NCCARF, 2012Focused on four disaster-impacted communities in Australia - Beechworth, Bendigo, Ingham and Innisfail, this report makes recommendations for emergency management and local government policies. It presents a study that used Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological systems theory to analyse individual and, by proxy, community resilience to disasters. The theory provided a comprehensive framework to evaluate the interacting factors that support resilience across different disaster sites and communities. While Bronfenbrenner’s theory has been used extensively, the authors believe that this is the first tim ...Published by: NCCARF ; 2012
Focused on four disaster-impacted communities in Australia - Beechworth, Bendigo, Ingham and Innisfail, this report makes recommendations for emergency management and local government policies. It presents a study that used Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological systems theory to analyse individual and, by proxy, community resilience to disasters. The theory provided a comprehensive framework to evaluate the interacting factors that support resilience across different disaster sites and communities. While Bronfenbrenner’s theory has been used extensively, the authors believe that this is the first time it has been used to model disaster resilience.
Format: Digital (Free)
ISBN (or other code): 978-1-921609-63-3UNDP, 2012This report presents findings of the final evaluation of the safer communities through disaster risk reduction programme. The programme was designed to support the government of Indonesia develop new approaches and capabilities for disaster management by focusing on risk reduction and not just response. The overall objective of the project was to promote a culture of safety in Indonesia by making disaster risk reduction “a normal part of the development process”.Published by: UNDP ; 2012
This report presents findings of the final evaluation of the safer communities through disaster risk reduction programme. The programme was designed to support the government of Indonesia develop new approaches and capabilities for disaster management by focusing on risk reduction and not just response. The overall objective of the project was to promote a culture of safety in Indonesia by making disaster risk reduction “a normal part of the development process”.
Format: Digital (Free)This short article presents the work of the United States in terms of disaster preparedness in the Philippines. It asserts that that the U.S. funded training and preparedness programs have contributed to the Philippine government’s ability to lead major rescue and relief operations.Published by: U.S. Government printing office ; 2012
This short article presents the work of the United States in terms of disaster preparedness in the Philippines. It asserts that that the U.S. funded training and preparedness programs have contributed to the Philippine government’s ability to lead major rescue and relief operations.
Format: Digital (Free)This document reports on a research aiming at a more gender-sensitive approach to disaster risk reduction (DRR) in Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands. It gives insight on the situations in which women and men, girls and boys live in three selected communities in both countries. It provides information about their local behaviour patterns, belief and value systems, their daily life routines etc. - all necessary information to adapt ongoing and plan future DRR measures in this specific context.Published by: European Commission ; 2012
Weaving a culture of resilience, a gender-sensitive approach to disaster risk reduction in Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands
This document reports on a research aiming at a more gender-sensitive approach to disaster risk reduction (DRR) in Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands. It gives insight on the situations in which women and men, girls and boys live in three selected communities in both countries. It provides information about their local behaviour patterns, belief and value systems, their daily life routines etc. - all necessary information to adapt ongoing and plan future DRR measures in this specific context.
Format: Digital (Free)Singapore - gov, 2012This document outlines the current thinking about climate change and its implications for Singapore. It also highlights the initiatives and strategies they are pursuing to prepare for the challenges that climate change poses. The document covers i) the climate change imperative; ii) global mission, national vision, local action; iii) climate change and why it matters; iv) sustainable development: Singapore’s national circumstances v) mitigation: reducing emissions; vi) adapting to climate change: a more resilient singapore; vii) opportunities for green growth; viii) building our future togethe ...Published by: Singapore - gov ; 2012
This document outlines the current thinking about climate change and its implications for Singapore. It also highlights the initiatives and strategies they are pursuing to prepare for the challenges that climate change poses. The document covers i) the climate change imperative; ii) global mission, national vision, local action; iii) climate change and why it matters; iv) sustainable development: Singapore’s national circumstances v) mitigation: reducing emissions; vi) adapting to climate change: a more resilient singapore; vii) opportunities for green growth; viii) building our future together: local and international partnerships on climate change; and ix) stepping up to climate change. It also presents an approach to address climate change: i) reduce carbon emissions in all sectors; ii) be ready to adapt to climate change effects; iii) harness green growth opportunities; and iv) forge partnerships.
Format: Digital (Free)
ISBN (or other code): 978-981-07-2492-4This discussion paper explores existing river flood risk management practices in New Zealand, including the national context for flood risk management and looks at regional practices. The document then provides a brief overview of research in areas that contribute to the better understanding of flood processes, briefly stepping through climate, flood flows and inundation research and considering complexities of coastal catchments, flood vulnerability studies and research around community awareness and preparedness for flood hazards. Finally, the document identifies gaps in flood research, and ...PermalinkThis paper is based on research being conducted with assistance from the Bushfire CRC on the role of insurance in responding to natural hazards. It identify some causes of underinsurance, with particular reference to floods, and consider steps that individuals, insurers and governments may take to both increase the uptake of insurance whilst also increasing community resilience. This paper reviews the lessons from the Queensland floods (December 2010 – February 2011) and identifies that two major issues are the cost and availability of flood cover. It is argued that if insurers assist with mit ...PermalinkThis study aims to provide an analysis of the spatial distribution of vulnerability of urban populations to extreme heat events in Australian capital cities at the present time, and to estimate future vulnerability in relation to projected climate changes.It provides a ‘tool’ to guide short-term, medium-term and longer-term heatwave adaptation policy.PermalinkThis document contains 13 case studies from Africa, Asia, Europe and Latin America and its objective is to recuperate ancestral and vernacular knowledge culturally developed and associated with risk prevention in face of recurrent hydro-meteorological hazards, like floods.
