WMO, 2021This report presents the results of an interlaboratory comparison (ILC) with participation of all Regional Instrument Centres (RICs) in WMO Regional Associations (RAs) II and V, using the methodology and experience from the ILC in RA VI in 2016. The ILC was coordinated by RIC Tsukuba (Japan) with support and input from RIC Ljubljana and the University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Electrical Engineering (Slovenia). The results of the ILC in RA II and RA V clearly demonstrate the high capabilities of these RICs, particularly in the domains of temperature and humidity calibration. Some areas requirin ...Published by: WMO ; 2021
Report on Interlaboratory Comparison in the field of Temperature, Humidity and Pressure in the WMO Regional Association II, V and VI (MM-ILC-2018-THP-2)
This report presents the results of an interlaboratory comparison (ILC) with participation of all Regional Instrument Centres (RICs) in WMO Regional Associations (RAs) II and V, using the methodology and experience from the ILC in RA VI in 2016. The ILC was coordinated by RIC Tsukuba (Japan) with support and input from RIC Ljubljana and the University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Electrical Engineering (Slovenia). The results of the ILC in RA II and RA V clearly demonstrate the high capabilities of these RICs, particularly in the domains of temperature and humidity calibration. Some areas requiring improvement have been identified, mainly in the domain of pressure calibration, thereby the results will assist the laboratories concerned to identify and correct their operations. The results of the ILC have also supported the participating laboratories in maintaining or applying for accreditation according to ISO/IEC 17025. Overall, this is a very positive outcome of the ILC with the goal of improving measurement quality being achieved.
Notes: K. Nakashima, F. Barcenas, I. Dollery, D. Groselj, A. Merlone, X. Nan, J. Bojkovski and G. Beges
Collection(s) and Series: IOM Report- No. 134
Format: Digital (Free)This publication examines the physical, material and psychological gender-differentiated impacts of weather and climate as well as the gender-specific needs for information and services on the basis of primary data emerging from 18 case studies, including three in-depth studies (Bangladesh, Fiji and Botswana) and other empirical evidence. It explores the experiences of different groups of women and men at the intersection with other social categories like age, economic status, location, disability, or marital status. It also analyzes gender relations and roles in two climate-sensitive sectors: ...Published by: WMO ; 2019 (2019 edition)
This publication examines the physical, material and psychological gender-differentiated impacts of weather and climate as well as the gender-specific needs for information and services on the basis of primary data emerging from 18 case studies, including three in-depth studies (Bangladesh, Fiji and Botswana) and other empirical evidence. It explores the experiences of different groups of women and men at the intersection with other social categories like age, economic status, location, disability, or marital status. It also analyzes gender relations and roles in two climate-sensitive sectors: (1) disaster risk reduction and (2) agriculture and food security. The publication provides practical recommendations to NMHSs and Members for bridging information asymmetries and providing gender-responsive services in terms of content, dissemination channels and feedback mechanisms, with the overall goal of enhancing adaptive capacity and reducing negative impacts of weather and climate.
Collection(s) and Series: Capstone Project Research Report
Format: Digital (Free)The METAGRI project was implemented by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in collaboration with the National Meteorological Services of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Côte d´Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo with funds provided by the State Meteorological Agency of Spain (AEMET).
WMO and AEMET agreed to launch a project on Agrometeorology to support West African Agriculture following the October 2007 Conference of Directors of National Meteorological and Hydrological Services of West Africa. ...Published by: WMO ; 2019
The METAGRI project was implemented by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in collaboration with the National Meteorological Services of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Côte d´Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo with funds provided by the State Meteorological Agency of Spain (AEMET).
WMO and AEMET agreed to launch a project on Agrometeorology to support West African Agriculture following the October 2007 Conference of Directors of National Meteorological and Hydrological Services of West Africa. This programme called METAGRI was formulated around the concept of Roving Seminars on Weather, Climate and Farmers and on the basis of the Mali experience on agrometeorology for farmers (AGROMET).
The objective of METAGRI was to increase awareness of farmers on weather and climate risk management, the use of weather and climate information and services to improve rural production and better prepare against the weather threats emerging from climate change.
The objective of the project is in line with the MDG 1 “Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger” and its relevance is confirmed by scientific studies and technical reports.
The high relevance of the project is testified by scientific and practical knowledge as well as by farmers’ perception.
Format: Digital (Free)This report describes the intercomparison in detail: the instruments, the participants, the experimental setup, method and procedure, the data analysis technique used and the results. It is clear from the results that all of the participating instruments have been well maintained and remained stable since the previous intercomparison, which augers well for all radiation measurements within RA II and RA V. All participants were able to return home with newly derived WRR reduction factors for their instruments.Published by: WMO ; 2018
This report describes the intercomparison in detail: the instruments, the participants, the experimental setup, method and procedure, the data analysis technique used and the results. It is clear from the results that all of the participating instruments have been well maintained and remained stable since the previous intercomparison, which augers well for all radiation measurements within RA II and RA V. All participants were able to return home with newly derived WRR reduction factors for their instruments.
Collection(s) and Series: IOM Report- No. 130
Format: Digital (Free)Published by: WMO ; 2018
Report on Responses to the Questionnaire on Climate Services for Agriculture in Regional Association V (South-West Pacific)
Format: Digital (Free)The effective communication of public information and warnings is a critical element of emergency management, with the power to save lives. This handbook provides insight and guidance to people who have responsibility for communication with the public in the event of an emergency. The handbook presents nationally agreed principles for warning policy and practice and explores the essential elements and discipline of effective public information and warning delivery.
This handbook is designed to be of value across a wide range of hazards. Whether it is a natural hazard or weather ...PermalinkBadan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika (BMKG) ; World Meteorological Organization (WMO) - WMO, 2018PermalinkBadan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika (BMKG) ; World Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; Sekolah Lapang Iklim - WMO, 2018The Climate Field School, CFS, is a program that has a goal to increase farmer's knowledge's and understandings on climate information's with a concept of learning by doing and learning by experiencing to reach a success in farming activity to support the increase in yields of agricultural sectors.PermalinkThis study investigates spatial and temporal features of the West African Summer Monsoon (WASM) and its relation to the Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly (SSTA). The variability of the WASM from June to September was analyzed during the period 1960-2013, with methods including EOF analysis of the precipitation anomaly and SSTA and the associated large scale circulation pattern. The result from the first EOF-Mode of the precipitation anomaly which has the highest positive loadings over the region shows that during the summer, the precipitation anomalies are positives in the Sahel and the Sahara. ...PermalinkPermalinkA Regional Climate Outlook Forum is a platform that brings together climate experts and sector representatives from countries in a climatologically homogenous region to provide consensus based climate prediction and information, with input from global and regional producing centres and National Meteorological and Hydrological Services, with the aim of gaining substantial socio-economic benefits in climate sensitive sectors.PermalinkThis flagship publication of UN ESCAP provides an overview of the state of disaster resilience in Asia-Pacific region, and places disaster risk reduction at the heart of sustainable development. It identifies emerging new risks in the region and the sectors that are most at risk.PermalinkThis report extends, reviews and explains in detail the historical flood series for the Ba River at Ba, Fiji. It is the longest quantitative flood series for a river in Fiji, describing 32 floods that have inundated Rarawai Sugar Mill over the 123‐year period from 1892 to 2014, at an average of once every 3.8 years. The accuracy of each flood level is assessed, with 56% of these floods deemed to have a high rating and 34% a medium‐high or medium rating. Flood levels for 12 lesser floods are also estimated. This extended and verified flood series provides the basis for forthcoming statistical a ...PermalinkVanuatu - Gov, 2015This report summarises the discussions and outcomes from the national debriefing workshop to identify lessons learned following Tropical Cyclone Pam (TC Pam). It reviews key aspects of coordination, including preparation, response and recovery.PermalinkThis report presents the outcomes of a rapid assessment on the drought situation carried out by the Government of Papua New Guinea. It includes the findings/ highlights on the impact of drought on food, water, health, livelihood and education. It finally presents recommendations based on the assessment.PermalinkThis national assessment brings together existing evidence on the migration, environment and climate change nexus in Papua New Guinea (PNG).
