those above 8 km. The la ...PermalinkAtmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters, Volume 3 Number 5. Yuan Fang; Wei Ke; Chen Wen; et al. - Science Press, 2010The temporal variations in storm rainfall during the first rainy season (FRS) in South China (SC) are investigated in this study. The results show that the inter-annual variations in storm rainfall during the FRS in SC seem to be mainly influenced by the frequency of storm rainfall, while both frequency and intensity affect the inter-decadal variations in the total storm rainfall. Using the definitions for the beginning and ending dates of the FRS, and the onset dates of the summer monsoon in SC, the FRS is further divided into two sub-periods, i.e., the frontal and monsoon rainfall periods. T ...PermalinkAtmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters, Volume 3 Number 5. Wang Dong-Xiao; Zhou Wen; Yu Xiao-Li; et al. - Science Press, 2010The variations of the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) associated with the South China Sea Summer Monsoon were examined using the Global Positioning System (GPS) sounding datasets obtained four times daily during May-June 1998 on board Research Vessels Kexue 1 and Shiyan 3. The MABL height is defined as the height at the lowest level where virtual potential temperature increases by 1 K from the surface. The results indicate that the MABL height decreased over the northern South China Sea (SCS) and remained the same over the southern SCS, as sea surface temperature (SST) fell for the no ...PermalinkThe interannual variability of wintertime snow depth over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and related atmospheric circulation anomalies were investigated based on observed snow depth measurements and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis was applied to identify the spatio-temporal variability of wintertime TP snow depth. Snow depth anomalies were dominated by a monopole pattern over the TP and a dipole structure with opposite anomalies over the southeastern and northwestern TP. The atmospheric circulation conditions responsible for the interannual variability of TP s ...PermalinkAtmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters, Volume 3 Number 4. Cheng Xue-Ling; Wang Bing-Lan; Hu Fei; et al. - Science Press, 2010In this paper, the authors use ultrasonic data over a homogeneous surface to calculate the Kolmogorov constants of velocity, temperature, CO2, and water vapor. The authors find that the constants are all within the range determined by former experiments and that they are universally independent of the stability.PermalinkAtmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters, Volume 3 Number 4. Zhao De-Ming; Fu Cong-Bin - Science Press, 2010Regional climate models (RCMs) can provide far more precise information than general circulation models (GCMs). However, RCMs depend on GCM results for re-analysis products providing boundary conditions, especially for future climate scenarios. Meanwhile, the capacity of RCMs to reproduce precipitation is strongly connected to its performance on circulation and moisture transport simulations in the low troposphere, which is the key problem with RCMs at present. In the Regional Climate Model Inter-comparison Project for East Asia (RMIP III), the results of ECHAM5/MPI-OM (the European Centre-Ham ...PermalinkAtmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters, Volume 3 Number 4. Yu Lei; Gao Yong-Qi; Helge Drange; et al. - Science Press, 2010It has been reported recently that the simulated Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) using the coupled Bergen climate model (BCM) showed initial intensity declines followed by gradual recoveries over a 150-year enhanced freshwater input experiment. Stratification-dependent oceanic diapycnal mixing has been hypothesized as a reason for the simulated recovery of the AMOC. This study investigated the role of diapycnal mixing in transient responses of simulated AMOCs. Our results showed that stratification-dependent diapycnal mixing can cause stronger upwelling of deep water in the ...PermalinkUsing data collected at 517 weather stations in contiguous China over the period 1980-2008, characteristics of thunder events have been investigated. These characteristics include geographical distribution, interdecadal variation, annual variation, and seasonal variation. The areas with the highest frequencies of thunder events are located in the central Tibetan Plateau, Yunnan, Guangxi, and Guangdong. The annual number of thunder days increases from northern to southern China. But the frequency of thunder events over mountains and plateaus is much higher than the frequency of events over plai ...PermalinkAtmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters, Volume 3 Number 4. Wang Jun; Wang Hui-Jun - Science Press, 2010This paper uses Dobson spectrometer total ozone data, Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data and radiosonde reports from Kunming, which is located in southwest China, from 1980 to 2008 to analyze the total ozone-climate relationship. The total ozone decadal long-term trend and abrupt change were studied using enhanced Dobson data whose missing data were amended by the TOMS data. Stepwise linear regression was used for the selection of the key factors that influence total ozone, including temperatures, geopotential heights, depressions of the dew point, wind velocities, and total solar ra ...Permalinkis an issue of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters. Science Press, 2010Permalinkis an issue of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters. Science Press, 2010Contains:
- Analysis of a Beijing Heavy Snowfall Related to an Inverted Trough in November 2009
LI Jin,ZHAO Si-Xiong,YU Fei
- Comparative Studies of Different Mesoscale Convection Parameterization Schemes in the Simulation of Mei-Yu Front Heavy Rain
PING Fan,LUO Zhe-Xian
- An Improved Atmospheric Vector Radiative Transfer Model Incorporating Rough Ocean Boundaries
FAN Xue-Hua,CHEN Hong-Bin,HAN Zhi-Gang,LIN Long-Fu
- A Case Study of the Impacts of Dust Aerosols on Surface Atmospheric Variables and Energy Budgets in ...PermalinkThis module provides an introduction to the northwest Pacific for weather forecasters. It touches on major aspects of the geography, oceanography, and climatology. Geography looks at plate tectonics, topography, and human population. Oceanography examines ocean currents, coastal tidal ranges, and sea ice distribution. Climatology briefly discusses jets streams, distribution of synoptic features, storm tracks of tropical and extratropical cyclones, the fronts, and sensible weather associated with the Northeast and Southwest Monsoons.PermalinkPermalinkFocusing on the climate problem, it is now clear that developing countries, especially fast-growing regions such as those in the so-called BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China), will have a major impact on future emission dynamics and will play a major role in climate negotiations.PermalinkThe manual describes procedure for estimating the maximum probable precipitation and the maximum probable flood. This is the third revised version.
The first and second editions of this manual were published in 1973 and 1986, respectively. The current edition keeps a majority of the content from the second edition. Newly added content in this third edition primarily results from experiences, since 1986, in directly estimating PMP for the requirements of a given project in a design watershed on probable maximum flood (PMF) in China, the United States of America, Australia and India.PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) - WMO, 2009 (WMO/TD-No. 1476)PermalinkMekong River Commission ; World Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; Agence Française de Développement (AFD) - WMO, 2008PermalinkThis brochure provides updated information on how climate science and services can enhance adaptation to climate variability and change, especially for development needs.PermalinkPermalinkPermalinkICID, 2005PermalinkUNESCO, 2004PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) - WMO, 2002 (WMO/TD-No. 1135)PermalinkPermalinkPermalinkPermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO); Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC); et al. - UNESCO, 1999PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP); International Council for Science (ICSU); et al. - WMO, 1998PermalinkOrganisation météorologique mondiale (OMM); Organisation des Nations Unies pour l'Education, la Science et et la Culture (UNESCO); Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC); et al. - UNESCO, 1997PermalinkUNESCO, 1996PermalinkPermalinkChina - Government, 1993This report presents the institutional and legal framework for disaster risk reduction in China, and describes its common disaster risks and natural hazards, such as flood, drought and wild fire. It outlines the strategies, plans, projects and activities related to disaster prevention and risk management.PermalinkPermalinkThis "Climate Action Tracker" is an independent science-based assessment, which tracks the emission commitments and actions of countries. The website provides an up-to-date assessment of individual national pledges to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions.PermalinkPermalink