Societies have imagined, created, constructed, rejected and returned to imagine, create and construct diverse strategies that allow them to prevent the effects related to the imminent presence of a natural hazard. These processes are associated and are the result of the conditions in which a certain society d ...Permalink2012This document reports on a project intended to elaborate and test practical georisk analysis processes in Indonesia, primarily based on existing hazard and vulnerability data. It describes the methodology developed by the project at the local level (Kabupaten scale) and is aimed at delivering practical insight into the steps necessary to undertake 'natural' disaster risk assessment at Kabupaten level. It is intended to support Indonesian governmental authorities in coping with disaster risk management.PermalinkBy 2015, half of the world’s people living on less than USD 1.25 a day will be in fragile states. While poverty has decreased globally, progress on Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 1 is slower in fragile states than in other developing countries. Fragile states are also off-track to meet the rest of the MDGs by 2015.
Fragile situations became a central concern of the international development and security agenda in the 1990s. Since then, powerful forces have been influencing the causes and manifestations of fragility, including the combination of democratic aspirations, new te ...PermalinkThe Consultative Group of Experts on National Communications from Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention (CGE) conducted a hands-on training workshop for the Asia and Pacific region on vulnerability and adaptation assessment in Vientiane, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, from 8 to 12 October 2012. This report outlines the proceedings of the workshop and summarizes the feedback and recommendations from the participants relating to the updated CGE training materials on vulnerability and adaptation assessment, and the financial, technical and institutional issues in the con ...PermalinkThis edition travels to Indonesia to look at how the country’s disaster management readiness has evolved in recent years. Against the backdrop of a powerful earthquake and aftershock recently occurring off the coast, it explains how the Indian Ocean tsunami early warning system is activated and what transpires. Meanwhile, it also highlights the importance of community-based education campaigns and the development of professional first responder groups. USAID has been a partner in these efforts for many years and is encouraged by all of the good work being done to prepare for the next big event ...PermalinkThis study will assess advances in management practices, institutional and technological innovations for managing water scarcity sustainably under a changing climate. The impetus for this analysis comes from the World Bank’s concept note ‘Towards Green Water Defense (GWD) in East Asia’ study, specifi cally one of the building blocks of the GWD concept: Managing water scarcity by “producing more with less” or increasing water productivity and reducing undesirable externalities.PermalinkClimate ExChange is a fully illustrated 250-page book with over 100 authors relating their work in weather, climate and water services at international, regional, national and local levels. The commentaries draw upon experiences around the world reflecting how people are using climate information to improve their lives. Climate ExChange reflects the progress and challenges in these fields, highlighting good practices in a wide variety of societies and disciplines.PermalinkAlthough poverty remains widespread in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, substantial progress has been made especially in the past three decades. Nevertheless, this report stresses that climate change is likely to reduce agricultural productivity, which will directly affect poor people's livelihood assets including health, access to water and other natural resources, homes and infrastructure. Increasing climatic variability will make poor households even more vulnerable to extreme weather conditions, which could in turn exacerbate the incidence, severity and persistence of poverty in developi ...PermalinkThis publication provides children and youth in Asia a platform to report on progress made towards "the need to protect women, children and other vulnerable groups from the disproportionate impacts of disaster and to empower them to promote resiliency within their communities and workplaces" (as recognized in the declaration adopted in Incheon by the Asia Ministerial Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction in 2010) from their own point of view. Previous surveys conducted with children globally show that their views on local governance for disaster risk reduction often tend to be less positive th ...PermalinkThis document reports on Philippines Region 8's accumulated experience and knowledge in the setting up and management of local flood early warning systems (LFEWS), which aims to reduce human vulnerability and suffering by monitoring sources of floods, predicting where and when floods could possibly happen, identifying who would be affected and strengthening the capacity of local disaster risk reduction and management institutions to make informed decisions. It describes the impacts observed in terms of saving lives and properties, improving institutional performance of local governments and in ...PermalinkThe primary conviction of this report is driven by a concern that people’s exposure and vulnerability, experienced individually and collectively, continue to be twin challenges for the Asia-Pacific region. Faced with growing economic losses and increasingly vulnerable populations, this report has analyzed the drivers of risks and the strategies that are in place to deal with the growing risks.