The report provides a review of environmental migration materialised in local realities and compiles data from a wide variety of sources, including government policy documents, academic research, working papers and other publications and research carried out by national and international organizations, NGOs and research institutions.
An overview of PNG’s exposure to environmental and climatic changes is provided, as well as t ...PermalinkThis research looks at climate change vulnerability assessments (CCVAs) conducted in cities across Indonesia.
Two models are explored: one that was deployed in the cities of Semarang and Bandar Lampung through the Asian Cities Climate Change Resilience Network (ACCCRN) programme, and another developed by UNDP and implemented by Yayasan Kota Kita in Manado and Makassar. They vary in duration, funding, emphasis on shared learning, stakeholder involvement, and external support; studying them helps indicate how different processes may have different impacts upon decision-making and ...PermalinkThis report aims to contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the implications of social media analysis tools for disaster preparedness, focusing on the Asia Pacific region. The research it is based on follows a technology-in-practice approach, that is, it examines users’ practices enacted in their interaction with technological features and functions (e.g., message broadcasting on Twitter, visual analytical tools on ThinkUp) in different situations. Specifically, this research aims to solicit data from humanitarian organizations’ self-reported opinions and usage of social media and relat ...PermalinkIn this article, the author tabulates and measures the burden of disasters on the Pacific Island Countries (PICs) by aggregating and comparing the data found in the two global datasets on disaster impacts.
The paper shows that the most commonly used dataset greatly underestimates the burden of disasters for the Pacific islands. Next, it describes a new index that aggregates disaster impacts, calculates this index for the PICs, and then compares the burden of disasters for the island countries of the Pacific with the island countries of the Caribbean. This comparison demonstrates ...PermalinkThe paper provides a review of natural disasters and their impacts in Asia and the Pacific by disaster type, sub region and level of development. The first section looks at the occurrence of natural disaster events. This is followed by an analysis of fatalities and economic loss in sections two and three respectively. The short-term consequences of natural disasters on the economy are also mentioned. The final section briefly discusses aspects regarding exposure and vulnerability of countries in Asia and the Pacific.PermalinkThis portfolio of projects provides a ‘first generation’ view of how a set of cities have interpreted building urban climate change resilience (UCCR) challenges and translated their understanding into targeted priorities and actions, as a pioneering effort to advance on-the-ground actions. These projects seek to strengthen the capabilities of cities to plan, finance and implement UCCR strategies for coping with the inevitable impacts of climate change taking place now, and in the decades to come.
The document describes the projects capturing details from the various experiences ...PermalinkHolland Paula; United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR) - Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC), 2014It is a long accepted fact that the Pacific is one of the most natural disaster prone regions in the world. Aside from the threat of seismic events, such as earthquakes, tsunamis and volcanic activities, the Pacific region is subject to a wide range of hydrometeorological hazards. […]PermalinkInvestment in meteorological services can generate widespread benefits for a community. These may take the form of small daily improvements in the lives of citizens and businesses (such as improved farming outlooks) as well as occasional benefits from improved planning for severe events.
Due to the diversity of ways that meteorological services can improve lives, it is not possible to determine with certainty their benefits. However, illustrations of the magnitude of the types of benefits may be identified.PermalinkThis framework offers a simple yet robust five-stage approach to help decision-makers and development practitioners at all levels systematically assess climate-related risks and prioritize actions that promote climate-resilient development. Developed by USAID’s Global Climate Change Office, this “development-first” approach helps decision-makers and practitioners integrate climate considerations directly into development activities across multiple sectors, keeping the focus on achieving development goals despite a changing climate. Working with USAID missions, governments, and other stakeholde ...PermalinkThis issue presents an overview, both global and regional, of the catastrophes that occurred in 2013 and their impacts in terms of number of victims and economic and insured losses. It includes a chapter on fostering climate change resilience, which argues that dealing with climate change requires a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions alongside an integrated approach to disaster risk management and describes how cost-effective adaptation measures could avoid up to 68% of climate change risks. It also focuses on Typhoon Haiyan, which was the biggest humanitarian catastrophe of the year.
PermalinkBarnes Paul; Bergin Anthony; Nichola Daniel; et al. - Australian government publishing service, 2014This special report offers a roadmap for enhancing Australia’s disaster resilience, building on the 2011 National Strategy for Disaster Resilience. It includes a snapshot of relevant issues and current resilience efforts in Australia, outlining key challenges and opportunities. It sets out 11 recommendations to help guide Australia towards increasing national resilience, from individuals and local communities through to state and federal agencies.PermalinkThis document responds to the need to ensure that health measures focused on prevention and mitigation of risks related to natural hazards are implemented in the Western Pacific Region. It presents the draft Western Pacific Regional Framework for Action for Disaster Risk Management for Health, which focuses on all phases of the disaster risk management for health (DRM-H) cycle: prevention, preparedness, response and recovery in order to prevent and mitigate risks associated with disasters.PermalinkThis summary provides the Chair’s assessment of the main points of the key issues discussed during the Pacific Platform for Disaster Risk Management, held in Suva, Fiji on 2–4 June 2014.
It presents (i) the findings of a ten-year review of the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) in the region; (ii) a summary of a High-level dialogue between prominent representatives of Fiji, French Polynesia, New Zealand and Thailand, addressing community resilience building and the role of leaders in this agenda; (iii) the perspectives of the Pacific region on the consultation process around the ...PermalinkPermalinkThis report documents an assessment of disaster risk reduction for flooding in the Ba and Penang River catchments in Viti Levu, Fiji to identify the most cost-effective management options for communities and households. The analysis accounted for the biophysical and socioeconomic impacts of flooding, the costs, benefits, and feasibility of management, and the potential impacts of climate change. The report highlights that natural disasters such as hurricanes, cyclones, and tropical depressions cause average annual direct losses of US$284 million in the Pacific region – the highest in the world ...PermalinkSuni Yulius P.K.; Lassa Jonatan A.; Institute of Resource Governance and Social Change (IRGSC) - IRGSC, 2014This paper addresses the reduction of carbon emission as a global climate mitigation imperative and considers the negative impacts of climate change on food production. It argues that, in order to ensure that climate adaptation, food security and climate mitigation objectives are mutually achieved, local level intervention is necessary.