The report has pursued three primary questions that all dedicated collaborators in the region need to join, “How do they and the people with whom they work understand the disaster risks in ...PermalinkTo mark International day for Disaster Risk reduction (IDDR) 2012, Oxfam has published a new collection of programme insights papers bringing together experiences, lessons and good practice from Oxfam and its partners work in emergencies and on disaster risk reduction (DRR). As the number and complexity of hazards and disasters are increasing rapidly, and with the ample evidence that women and girls are often more vulnerable to disasters than men and boys, the series features five case studies on gender and DRR or humanitarian programming in DR Congo, Pakistan, Indonesia, Vietnam and Kenya. Th ...PermalinkCCAFS, 2012The document attempts to distil what is currently known about the likely impacts of climate change on the commodities and natural resources that comprise the mandate of CGIAR and its 15 Centres. It was designed as one background document for a review carried out by the High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition (HLPE) at the behest of the UN Committee on World Food Security (CFS) on what is known about the likely effects of climate change on food security and nutrition, with a focus on the most affected and vulnerable regions and populations. A total of 25 summaries covering 22 ...PermalinkUNESCO, 2012This collection of papers, presented at the symposium ‘Climate change, water stress, conflict and migration’ held on 21 September 2011 in the Netherlands, highlight how climate change, water stress and other environmental problems threaten human security. For example, the paper by Muniruzzaman ilustrates how water ignores political and community boundaries, and how decisions in one place can significantly affect water use elsewhere. India’s plans to build more dams could, for instance, have devastating affects for Pakistan’s agricultural productivity which is highly dependent on water supply f ...PermalinkNatural disasters triggered by extreme hazards have increased sharply worldwide since the 1980s, as measured in lives lost, displaced people, and financial cost. Asia and the Pacific have borne the brunt of the physical and economic damage. This brief highlights lessons and recommendations from an independent evaluation report that assessed ADB support for disaster prevention and recovery programs during 1995–2011. The evaluation finds that disaster recovery projects have been much more successful than ADB-supported projects overall. Nonetheless, it also finds that most ADB country programs ha ...PermalinkDARA, 2012The Climate Vulnerability Monitor 2nd Edition reveals that climate change has already held back global development and inaction is a leading global cause of death. Harm is most acute for poor and vulnerable groups but no country is spared either the costs of inaction or the benefits of an alternative path.
Commissioned by the world’s most vulnerable countries and backed by high-level and technical panels, the new Monitor estimates human and economic impacts of climate change and the carbon economy for 184 countries in 2010 and 2030, across 34 indicators.PermalinkThis document reports on a resilience-building curriculum that includes laying the groundwork for addressing climate change and climate resilience, conducting a climate change vulnerability and risk assessment, and using this assessment and other materials to prepare an initial resilience strategy, developed in 15 cities in 5 countries — Vietnam, Indonesia, India, Thailand and the United States.PermalinkEmissions from human activities are changing the ocean’s chemistry and temperature in ways that threaten the livelihoods of those who depend on fish and seafood for all or part of their diets. The changes may reduce the amount of wild caught seafood that can be supplied by the oceans and also redistribute species, changing the locations at which seafood can be caught and creating instability for ocean-based food security, or seafood security. This report ranks nations based on the seafood security hardships they may experience by the middle of this century due to changing ocean conditions from ...PermalinkThis research aims to understand the inter-organizational network typology of large scale disaster intervention in developing countries and to understand complexity of post disaster intervention through the use of network theory based on empirical data from post tsunami reconstruction in Aceh, Indonesia, during 2005-2007. It addresses the ‘poly-centric’ features of emergency and reconstruction management, which promotes the notion that there are many overlapping centers of authority and responsibility for disaster risk reduction and post disaster intervention.PermalinkOn 12 July 2012, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Plus Three intergovernmental agreement establishing the ASEAN Plus Three Emergency Rice Reserve (APTERR) entered into force. In this paper, lead author Roehlano Briones, a senior research fellow at the Philippine Institute for Development Studies, assesses the effectiveness of APTERR as a mechanism for addressing food security in light of the rising challenges of climate change and price volatility. Using Riceflow, a model of the global rice economy, he studies the possible impacts of APTERR releases on the rice market by simu ...PermalinkThis paper is concerned with rising sea levels that have the potential to submerge coastal regions and displace millions of people. It reports on how current international legal frameworks applicable to refugees and immigrants will offer little protection to citizens of Freely Associated States (FAS) displaced by rising sea levels. The FAS are sovereign nations (Marshall Islands, Micronesia, and Palau) that have negotiated Compacts of Free Association with the United States, under which the U.S. provides the states with certain types of assistance. It addresses how current refugee and immigrat ...PermalinkSelby David; Kagawa Fumiyo; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO); et al. - UNESCO, 2012This publication captures key national experiences in the integration of disaster risk reduction (DRR) in the curriculum, identifying good practice, noting issues addressed or still lacking, and reviewing learning outcomes. The study researched DRR related curriculum development and integration, pedagogy, student assessment, teacher professional development and guidance, learning outcomes and policy development, planning and implementation aspects covering thirty countries.PermalinkIn 2011, 332 natural disasters1 were registered, less than the average annual disaster frequency observed from 2001 to 2010 (384). However, the human and economic impacts of the disasters in 2011 were massive. Natural disasters killed a total of 30 773 people and caused 244.7 million victims worldwide (see Figure 1). Economic damages from natural disasters were the highest ever registered, with an estimated US$ 366.1 billion [...]PermalinkUNDP, 2012This brochure illustrates lessons and challenges learned from UNDP activities in disaster risk reduction (DRR), recovery and reconstruction. Its goal is to further the understanding of the role of UN agencies, including the UNDP, and the role of the international community in DRR. It also discusses the government of Japan's role as a strong partner with UNDP in DRR and provides other country examples. Issues addressed: (i) reducing the impact of disaster through prevention measures; (ii) emergency response and recovery from disasters; (iii) gender equality and the empowerment of women in disas ...PermalinkHayden Jacqueline; Cologon Kathy; Asia-Pacific Regional Network for Early Childhood (ARNEC); et