The case study shows local level action where efforts achieving food security through mutual adoption of climate adaptation (e.g. drought and soil erosion management through land and water conservation measures) and carbon mitigation. The resear ...PermalinkThis Sigma report gives a global and regional overview of catastrophes in 2013 when almost 26,000 people died in disasters. It also takes a special look at fostering climate change resilience. Typhoon Haiyan was the biggest humanitarian catastrophe of the year and Asia had the highest economic losses. Worldwide economic losses from catastrophes worldwide were US$ 140 billion in 2013. The report predicts that climate change could contribute to rising losses in the future as the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events increase. It is argued that dealing with climate change requires a r ...PermalinkLassa Jonatan A.; Nugraha Erwin; Institute of Resource Governance and Social Change (IRGSC) - IRGSC, 2014This paper investigates the evolution of institutional transformation and policy change in the area of planing and building resilience to climate change in the Bandar Lampung City, Indonesia. It highlights the experience on how the city adapting to climate change through modified urban development policy. The paper also discusses challenges, barriers, and policy gaps in city-scale climate adaptation planning.PermalinkThis paper highlights the impact of climate change on agriculture. It argues that the erratic climate of the region has strongly impacted the local food system especially the seed availability and therefore food security in general. This paper identifies some of the innovation in water use efficiency, water management at crop levels, and proposes some agriculture interventions in order to achieve a sustainable local seed systems, participatory breeding, livestock adaptation measures and improvement of existing agroforestry as well as knowledge management.PermalinkБюллетень, Том 61 (1). BMO, 2013Это жители Эфиопии, Непала, Кирибати, Бразилии, канадской территории Нунавут и Бангладеш. Их связывает то, что они живут на одной планете и принадлежат к одной цивилизации. У каждого из них свой неповторимый образ жизни, основанный на опыте существования в разных климатических зонах планеты, будь то экваториальная, полузасушливая, муссонная, горная, океаническая или полярная зона.PermalinkPermalinkThe CAWCR Workshop is an annual event and brings together national and international expertise to highlight latest development in research relevant to CAWCR and its stakeholders. It provides an opportunity to identify gaps, opportunities, build relationships and enhance the quality, breadth and depth of our research efforts. The CAWCR Workshop is an annual event and brings together national and international expertise to highlight latest development in research relevant to CAWCR and its stakeholders. It provides an opportunity to identify gaps, opportunities, build relationships and en ...PermalinkPermalinkThe Australian Community Climate and Earth-System Simulator (ACCESS) is a new coupled ocean and atmosphere climate modelling system being developed at the Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research (CAWCR). ACCESS uses the UK Met Office Unified Model (Met UM, Davies et al. 2005) as its atmospheric component, which is coupled with the GFDL Ocean Model version 4.1 (MOM4p1, Griffies et al. 2009) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory Sea Ice Model version 4.1 (CICE4, Hunke and Lipscomb 2010), using the numerical coupler OASIS3.25 (Valcke 2006). The development of ACCESS has followed ...PermalinkThis report proposes a new objective definition for heatwaves and heatwave severity that may be applied to any location in Australia, or for that matter the world. Using this definition, it is now possible to compare severe and extreme heat events across time and space.PermalinkThis brief deals with adapting Australia’s agriculture to climate change, especially broadacre farming, and is based mainly, but not exclusively, on experiences in southern South Australia. It highlights key needs to support future adaptation, including investment in education, social science research, seasonal weather predictions and policy certainty and adaptability.PermalinkThis report examines four topics: (i) disasters in 2012, with a focus on recurring disasters; (ii) the role of regional organizations in disaster risk management; (iii) wildfires; and (iv) the important role of women in disaster risk management. It highlights the value given by governments and other actors in working together to prevent disasters and, to a lesser extent, to respond to disasters occurring in the region. It also features the development of strong regional initiatives and different mechanisms for encouraging collaboration, including frameworks for disaster risk reduction, regiona ...PermalinkMonash University, 2013This study aims to provide an analysis of the spatial distribution of vulnerability of urban populations to extreme heat events in Australian capital cities at the present time, and to estimate future vulnerability in relation to projected climate changes.It provides a ‘tool’ to guide short-term, medium-term and longer-term heatwave adaptation policy.PermalinkThis report documents the current contributions of Pacific regional organizations to disaster risk management (DRM) and explores the potential for them to play more substantial and active roles in the future. Although regional mechanisms are playing increasingly important roles in DRM, there has been remarkably little research on their contributions and few published studies on their comparative advantages. At a global level, this recent Brookings study sought to address this gap by summarizing the work of more than thirty regional organizations involved in DRM, drawing some comparisons and ge ...PermalinkHowes Michael; National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility (NCCARF) - Griffith University, 2013This report investigates impacts of climate change, population growth, and urban coastal development on Australian environment, economy, and society, particularly in relation to bushfire and flood. The report aims to develop the foundations for a nationally consistent approach to disaster risk management and climate change adaptation that would be supported by a set of appropriate reforms to governing institutions and tools.
This is the final report of a research project entitled "The Right Tool for the Job: Achieving climate change adaptation outcomes through improved disaster ...PermalinkMesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs) occur globally and can account for significant percentages of the annual precipitation in some locations. MCSs are responsible for flooding as well as damaging surface winds in some instances. Thus, it is important for forecasters to understand when, where, and how MCSs develop and maintain themselves. This module covers all modes of MCSs with a strong focus on the tropics and the different aspects that brings to MCS development, maintenance, and structure. It describes conceptual models of MCSs and the dynamical and physical processes that influence their e ...PermalinkThe module illustrates the typical synoptic pattern influencing fire weather in southeast Australia. A case study provides insight into how experienced forecasters combine the four key ingredients—wind, temperature, dew point temperature, and fuel state—to produce a fire danger index value and resulting forecast policy map. Then, a case exercise allows the learner to practice using weather and fuel data to create a fire weather forecast policy map for southeastern Australia.PermalinkApplied Geoscience and Technology Division of the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC/SOPAC), 2013This report provides a review and analysis of progress since 2009 towards disaster risk reduction and disaster management in the Pacific region. Successes and ongoing challenges are measured against the global Hyogo Framework for Action’s (HFA’s) priorities for action and indicators and the Pacific’s Regional Disaster Risk Reduction and Disaster Management Framework for Action’s (RFA’s) themes and key activities. Given the strong synergies between disaster risk reduction (DRR) and climate change adaptation (CCA), progress includes capturing relevant climate change (CC) related programs, initia ...PermalinkShyam K.C.; Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery, the ; World Bank the - World Bank, 2013This note briefly surveys existing evidence in developing countries with regard to the benefits and costs of various disaster risk reduction interventions so as to provide some general lessons for disaster risk reduction (DRR) practitioners on the strengths and limitations of such existing work. In doing so, the note examines evidence on the economics of DRR in developing countries.
The note begins by providing a comparative guideline for analysis. This is followed by a summary diagnostic of seventeen case studies along five key dimensions comprising the guideline as follows: ( ...PermalinkThis document features the main outcomes of regional platform meetings and ministerial conferences and provides an overview of recent regional priorities in disaster risk reduction and resilience-building. It provides a list of regional platforms held in 2012–2013, outlines the value of regional platforms and provides a short analysis of common trends.
Details from each regional platform form the main body of the document, including: (i) a background; (ii) a summary of outcomes and recommendations; (iii) regional input into the Fourth Session of the Global Platform for Disaster ...PermalinkThis booklet reports on World Bank's support in the Pacific through investments in disaster and climate risk assessments, and on risk reduction across a range of areas through community driven development, water and coastal management, transport and agriculture. It provides a snapshot of the challenges posed by climate change and natural hazards in the Pacific, policy recommendations, and details of the World Bank Group's work across the region in helping build resilience to disasters and climate change. It is structured as follows: (i) part one presents Pacific island as the most vulnerable i ...PermalinkThis document is the final report of a Senate inquiry by the Environment and Communications References Committee looking at Australia’s extreme weather and asking if the country is ready. It looks at any emerging trends on the frequency of extreme weather events. Based on evidence on future projections of such events and on global warming scenarios of between 1C and 5C by 2070, the inquiry looks at the costs of extreme weather events and their impacts on ecosystems, infrastructure and human health. It also examines the “availability and affordability” of private insurance in disaster-prone are ...PermalinkThis paper explores various issues surrounding disaster risk reduction in the Asia-Pacific region, a region which experiences high vulnerability to disasters.
The paper is divided into three sections: (i) section one explains the background and scope of the study, highlighting recent disaster data organized by disaster type, continent, and number of lives lost; (ii) section two explains the major issues found in the course of the study and the coordinating recommendations, including recommendations for compound disasters and climate change adaptation; (iii) section three summar ...PermalinkRAI, 2013This document is the summary of the findings of Griffith University, which was commissioned by the Regional Australia Institute (RAI) to examine the experiences and learnings arising from the communities that have experienced the challenges of recovering from and adapting to the impact of disasters. Four case studies were undertaken to research communities recovering from disasters such as cyclones, floods and bushfires.PermalinkThree recent rounds (2003, 2006, and 2009) of the Family Income and Expenditure Survey are matched to rainfall data from 43 rainfall stations in the Philippines to quantify the extent to which unusual weather has any negative effects on the consumption of Filipino households. It is found that negative rainfall shocks decrease consumption, in particular food consumption. Rainfall below one standard deviation of its long-run average causes food consumption to decrease by about 4 percent, when compared with rainfall within one standard deviation. Positive deviations above one standard deviation h ...PermalinkThe Pacific region—a diverse array of 7,500 islands of varying topographies, cultures, and economies—is particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, with significant economic costs. This study provides fine-scale climate–economic information that is critical for making development and adaptation planning decisions in Asian Development Bank’s (ADB) Pacific developing member countries (DMCs). Economic assessment associated with climate information helps identify priority sectors, estimate funding needs, and prepare for economy-wide climate change impacts. Projections of total econom ...PermalinkThis report, produced by Adapting to Climate Change in China amongst others, identifies key opportunities and avenues for South-South learning and cooperation to address climate change, is a critical tool for international development organisations, national governments and policy-makers. It outlines how best to channel resources to share China's and developing countries' experiences of integrating climate adaptation into the development process, thereby facilitating developing countries’ improved adaptation, learning from each other and avoiding the risk of maladaptation to climate change. Th ...PermalinkNatural disasters are on the rise worldwide. There are more and more intense natural disasters—which are defined to cause at least 100 deaths or to affect the basic survival needs of at least 1,000 people—resulting from floods and storms as well as droughts and heat waves. The Asia and the Pacific region has experienced some of the most damaging disasters in recent decades, with alarming consequences for human welfare. At the same time, the climate in the region has been changing. Temperatures have been higher, on average, and also more variable and more extreme. Rainfall has also been more va ...PermalinkTaking into account the strong basis of learning the Pacific offers in the area of disaster risk reduction (DRR) and climate change adaptation (CCA), this study explores and unpacks what were the drivers and process to develop joint national action plans on disaster risk management and climate change (JNAPs), primary DRM legislation, and sustainable development plans addressing DRR and CCA in Pacific islands countries. Their impact and potential in facilitating effective DRM and CCA is assessed, as well as potential linkages between legislation and policy documents The three Pacific islands co ...PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UN/ISDR); World Bank the; et al. - UN/ISDR, 2013The Country Assessment Reports for Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Philippines and Viet Nam investigate the capacity of the national hydrological and meteorological services (NHMSs) and recommend improvements through a regional approach.
Initial assessments in the reports show the cost-effectiveness of strengthening national hydro-meteorological services through regional cooperation for reducing adverse impacts of natural hazard-induced disasters and climate change which know no national boundaries.
The World Bank and UNISDR produced the reports in collaboration w ...PermalinkIOM, 2013This compendium presents the state-of-the-art approach to mobility and disaster to practitioners and policy-makers in the risk reduction and migration community. The analysis is based on IOM’s extensive achievements in the field: 257 disaster-related projects in 31 countries from early 2009 to early 2013 for a total over USD 720 million, supporting at least 23 million individuals exposed to, or affected by, natural hazards.PermalinkHow are Latin American countries mainstreaming decentralised, democratic and participatory strategies to disaster risk management across public policy?
Through a systems approach, the region is making important advances. Against a backdrop of inadequate disaster preparedness and repeated humanitarian aid interventions, Latin American countries have driven forward the institutionalisation and mainstreaming of Disaster Risk Management (DRM) in public policy. Based on a systems approach, Latin American governments are establishing coherent policy and regulatory frameworks for DRM f ...PermalinkThis paper highlights evidence of disaster risk governance at national and local levels in Indonesia. Drawing upon the strength of social network approach, it specifically analyzes and presents the network of actors in disaster risk reduction policy reform in Indonesia where civil society plays vital roles. Two case studies are provided to exemplify the roles of civil society at local level. The paper concludes that disaster reduction policy reform at different levels in Indonesia have been equally coproduced by civil society, local governments, national government and international actors.