al. - ARNEC, 2012This guidebook provides background information on Early Childhood Development (ECD) and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), and sets out processes for assessing the capacity and needs at community levels to further identify future steps to improve ECD in DRR. Furthermore, it addresses the vulnerability faced by children and the efforts to mitigate underlying causes of these vulnerabilities. Beyond national and international, policy and political issues, DRR occurs within communities and at the programme level. DRR processes and activities have the potential to address the special needs of young chi ...PermalinkUNESCO, 2012This report summarizes the key outcomes of a three-day meeting which discussed and reflected on the challenges that climate change poses to education systems in Small Island Developing States (SIDS), and on the role that education must play in adaptation to climate change. Acknowledging that SIDS are already confronted with the effects of climate change, including rising sea levels and changes in weather and climate extremes such as droughts, floods and tropical cyclones/hurricanes, it considers the need for them to reduce their vulnerability to climate change by strengthening their adaptive c ...PermalinkThis report addresses the challenge to reach a consensus on the contours of an agenda that adequately identifies the development needs of present and future generations, and is capable of crystallizing these priorities in clear sustainable development goals that will help guide coherent policy action at the global, regional and national levels. Issues addressed: (i) growing environmental footprints; (ii) governance and accountability deficits; (iii) transformative change towards inclusive, people-centered sustainable development; (iv) environmental sustainability; and (v) inclusive economic de ...PermalinkA report about the current scientific understanding of the connection between climate change and the recent increase in extreme temperatures, as reported in peer-reviewed research articles published through May 2012. Issues addressed: (i) heat waves: the details; and (ii) heat waves and wild fires.PermalinkThe issue of climate change is set to increase the frequency of extreme weather events. Countries, therefore, are required to undertake adaptive measures to ameliorate the impact of such events; Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) is an important element of such measures. This report, published by the United Nations Development Program and the Government of Indonesia, presents findings from the final evaluation of the Safer Communities through Disaster Risk Reduction (SC-DRR) project. The project aimed to improve safety in Indonesia by considering the ways in which DRR can be integrated into the cou ...PermalinkUnited Nations, 2012This fact sheet is part of the press kit produced for Rio+20 conference. It presents an overview of the situation, key facts, success stories and proposals in order to include disaster resilience in a sustainable development framework. Demonstrating the major challenge posed by disaster risk to sustainable development through facts and numbers, it features good practices from the Philippines, South Africa, as well as the success of the Indian Ocean tsunami early warning systems following the recent Indonesian earthquake. Among the recommendations, it calls for: (i) reinforcing the importance o ...PermalinkGFDRR, 2012This report – Avoiding Future Famines: Strengthening the Ecological Basis of Food Security through
Sustainable Food Systems - has been a unique collaboration of 12 leading scientists and
experts involved in world food systems including marine and inland fisheries.
The institutions involved include the UN Environment Programme, the International Fund
for Agricultural Development, the Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations,
the World Bank, the World Food Programme and the World Resources Institute. The report provides
detai ...PermalinkThis Policy and Practice Note grows out of extensive consultations with countries, regional organizations, and donors and other development partners, and it is addressed primarily to high-level policymakers and decision makers within them. Its analysis and recommendations are meant to inform DRR and CCA planning across a range of institutions at all levels. Specifically, they are intended to inform the design and implementation of the joint Roadmap towards a Post 2015 Integrated Regional Strategy for Disaster Risk Management and Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation, as well as preparation ...PermalinkUNCTAD, 2012he report explores the opportunities that a low carbon green growth path offers to the region. It articulates five tracks on which to drive the economic system change necessary to pursue low carbon green growth as a new economic development path.
In particular, the “visible structure” of the economy, comprising such physical infrastructure as transport, buildings and energy systems, together with the “invisible structure”, which encompasses market prices, governance, regulations and lifestyles, have to be re-oriented towards resource efficiency. The Roadmap provides policymakers ...PermalinkThe Little Green Data Book is a pocket-sized ready reference on key environmental data for over 200 economies. Key indicators are organized under the headings of agriculture, forestry, biodiversity, energy, emission and pollution, and water and sanitation.PermalinkHay John E.; United Nations Development Programme (UNDP); United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UN/ISDR); et al. - UN/ISDR, 2012This study provides an analysis of the current level of integration of DRR and CCA in the region, with an emphasis on the policy and institutional environment. The report outlines some of the barriers to integration and makes recommendations on how they can be addressed. The analysis presented includes seven PICs (Cook Islands, FSM, Fiji, Palau, Samoa, Tonga, and Vanuatu).The countries analysed are typical in terms of the current low level of integration of DRR and CCA.This report also explores how and why the fields of DRR and CCA have developed in parallel globally as well as in the Pacific, ...PermalinkThis synthesis addresses the global increase in frequency of intense floods and storms in Asia and the Pacific amid the spectre of climate change, and points to the need for better mitigation and adaptation to natural disasters. It presents the lessons drawn from evaluations of information sourced from publicly available databasesPermalinkA healthy ocean is a valuable natural asset that, if maintained and nurtured, can provide ‘ecosystem services’ that contribute to economic expansion – or ‘blue growth’ – in developing coastal and island countries. World Bank investments in the oceans between 2007 and 2011 have supported developing coastal and island countries in improving the health of their ocean environments, enhancing the value of the ecosystem services they provide to the local and global economy. In particular, these investments supported countries to manage the transition to more sustainable fisheries, establish coastal ...PermalinkCDP, 2012This study focuses on the 2006 landslide tragedy in the Philippines, where an entire community, including its people, its productive assets, and its socio-cultural resources, was totally buried. It reports on the various levels of recovery that have been achieved among the provision of community services and facilities such as health, education, recreation, infrastructure, livelihood opportunities and psychosocial services; and identifies the limitations of the principle of "build back better" as well as those areas of concern in which the principle can best be applied.