PermalinkThis publication contains 14 good practices and case studies that have been compiled by the Private Sector Advisory Group of the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR). Each of the 14 examples applies one or more of the five essentials for business in their pursuit of disaster risk reduction. It presents the various types of collaboration and cooperation, core to the all five essentials, that are positioned as critical in minimizing or potentially eliminating disasters as well as disasters’ effects on people, property and ultimately, the health, economy and resilience of wo ...PermalinkThis report outlines the challenges and opportunities as well as new priorities for the disaster risk management (DRM) field in East Asia and the Pacific. It takes stock of the most important activities, highlights examples of global good practice and innovative products, and makes recommendations for reducing risks and building resilience in the short, medium, and long run. It presents a comprehensive disaster risk management framework that offers practical opportunities for targeted policy action and investments, stretching across sectors and jurisdictions and reaching all the way to communi ...PermalinkIFRC, 2013This short pamphlet sets out some preliminary findings from a 2-year comparative study of legislation for disaster risk reduction in 26 countries.PermalinkThis report seeks to measure progress in the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) implementation in the Asia-Pacific region by synthesizing the review process and outcomes of the HFA national progress reports submitted by 36 countries during the review period from May 2011 to March 2013. It includes: (i) an executive summary capturing the progress and key trends in the implementation of HFA in the Asia Pacific; (ii) the disaster context in Asia Pacific and an introduction to the HFA and the monitoring and review process; (iii) the analysis on the progress achieved at the national level; (iv) progr ...PermalinkGero Anna; National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility (NCCARF); University of Technology - NCCARF, 2013This research paper examines the nexus between disasters, human health, and climate change in the Pacific in order determine methods of effective disaster response in a changing climate to enhance long term adaptive capacity. The aim of this paper is to identify gaps in post-disaster support and to disseminate information regarding those gaps among policy-makers so as to establish a society more resilient to disaster.PermalinkGero Anna; National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility (NCCARF); University of Technology - NCCARF, 2013This research paper examines the nexus between disasters, human health, and climate change in the Pacific in order determine methods of effective disaster response in a changing climate to enhance long term adaptive capacity. The aim of this paper is to identify gaps in post-disaster support and to disseminate information regarding those gaps among policy-makers so as to establish a society more resilient to disaster.PermalinkThis report aims rather to contribute to a better understanding of the issues and challenges involved in drawing up baseline scenarios, by documenting and drawing lessons from the breadth of existing practices in a range of countries. This existing diversity is both a key asset for gradually increasing the robustness of baseline scenarios, but also the reason for a lack of comparability.PermalinkThis paper addresses the fiscal gaps in resource experienced by local governments in developing countries to address overall stock of disaster risks and vulnerabilities because there are many other competing priorities. It looks at Indonesia, who developed a new form of risk governance by inviting non-state actors such as civil society and private entities to collaborate in risk reduction. This collaboration emerges as form of disaster risk governance namely public-private partnership under the coordination of civil society.PermalinkUNDP, 2013This paper aims to present a background to resource-based conflicts and how they may be influenced by climate change in the Asia Pacific region. In so doing, this paper first examines the relationship between security, natural resources, and climate change. Second, this paper looks specifically at this issue in the Asia-Pacific region, presenting case studies from South and West Asia, East Asia, and the Pacific. The paper also presents an appraisal of existing address of this issue and explores options for future action that may underpin peace and security in a climate change context at local ...PermalinkEEA, 2013This report provides policymakers across Europe, at different levels of governance and stages of policy formulation, with information that can be used to support adaptation planning and implementation. Specific parts of the report are therefore targeted at different audiences.PermalinkThis synthesis report provides countries and all stakeholders with an overview of the issues emerging to date on the consultations and development of a post-2015 framework for disaster risk reduction (HFA2). The key purpose of this report is to provide the basis for continued consultations, and to inform a draft HFA2 following the Fourth Session of the Global Platform in May 2013.PermalinkThis study provides a quantitative and comprehensive view of water security in the countries of Asia and the Pacific. By focusing on critical water issues, it provides finance and planning leaders with recommendations on policy actions to improve water governance and guidance on investments to increase their country's water security. The authors stress that the social, economic, and political consequences of water shortages are real, as are the effects of water-related disasters exacerbated by climate change.PermalinkThis report draws on the experiences of six countries (India, Indonesia, Mexico, South Africa, Thailand and Tunisia) to examine how public climate finance can help meet the significant investment needs of developing countries by creating attractive conditions for scaled-up investment in low carbon energy. Building on lessons from the case studies, it provides a set of key lessons and insights for readiness. The report develops a framework to identify and prioritise readiness activities that will require public financial support to create the conditions necessary to scale-up investments in rene ...PermalinkHealth Impact Assessment (HIA) is a tool for analysing potential health issues during planning stages of proposals using established systematic mechanisms to demonstrate factors that could affect health and to consider potential response options. This study used the HIA framework to consider potential health impacts of climate change on the population of Vanuatu, to assess the risks and propose adaptive responses. The HIA process involved the participation of a broad range of stakeholders including expert sector representatives in the areas of biophysics, socioeconomics, infrastructure, enviro ...PermalinkThis study is focused on the community as the central point of measuring vulnerability to climate change in Choiseul province. It is primarily based on information gathered through a series of facilitated workshops, observations and recorded data.PermalinkCDKN, 2013This review of climate change legislation in 33 countries shows that developing countries are leading action on climate change. Overall, there has been significant progress in the climate and/or energy-related legislation of almost all major economies, but a great amount of the 2012 effort took place in emerging countries. In particular, among major economies Mexico and China are leading the action against climate change thanks to their recent steps to cut carbon emissions and raise energy efficiency. The study aims to support legislators advancing climate-related legislation by providing deta ...PermalinkThis book has two main aims: to demonstrate to international development agencies, governments, policy makers, project managers, practitioners, and community residents that landslide hazard can often be reduced in vulnerable urban communities in the developing world, and to provide practical guidance for those in charge of delivering Management of Slope Stability in Communities (MoSSaiC) on the ground. The purpose of the book is to take readers into the most vulnerable communities in order to understand and address rainfall-triggered landslide hazards in these areas.PermalinkThis policy brief addresses the high agricultural loss due to natural hazards in agricultural sectors in Indonesia, and the lack of adequate ex-ante risk management policy to guide risk reduction in the sector, which will affect the country's food security. The research examines the impact of disasters and climate hazards on Indonesian agricultural and food crops. The findings firmly conclude that natural catastrophes have already caused a great deal of loss in agricultural sectors in particular food crops. Loss accumulation over the last decade has caused significant leakage of central govern ...PermalinkNCCARF, 2013This report examines the impacts on the built environment of increased intensities in weather-related natural hazard events, in order to identify the possibilities of using the regulatory mechanisms of building construction, housing insurance and planning in climate change adaptation. The research findings are restricted to these three aspects of the built environment, and further concentrated on adaptation responses that may be required in mitigation of the impacts of three types of hazards; tropical cyclones, floods and bushfires. Adaptation of the built environment to climate change is pred ...PermalinkThis document examines the past and present drivers of landscape change in north-east New South Wales, and designs and analyses several scenarios for the future in order to provide a quantifiable understanding of adaptation towards more resilient landscape futures that will minimize future climate event impacts on the basis of land use planning decisions that might be taken. The application of the proposed techniques is intended to provide powerful visualization for a range of long term planning outcomes relevant to governance and policy settings.Permalink2013This report, from a consortium of experienced international and Filipino actors, highlights the strengths and weaknesses of the response to the Sendong disaster and the recovery process. It describes in detail the Philippines’ developing corpus of laws on disaster risk reduction (DRR) and draws out linkages between disaster preparedness, disaster impacts, responses, displacement and the subsequent, often prolonged, search for durable solutions for internally displaced persons (IDPs).PermalinkThis paper conceptualizes the established practice of a real world flood warning system and uses social network analysis in visualizing the transmission of flood warning messages in Cawang, Jakarta. It also contributes to the academic literature concerning the innovation in early warning systems research.PermalinkThis report provides Mayors and other policymakers with