It affi ...PermalinkClimate change will increase the frequency of extreme weather events, making more geographic places inhospitable to human habitation and secure livelihoods. This report presents a detailed picture of the potential impacts of climate change on migration in Asia and the Pacific. It draws upon a wealth of research to provide policy makers with informed analysis of an emerging phenomenon requiring urgent attention by governments and the international community. The report also suggests that climate-induced migration should be seen not only as a threat to human well-being but also as a potential to ...PermalinkIRENA, 2012The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific.
The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment cl ...PermalinkMejorar la predicción de los ciclones es uno de los objetivos de la investigación meteorológica internacional. Este caso práctico de un tifón de 2009 que estuvo a punto de impactar sobre Filipinas ofrece una perspectiva del alcance de la predicción por conjuntos.PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Miyazaki Y.; Kawamura K.; Jung J.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Marine aerosol samples were collected over the western North Pacific along the latitudinal transect from 44° N to 10° N in late summer 2008 for measurements of organic nitrogen (ON) and organic carbon (OC) as well as isotopic ratios of total nitrogen (TN) and total carbon (TC). Increased concentrations of methanesulfonic acid (MSA) and diethylammonium (DEA+) at 40–44° N and subtropical regions (10–20° N) together with averaged satellite chlorophyll-a data and 5-day back trajectories suggest a significant influence of marine biological activities on aerosols in these regions. ON exhibited incre ...PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; U.S. Department of Commerce ; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) - WMO, 2011World Weather Records (WWR) have been published since 1927, and include monthly mean values of pressure, temperature, precipitation, and where available, station metadata notes documenting observation practices and station configurations. Data were supplied by National Meteorological Services as members of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).PermalinkAlam M.; Asian Institute of Technology ; International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) - Adaptation Knowledge Platform, 2011This report presents the findings of desktop research that examined the extent to which Southeast Asian countries are prepared for anticipated climate change impacts. It is divided into separate country profiles and includes analysis of the following countries: Lao PDR, Viet Nam, the Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, Cambodia, Union of Myanmar and Malaysia. Each profile describes an individual country’s attributes, anticipated climate change impacts, vulnerability, necessary adaptation measures and cross-sectoral institutional settings. Each profile concludes with a summary of key gaps, constr ...PermalinkGiven the likely pace of change in the electric vehicle market, it is important that the environmental externalities are identified and quantified. In this report we present the results of a modelling study which investigated how ozone pollution in the Greater Metropolitan Region of Sydney NSW, Australia would respond to the replacement of Sydney’s internal combustion engine (ICE) passenger vehicle fleet with a fleet of electric vehicles. A brief description of the modelling methodology is provided in the next section, and a summary of the modelling outcomes is provided in the following sectio ...PermalinkUNFCCC, 2011The SBI at its 33rd session requested the secretariat to organize, before its thirty-fifth session, a workshop to identify gaps and challenges in the implementation of risk management approaches to the adverse effects of climate change, building on the lessons learned and practical experience of international, regional and national organizations and the private sector.PermalinkThe authors use regression analysis to assess the potential welfare impact of rainfall shocks in rural Indonesia. In particular, they consider two shocks: (i) a delay in the onset of monsoon and (ii) a significant shortfall in the amount of rain in the 90 day post-onset period. Focusing on households with family farm businesses, the analysis finds that a delay in the monsoon onset does not have a significant impact on the welfare of rice farmers. However, rice farm households located in areas exposed to low rainfall following the monsoon are negatively affected. Rice farm households appear to ...PermalinkClimate Change in the Pacific is a rigorously researched, peer-reviewed scientific assessment of the climate of the western Pacific region. Building on the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, this two volume publication represents a comprehensive resource on the climate of the Pacific.
Volume 2 presents individual country reports which provide country-specific projections and relevant climate information.PermalinkClimate Change in the Pacific is a rigorously researched, peer-reviewed scientific assessment of the climate of the western Pacific region. Building on the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, this two volume publication represents a comprehensive resource on the climate of the Pacific.