a policy framework and diagnostic tools to anticipate and implement strategies that can prevent their cities from locking into irreversible physical and social structures, including: improving living conditions, especially in slums and hazard-prone areas; bridging the divided cities (inclusion); expanding the coverage and quality of basic infrastructure services; and managing the city’s physical form.PermalinkIRGSC, 2013This paper highlights the development of Jakarta and its social-economic-environmental vulnerability. The paper uses formal statistical data, flood historical data and secondary sources to examine the evolution of flood risks in Jakarta over the last three decades. It asks what the main factors that contribute to the evolution of risks in Jakarta are and highlights the poor connection between government policy related to flood control and metropolitan development. It recommends fundamental reform in the existing megacity planning in order to anticipate future climate extremes.Permalinkis an issue of Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan. Meteorological Society of Japan, 2012Permalinkis an issue of Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan. Meteorological Society of Japan, 2012PermalinkBulletin, Vol. 61(1). WMO, 2012People from Ethiopia, Nepal, Kiribati, Brazil, Nunavut and Bangladesh – their common link: they share the same planet and civilization.Permalinkis an issue of 気象研究所技術報告. Meteorological Research Institute, 2012In this technical report, we describe a newly developed method for evaluating monthly fields of oceanic pCO2 and the subsequent temporal variations of the sea-air CO2 flux over extensive regions of the North and South Pacific by using synthesized observational data. The application of this method is expected to contribute to understanding of future changes in the ocean carbon sink and the ocean's role in controlling the rate of atmospheric CO2 increase.PermalinkLaw Rachel M.; Raupach Mickael R.; Abramowitz G. - Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, 2012The Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) model describes landatmosphere exchanges of energy, carbon, water and momentum, together with related biogeochemical, vegetation-dynamic and disturbance processes. CABLE is coupled with several climate models including the UKMO Unified Model as part of ACCESS1.3, used in CAWCR for IPCC AR5 climate projections. CABLE is also a key part of the Australian contributions to two international projects: RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessments and Processes), and LUCID (Land Use Change, IDentification of robust impacts).PermalinkAn important component of the submission of the ACCESS coupled model data to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) is publishing a comprehensive set of the CMIP5 requested data and ensuring the data meets the stringent CMIP5 format and quality requirements. CMIP5 specifies a standard for model output where each parameter is stored in a single NetCDF file and includes additional meta-data. These requirements are designed to make analysis of the data as straight forward as possible. This document describes the ACCESS Post-Processor (APP), and how it is used. The APP has been ...PermalinkLim Eun-Pa; Hendon Harry H.; Langford Sally; et al. - Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, 2012Ocean-atmosphere interactions are key processes that drive seasonal climate variability. In the global sense, the atmosphere drives the upper ocean via heat flux, fresh water flux and wind stress (Anderson 2008). But in the tropics where the ocean surface temperature (hereafter, sea surface temperature, SST) is warm enough to trigger deep atmospheric convection, the ocean exerts strong controls on the atmosphere especially at longer time scales because of its slow variations and strong thermal inertia. Consequently, the highest predictability of atmospheric climate (e.g. temperature and rainfa ...PermalinkCottrill A.; Hendon Harry H.; Lim Eun-Pa; et al. - Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, 2012The tropical Pacific Ocean basin is home to over 20 Pacific Island nations, many of which are sensitive to climate extremes from the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and rainfall variability associated the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone and the South Pacific Convergence Zone. These Pacific Island countries are highly dependent on agriculture, fishing and tourism as a major source of food production and income, which can vary greatly depending on the weather and climate experienced from year to year. Hence, the provision of skilful seasonal forecasts is important to allow these countries to ...PermalinkFAO, 2012PermalinkThis report explores practical approaches to building urban resilience, focusing on tools and methodologies that can facilitate the use of risk information in public infrastructure investment and urban management decisions as integral elements of reducing disaster and climate risks. It demonstrates that risk-based methodology focused on building urban resilience can be implemented within a range of contexts, with risk assessments as crucial tools for decision-makers. It encourages national, local and city level governments to invest in geospatial risk information, as well as making risk inform ...PermalinkFawcett R.J.B.; Trewin B.; Braganza K.; et al. - Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, 2012This report presents an exploration of Australian temperature trends and variability using the new Australian Climate Observations Reference Network (ACORN) Surface Air Temperature (SAT) dataset. We compare changes in nationally and annually averaged daily-maximum, dailyminimum and daily-mean temperature variability to a range of alternative Australian temperature analyses over the last 100 years (1911-2010).PermalinkThe Australian Climate Observations Reference Network – Surface Air Temperature (ACORNSAT) data set is a long-term data set of Australian daily air temperature, covering the period from 1910 to the present. The purpose of this data set is to provide the best possible data set to underlie analyses of variability and change of temperature in Australia, including both analyses of annual and seasonal mean temperatures, and of extremes of temperature and other information derived from daily temperatures. A full discussion of the motivation underlying the ACORN-SAT data set is contained in a compani ...PermalinkIn 2008 the multilateral development banks (MDBs) and a group of donor countries developed the concept of climate investment funds (CIF) providing support to developing countries to initiate transformational change toward low-carbon and climate-resilient development.PermalinkNCCARF, 2012Focused on four disaster-impacted communities in Australia - Beechworth, Bendigo, Ingham and Innisfail, this report makes recommendations for emergency management and local government policies. It presents a study that used Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological systems theory to analyse individual and, by proxy, community resilience to disasters. The theory provided a comprehensive framework to evaluate the interacting factors that support resilience across different disaster sites and communities. While Bronfenbrenner’s theory has been used extensively, the authors believe that this is the first tim ...PermalinkUNDP, 2012This report presents findings of the final evaluation of the safer communities through disaster risk reduction programme. The programme was designed to support the government of Indonesia develop new approaches and capabilities for disaster management by focusing on risk reduction and not just response. The overall objective of the project was to promote a culture of safety in Indonesia by making disaster risk reduction “a normal part of the development process”.PermalinkThis short article presents the work of the United States in terms of disaster preparedness in the Philippines. It asserts that that the U.S. funded training and preparedness programs have contributed to the Philippine government’s ability to lead major rescue and relief operations.PermalinkThis document reports on a research aiming at a more gender-sensitive approach to disaster risk reduction (DRR) in Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands. It gives insight on the situations in which women and men, girls and boys live in three selected communities in both countries. It provides information about their local behaviour patterns, belief and value systems, their daily life routines etc. - all necessary information to adapt ongoing and plan future DRR measures in this specific context.PermalinkSingapore - gov, 2012This document outlines the current thinking about climate change and its implications for Singapore. It also highlights the initiatives and strategies they are pursuing to prepare for the challenges that climate change poses. The document covers i) the climate change imperative; ii) global mission, national vision, local action; iii) climate change and why it matters; iv) sustainable development: Singapore’s national circumstances v) mitigation: reducing emissions; vi) adapting to climate change: a more resilient singapore; vii) opportunities for green growth; viii) building our future togethe ...PermalinkThis discussion paper explores existing river flood risk management practices in New Zealand, including the national context for flood risk management and looks at regional practices. The document then provides a brief overview of research in areas that contribute to the better understanding of flood processes, briefly stepping through climate, flood flows and inundation research and considering complexities of coastal catchments, flood vulnerability studies and research around community awareness and preparedness for flood hazards. Finally, the document identifies gaps in flood research, and ...PermalinkThis paper is based on research being conducted with assistance from the Bushfire CRC on the role of insurance in responding to natural hazards. It identify some causes of underinsurance, with particular reference to floods, and consider steps that individuals, insurers and governments may take to both increase the uptake of insurance whilst also increasing community resilience. This paper reviews the lessons from the Queensland floods (December 2010 – February 2011) and identifies that two major issues are the cost and availability of flood cover. It is argued that if insurers assist with mit ...PermalinkThis study aims to provide an analysis of the spatial distribution of vulnerability of urban populations to extreme heat events in Australian capital cities at the present time, and to estimate future vulnerability in relation to projected climate changes.It provides a ‘tool’ to guide short-term, medium-term and longer-term heatwave adaptation policy.PermalinkThis document contains 13 case studies from Africa, Asia, Europe and Latin America and its objective is to recuperate ancestral and vernacular knowledge culturally developed and associated with risk prevention in face of recurrent hydro-meteorological hazards, like floods.
Societies have imagined, created, constructed, rejected and returned to imagine, create and construct diverse strategies that allow them to prevent the effects related to the imminent presence of a natural hazard. These processes are associated and are the result of the conditions in which a certain society d ...Permalink2012This document reports on a project intended to elaborate and test practical georisk analysis processes in Indonesia, primarily based on existing hazard and vulnerability data. It describes the methodology developed by the project at the local level (Kabupaten scale) and is aimed at delivering practical insight into the steps necessary to undertake 'natural' disaster risk assessment at Kabupaten level. It is intended to support Indonesian governmental authorities in coping with disaster risk management.PermalinkBy 2015, half of the world’s people living on less than USD 1.25 a day will be in fragile states. While poverty has decreased globally, progress on Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 1 is slower in fragile states than in other developing countries. Fragile states are also off-track to meet the rest of the MDGs by 2015.
Fragile situations became a central concern of the international development and security agenda in the 1990s. Since then, powerful forces have been influencing the causes and manifestations of fragility, including the combination of democratic aspirations, new te ...PermalinkThe Consultative Group of Experts on National Communications from Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention (CGE) conducted a hands-on training workshop for the Asia and Pacific region on vulnerability and adaptation assessment in Vientiane, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, from 8 to 12 October 2012. This report outlines the proceedings of the workshop and summarizes the feedback and recommendations from the participants relating to the updated CGE training materials on vulnerability and adaptation assessment, and the financial, technical and institutional issues in the con ...PermalinkThis edition travels to Indonesia to look at how the country’s disaster management readiness has evolved in recent years. Against the backdrop of a powerful earthquake and aftershock recently occurring off the coast, it explains how the Indian Ocean tsunami early warning system is activated and what transpires. Meanwhile, it also highlights the importance of community-based education campaigns and the development of professional first responder groups. USAID has been a partner in these efforts for many years and is encouraged by all of the good work being done to prepare for the next big event ...PermalinkThis study will assess advances in management practices, institutional and technological innovations for managing water scarcity sustainably under a changing climate. The impetus for this analysis comes from the World Bank’s concept note ‘Towards Green Water Defense (GWD) in East Asia’ study, specifi cally one of the building blocks of the GWD concept: Managing water scarcity by “producing more with less” or increasing water productivity and reducing undesirable externalities.PermalinkClimate ExChange is a fully illustrated 250-page book with over 100 authors relating their work in weather, climate and water services at international, regional, national and local levels. The commentaries draw upon experiences around the world reflecting how people are using climate information to improve their lives. Climate ExChange reflects the progress and challenges in these fields, highlighting good practices in a wide variety of societies and disciplines.PermalinkAlthough poverty remains widespread in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, substantial progress has been made especially in the past three decades. Nevertheless, this report stresses that climate change is likely to reduce agricultural productivity, which will directly affect poor people's livelihood assets including health, access to water and other natural resources, homes and infrastructure. Increasing climatic variability will make poor households even more vulnerable to extreme weather conditions, which could in turn exacerbate the incidence, severity and persistence of poverty in developi ...PermalinkThis publication provides children and youth in Asia a platform to report on progress made towards "the need to protect women, children and other vulnerable groups from the disproportionate impacts of disaster and to empower them to promote resiliency within their communities and workplaces" (as recognized in the declaration adopted in Incheon by the Asia Ministerial Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction in 2010) from their own point of view. Previous surveys conducted with children globally show that their views on local governance for disaster risk reduction often tend to be less positive th ...PermalinkThis document reports on Philippines Region 8's accumulated experience and knowledge in the setting up and management of local flood early warning systems (LFEWS), which aims to reduce human vulnerability and suffering by monitoring sources of floods, predicting where and when floods could possibly happen, identifying who would be affected and strengthening the capacity of local disaster risk reduction and management institutions to make informed decisions. It describes the impacts observed in terms of saving lives and properties, improving institutional performance of local governments and in ...PermalinkThe primary conviction of this report is driven by a concern that people’s exposure and vulnerability, experienced individually and collectively, continue to be twin challenges for the Asia-Pacific region. Faced with growing economic losses and increasingly vulnerable populations, this report has analyzed the drivers of risks and the strategies that are in place to deal with the growing risks.