Volume 1 presents an overview of the region: analysis of large-scale climate phenomena such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, seasonal variability and past climate trends and further develops regional climate change projections.PermalinkGreenwood Robert; Schuiz Eric; Parkinson Murray; et al. - Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, 2011The Tasman International Geospace Environment Radar systems (TIGER) located in Tasmania and New Zealand are High Frequency (HF) Over-The-Horizon Radar (OTHR) systems and represent Australia’s contribution to the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN). SuperDARN is a network of more than 20 HF radars located at mid-high latitudes with fields of view covering the polar regions for the study of ionospheric physics. The TIGER systems have overlapping fields of view that cover much of the Southern Ocean in the Australian sector. The development and operation of TIGER has been led by La Trobe ...PermalinkThe aims of the meeting are to: 1) understand the role of atmospheric chemistry and composition in global atmospheric change as expressed in the Australasian region and internationally; and 2) to provide a forum for atmospheric composition researchers from different disciplines (in-situ observations, remote sensing observations, modelling) to share ideas, enhance collaboration and develop a coordinated regional approach to characterising atmospheric processes in Australasia.PermalinkRaupach Mickael R.; Harman Ian N.; Canadell Josep G. - Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, 2011There are many different ways of quantifying the broad goal of "avoidance of dangerous human interference with the climate system", including targets for global temperature rise, radiative forcing, greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations, GHG emissions in particular years, and cumulative GHG emissions ("carbon budgets"). The purpose of this report is to provide relationships between these different statements of a climate goal. Broadly, the approach is to start from target for global temperature increase above preindustrial temperatures (such as two degrees Celsius or any other target, to be met w ...PermalinkCharles Andrew; Hendon Harry H.; Wang Q.J.; et al. - Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, 2011Ensemble forecasts of South Eastern Australian rainfall from POAMA 1.5, a coupled oceanatmosphere dynamical model based seasonal prediction system run experimentally at the Bureau of Meteorology, tend to be under dispersed leading to overconfident probability forecasts. The poor reliability of seasonal forecasts based on dynamical coupled models is a barrier to their adoption as official outlooks by the Bureau of Meteorology. One approach to correcting this problem is model calibration, in which the probability distribution produced by the model is adjusted in light of available information ab ...PermalinkIn this report we assess forecasts from Predictive Ocean Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA) in comparison to international dynamical coupled model forecast systems, which are archived as part of the ENSEMBLES project. We investigate how universal the lack of reliability is in dynamical forecasts of regional rainfall, in order to highlight any potential for improvement of the POAMA system. The systems assessed in this report show that overconfidence and lack of reliability for regional rainfall forecasts is a common problem. Due to the clear need for improved reliability and more accurate s ...PermalinkExtra-tropical cyclones that develop near the east coast of Australia often have severe consequences such as flash flooding and damaging winds and seas, as well as beneficial consequences such as being responsible for heavy rainfall events that contribute significantly to total rainfall and runoff. There is subjective evidence that the development of most major events, commonly known as East Coast Lows, is associated with the movement of a high amplitude upper-tropospheric trough system over eastern Australia. This report examines a number of large-scale diagnostic quantities in the upper trop ...PermalinkThe rationale behind Norway’s support for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) is to make a substantial contribution in the struggle against global warming. This report presents the findings of an evaluation of the support provided by Norway to the formulation and implementation of national REDD strategies and other REDD readiness efforts in Indonesia up until the end of August 2010.PermalinkThis report presents the first national assessment of peatlands in Malaysia. It identifies remaining peatlands of high conservation value, and presents preliminary recommendations toward the development of a national strategy for Malaysia’s peatlands. The report comes at a critical time for the management of Malaysia’s forests and wetlands, and is a first step toward developing a national strategy for Malaysia’s peatlands.PermalinkThis brief discusses research into awareness and information needs related to Ecosystem-Based Approaches (EBA) to climate change adaptation in the Asia and Pacific region. EBA refers to approaches that recognize the potential of ecosystem services to reduce the impact of climate change on people. This study was undertaken to inform the design of a decision-support tool for development, adaptation and disaster risk reduction stakeholders. It examines climate change impacts and adaptation options in the region. Research found that key stakeholder groups are generally aware of ecosystem-based ada ...PermalinkTropical wetland ecosystems, especially peatlands and mangroves, are important in global carbon cycling. This brief notes that Indonesia has more tropical wetlands than any other country on Earth and that coastal mangroves are important for both mitigation and adaptation. It examines ramifications for Indonesia’s wetlands and calls for ecosystem-based or watershed-wide approaches for communities to manage wetlands.PermalinkThe Met.Office, 2011Understanding the potential impacts of climate change is essential for informing both adaptation strategies and actions to avoid dangerous levels of climate change.
But assessing the impacts is scientifically challenging and has, until now, been fragmented. To date, only a limited amount of information about past climate change and its future impacts has been available at national level, while approaches to the science itself have varied between countries.
In April 2011, we were asked by the United Kingdom's Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change to begi ...PermalinkThe Pacific island governments view climate change as a priority issue, especially in terms of its potential impacts on food security, but need clear directions in addressing both issues. Their agricultural production until the mid-1990s, has been stagnant for the last 45 years, and per capita agricultural production has declined in all countries. This report examines the issues of food security and climate change in the Pacific and the contributing factors based on the Pacific food security framework. It suggests focal areas of assistance for the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and other donors ...PermalinkUNICEF, 2011PermalinkThis paper constructs an integrated assessment model of tropical cyclones in order to quantify the impact that climate change may have on tropical cyclone damages in countries around the world. The paper relies on a tropical cyclone generator in each ocean and several climate models to predict tropical cyclones with and without climate change. A damage model is constructed to compute the resulting damage when a cyclone strikes each country. Economic development is expected to double global tropical cyclone damages because more will be in harm's way. Climate change is expected to double global ...PermalinkUN/ISDR, 2011This report was prepared to provide a snapshot of how disaster risk reduction (DRR) and climate change adaptation (CCA) are undertaken and integrated, if at all, in the Asia Pacific region. It does so by taking stock of past and ongoing regional initiatives and by looking into the role of certain organizations in the implementation process. It also discusses key developments in three areas—political, policy and institutional—which are instrumental in facilitating the integration of DRR and CCA agendas in the region. Concluding remarks and next steps to push the integration forward are presente ...PermalinkTypologies are a systematic grouping of entities or units of interest based on similarity. Typologies are widely applied in a variety of domains of research and practice including natural resource management, agriculture, health, marketing and development. They are used mainly to reduce complexity in the domain of concern to improve understanding and communication, detect patterns, aid decisions, prioritise and allocate resources, and tailor a variety of activities, strategies and processes. In this paper, we assess the current use of typologies within the realm of climate vulnerability assess ...PermalinkUNESCO, 2011An astrolabe is an ancient instrument used to measure the position of the sun and stars. In the past it was used for a number of purposes, such as determining the time of day or night and measuring one’s current position in relation to the north and south poles. A mariner’s astrolabe was used to determine the latitude of a ship at sea and guide its direction.
Similar to the mariner’s astrolabe, the Asia-Pacific Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) Astrolabe aims to assist UNESCO Member States in determining the current position of ESD in their country and guiding educatio ...PermalinkEight ILO Member States are located in the Pacific region. Due to their geographic isolation, small populations and domestic markets, and vulnerability to external shocks,these countries face a number of socio-economic challenges. Against this context, as well as the Global Financial and Economic Crisis (GFEC) and climate change, this report examines possible labour market scenarios and discusses relevant policy responses.PermalinkAtmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters, Volume 3 Number 6. Lin Peng-Fei; Liu Hai-Long; Li Chao; et al. - Science Press, 2010The authors investigate the relationship between bias in simulated sea surface temperature (SST) in the equatorial eastern Pacific cold tongue during the boreal spring as simulated by an oceanic general circulation model (OGCM) and minimal wind mixing (MWM) at the surface. The cold bias of simulated SST is greatest during the boreal spring, at approximately 3°C. A sensitivity experiment reducing MWM by one order of magnitude greatly alleviates cold biases, especially in March-April. The decrease in bias is primarily due to weakened vertical mixing, which preserves heat in the uppermost layer a ...PermalinkAtmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters, Volume 3 Number 6. Tian Hua; Li Chong-Yin - Science Press, 2010The association of typhoon tracks over the western Pacific with the low-frequency wind-field pattern of atmospheric intraseasonal (30-60 days) oscillation at 850 hPa is further studied by using observational data analyses. Comparative analyses of the composite wind fields at 850 hPa, contrasting the atmospheric intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) with the original circulation, show that the typhoon tracks are closely related to the wind pattern of the ISO but are not obviously related to the original wind fields. Case studies of two typhoons in 2006 also show that the low-frequency wind-field patt ...PermalinkA previous modeling study about Pacific Ocean warming derived polar vortex response signals, by subtracting those in the Indian Ocean warming experiments from those in the Indo-Pacific. This approach questions the resemblance of such an indirectly derived response to one directly forced by Pacific Ocean warming. This is relevant to the additive nonlinearity of atmospheric responses to separated Indian and Pacific Ocean forcing. In the present study, an additional set of ensemble experiments are performed by prescribing isolated SST forcing in the tropical Pacific Ocean to address this issue. T ...PermalinkAtmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters, Volume 3 Number 6. Tan Xiao-Wei; Wang Dong-Liang - Science Press, 2010Conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation (CNOP) obtained by the ensemble-based calculation method is employed to find possible sensitive areas for improving 48-h or more than 48-h tropical cyclone (TC) track predictions in several cases affecting China in 2007. These sensitive areas are examined by observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs). Results show that these sensitive areas improve TC track predictions for 48 h or more to different extents. Further analysis is performed to determine the distribution characteristics of sensitive areas in these cases. Results show that areas south ...PermalinkAtmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters, Volume 3 Number 5. Wu Chun-Qiang; Zhou Tian-Jun; De-Zheng Xiao-Li - Science Press, 2010Previous analyses on the estimates of water vapor and cloud-related feedbacks in the tropics usually use observations over the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) period (1985–89). To examine the sample dependence of previous estimates, the authors extend the analysis to two additional periods: 1990–94 and 1995–99. The results confirm our hypothesis, i.e., the values of the feedbacks depend on the period of data coverage. The differences in the feedbacks from cloud radiative forcings (CRFs) estimated from the three periods are particularly significant. Two possible causes for these differ ...PermalinkThe sensitive regions of conditional nonlinear optimal perturbations (CNOPs) and the first singular vector (FSV) for a northwest Pacific typhoon case are reported in this paper. A large number of probes have been designed in the above regions and the ensemble transform Kalman filter (ETKF) techniques are utilized to examine which approach can locate more appropriate regions for typhoon adaptive observations. The results show that, in general, the majority of the probes in the sensitive regions of CNOPs can reduce more forecast error variance than the probes in the sensitive regions of FSV. Thi ...PermalinkKeenan T.D.; Cleugh H.A. - Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, 2010 (CAWCR Technical Report-No. 036)This technical report is based on scientific contributions from both CSIRO1 and the Bureau of Meteorology. It is not intended to be comprehensive in terms of depth or breadth. Rather it is a snapshot of the “state of the science” mainly from the perspective of CAWCR scientific expertise based on peer-reviewed literature. The issues covered relate mainly (but not exclusively) to the scope of Working Group One (WGI) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (http://www.ipcc.ch/); i.e. an assessment of the physical and scientific aspects of the climate system and climate change. We are pa ...PermalinkKirono G.C.; Hennessy Kevin; Mpelasoka Freddie; et al. - Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, 2010 (CAWCR Technical Report-No. 034)This report describes approaches used for constructing climate projections from a set of climate model simulations for use in drought projections, particularly in Australia. The description includes the pros and cons of each approach with respect to the calculation process, data that are produced, and discussion of the main sources of uncertainty. Although the main focus is on research and approaches that are applied in Australia, the report also briefly discusses approaches applied elsewhere in the world.PermalinkGovernments need to acknowledge that problems of undernutrition and micronutrient deficiency persist, and they should sensitize the public to the magnitude of the problem, its causes and effects and possible strategies to combat it. Nutritional considerations need to be seriously integrated into agriculture, livestock, aquaculture and related programmes so that this dimension can be monitored and desired outcomes achieved. The key objectives of this priority area are to contribute to the eradication of hunger and malnutrition in Asia and the Pacific region in line with the targets of the World ...PermalinkThe report is intended to support progress on development effectiveness and climate change in Asia, through informing discussions on current climate financing in Asia. It provides an overview of key issues, and includes a synthesis of findings from five Asian country studies; in Bangladesh, Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam. It provided reference material for the 19th-20th October 2010 Bangkok conference on Climate Change Finance and Aid Effectiveness.PermalinkUSAID, 2010This report discusses the climate change adaptation needs of the Asia-Pacific region; it was undertaken in order to inform USAID’s Regional Development Mission for Asia (RDMA). The report’s analysis is based on stakeholder consultations and literature reviews. It focuses on 19 countries: Cambodia, China, Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Laos, Maldives, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Mongolia, Nepal, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Thailand, Timor Leste, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Vanuatu and Vietnam. The report begins by outlining vulnerability and adaptation priorities in the region. Whil ...PermalinkThis paper reviews the impacts of climate change and their implications for food security and sustainable development in the Asia and the Pacific region; analyses opportunities and options for climate change adaptation and mitigation in the agricultural sectors; discusses major policy, institutional and technical issues to be addressed; presents global and regional initiatives taken by FAO; and proposes recommendations for further actions.Permalink本 文 件 审 查 了 气 候 变 化 的 影 响 ，以 及 气 候 变 化 对 亚 洲 及 太 平 洋 区 域 的 粮 食 安 全 和 可 持 续 发 展 产 生 的 影 响 ； 分 析 了 农业 部 门 气 候 变 化 适 应 和 减 缓 的 机 遇 和 方 案 ； 讨 论 了 主 要 的 政 策 和 需 要 解 决 的 体 制 和 技 术 问 题 ；介 绍 了 粮 农 组 织 实 施 的 全 球 和 区 域 举 措 ； 并 提 出 了 进 一 步 行 动 的 建 议PermalinkPermalinkLe présent document analyse les impacts du changement climatique et leurs implications pour la sécurité alimentaire et le développement durable dans la région Asie et Pacifique. Il décrit les possibilités et les options en matière d’adaptation et d’atténuation dans les secteurs agricoles et présente les principales questions politiques, institutionnelles et techniques à approfondir ainsi que les initiatives mondiales et régionales prises par la FAO, avant de conclure par des recommandations sur les actions à engager.PermalinkThis publication is expected to assist in augmentation of socio-economic policy issues related to the generation and use of weather, climate and water related information and services. It is derived from the outcome of the International Conference on 'Secure and Sustainable Living: Social and Economic Benefits of Weather, Climate and Water Services' that took place in Madrid, Spain from 19 to 22 March 2007.PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP); International Council for Science (ICSU); et al. - WMO, 2009 (WMO/TD-No. 1490)PermalinkADB, 2009This report, published by the Asian Development Bank, examines the economics of climate change in Southeast Asia. The report focuses on Indonesia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam in particular. It is found that the region is particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change due to its heavily populated coastal areas and its reliance on agriculture. Therefore, Southeast Asia will be required to undertake a relatively high proportion of adaptation measures. It is also argued that the region has a great deal of potential in terms of climate change mitigation and the regio ...PermalinkThe manual describes procedure for estimating the maximum probable precipitation and the maximum probable flood. This is the third revised version.
The first and second editions of this manual were published in 1973 and 1986, respectively. The current edition keeps a majority of the content from the second edition. Newly added content in this third edition primarily results from experiences, since 1986, in directly estimating PMP for the requirements of a given project in a design watershed on probable maximum flood (PMF) in China, the United States of America, Australia and India.PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) - WMO, 2009 (WMO/TD-No. 1476)PermalinkPermalinkPermalinkPermalinkPermalinkis an issue of MeteoWorld. WMO, 2008Contains:
- Food security
- WCC-3: Better climate information for a better future
- Researching Pacific weather
- El Niño/La Niña
- Lakes and reservoirs
- Forest fires
- Network visualization
- Upper-air observing systemsPermalink