The report has pursued three primary questions that all dedicated collaborators in the region need to join, “How do they and the people with whom they work understand the disaster risks in ...PermalinkTo mark International day for Disaster Risk reduction (IDDR) 2012, Oxfam has published a new collection of programme insights papers bringing together experiences, lessons and good practice from Oxfam and its partners work in emergencies and on disaster risk reduction (DRR). As the number and complexity of hazards and disasters are increasing rapidly, and with the ample evidence that women and girls are often more vulnerable to disasters than men and boys, the series features five case studies on gender and DRR or humanitarian programming in DR Congo, Pakistan, Indonesia, Vietnam and Kenya. Th ...PermalinkCCAFS, 2012The document attempts to distil what is currently known about the likely impacts of climate change on the commodities and natural resources that comprise the mandate of CGIAR and its 15 Centres. It was designed as one background document for a review carried out by the High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition (HLPE) at the behest of the UN Committee on World Food Security (CFS) on what is known about the likely effects of climate change on food security and nutrition, with a focus on the most affected and vulnerable regions and populations. A total of 25 summaries covering 22 ...PermalinkUNESCO, 2012This collection of papers, presented at the symposium ‘Climate change, water stress, conflict and migration’ held on 21 September 2011 in the Netherlands, highlight how climate change, water stress and other environmental problems threaten human security. For example, the paper by Muniruzzaman ilustrates how water ignores political and community boundaries, and how decisions in one place can significantly affect water use elsewhere. India’s plans to build more dams could, for instance, have devastating affects for Pakistan’s agricultural productivity which is highly dependent on water supply f ...PermalinkNatural disasters triggered by extreme hazards have increased sharply worldwide since the 1980s, as measured in lives lost, displaced people, and financial cost. Asia and the Pacific have borne the brunt of the physical and economic damage. This brief highlights lessons and recommendations from an independent evaluation report that assessed ADB support for disaster prevention and recovery programs during 1995–2011. The evaluation finds that disaster recovery projects have been much more successful than ADB-supported projects overall. Nonetheless, it also finds that most ADB country programs ha ...PermalinkDARA, 2012The Climate Vulnerability Monitor 2nd Edition reveals that climate change has already held back global development and inaction is a leading global cause of death. Harm is most acute for poor and vulnerable groups but no country is spared either the costs of inaction or the benefits of an alternative path.
Commissioned by the world’s most vulnerable countries and backed by high-level and technical panels, the new Monitor estimates human and economic impacts of climate change and the carbon economy for 184 countries in 2010 and 2030, across 34 indicators.PermalinkThis document reports on a resilience-building curriculum that includes laying the groundwork for addressing climate change and climate resilience, conducting a climate change vulnerability and risk assessment, and using this assessment and other materials to prepare an initial resilience strategy, developed in 15 cities in 5 countries — Vietnam, Indonesia, India, Thailand and the United States.PermalinkEmissions from human activities are changing the ocean’s chemistry and temperature in ways that threaten the livelihoods of those who depend on fish and seafood for all or part of their diets. The changes may reduce the amount of wild caught seafood that can be supplied by the oceans and also redistribute species, changing the locations at which seafood can be caught and creating instability for ocean-based food security, or seafood security. This report ranks nations based on the seafood security hardships they may experience by the middle of this century due to changing ocean conditions from ...PermalinkThis research aims to understand the inter-organizational network typology of large scale disaster intervention in developing countries and to understand complexity of post disaster intervention through the use of network theory based on empirical data from post tsunami reconstruction in Aceh, Indonesia, during 2005-2007. It addresses the ‘poly-centric’ features of emergency and reconstruction management, which promotes the notion that there are many overlapping centers of authority and responsibility for disaster risk reduction and post disaster intervention.PermalinkOn 12 July 2012, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Plus Three intergovernmental agreement establishing the ASEAN Plus Three Emergency Rice Reserve (APTERR) entered into force. In this paper, lead author Roehlano Briones, a senior research fellow at the Philippine Institute for Development Studies, assesses the effectiveness of APTERR as a mechanism for addressing food security in light of the rising challenges of climate change and price volatility. Using Riceflow, a model of the global rice economy, he studies the possible impacts of APTERR releases on the rice market by simu ...PermalinkThis paper is concerned with rising sea levels that have the potential to submerge coastal regions and displace millions of people. It reports on how current international legal frameworks applicable to refugees and immigrants will offer little protection to citizens of Freely Associated States (FAS) displaced by rising sea levels. The FAS are sovereign nations (Marshall Islands, Micronesia, and Palau) that have negotiated Compacts of Free Association with the United States, under which the U.S. provides the states with certain types of assistance. It addresses how current refugee and immigrat ...PermalinkSelby David; Kagawa Fumiyo; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO); et al. - UNESCO, 2012This publication captures key national experiences in the integration of disaster risk reduction (DRR) in the curriculum, identifying good practice, noting issues addressed or still lacking, and reviewing learning outcomes. The study researched DRR related curriculum development and integration, pedagogy, student assessment, teacher professional development and guidance, learning outcomes and policy development, planning and implementation aspects covering thirty countries.PermalinkIn 2011, 332 natural disasters1 were registered, less than the average annual disaster frequency observed from 2001 to 2010 (384). However, the human and economic impacts of the disasters in 2011 were massive. Natural disasters killed a total of 30 773 people and caused 244.7 million victims worldwide (see Figure 1). Economic damages from natural disasters were the highest ever registered, with an estimated US$ 366.1 billion [...]PermalinkUNDP, 2012This brochure illustrates lessons and challenges learned from UNDP activities in disaster risk reduction (DRR), recovery and reconstruction. Its goal is to further the understanding of the role of UN agencies, including the UNDP, and the role of the international community in DRR. It also discusses the government of Japan's role as a strong partner with UNDP in DRR and provides other country examples. Issues addressed: (i) reducing the impact of disaster through prevention measures; (ii) emergency response and recovery from disasters; (iii) gender equality and the empowerment of women in disas ...PermalinkHayden Jacqueline; Cologon Kathy; Asia-Pacific Regional Network for Early Childhood (ARNEC); et al. - ARNEC, 2012This guidebook provides background information on Early Childhood Development (ECD) and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), and sets out processes for assessing the capacity and needs at community levels to further identify future steps to improve ECD in DRR. Furthermore, it addresses the vulnerability faced by children and the efforts to mitigate underlying causes of these vulnerabilities. Beyond national and international, policy and political issues, DRR occurs within communities and at the programme level. DRR processes and activities have the potential to address the special needs of young chi ...PermalinkUNESCO, 2012This report summarizes the key outcomes of a three-day meeting which discussed and reflected on the challenges that climate change poses to education systems in Small Island Developing States (SIDS), and on the role that education must play in adaptation to climate change. Acknowledging that SIDS are already confronted with the effects of climate change, including rising sea levels and changes in weather and climate extremes such as droughts, floods and tropical cyclones/hurricanes, it considers the need for them to reduce their vulnerability to climate change by strengthening their adaptive c ...PermalinkThis report addresses the challenge to reach a consensus on the contours of an agenda that adequately identifies the development needs of present and future generations, and is capable of crystallizing these priorities in clear sustainable development goals that will help guide coherent policy action at the global, regional and national levels. Issues addressed: (i) growing environmental footprints; (ii) governance and accountability deficits; (iii) transformative change towards inclusive, people-centered sustainable development; (iv) environmental sustainability; and (v) inclusive economic de ...PermalinkA report about the current scientific understanding of the connection between climate change and the recent increase in extreme temperatures, as reported in peer-reviewed research articles published through May 2012. Issues addressed: (i) heat waves: the details; and (ii) heat waves and wild fires.PermalinkThe issue of climate change is set to increase the frequency of extreme weather events. Countries, therefore, are required to undertake adaptive measures to ameliorate the impact of such events; Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) is an important element of such measures. This report, published by the United Nations Development Program and the Government of Indonesia, presents findings from the final evaluation of the Safer Communities through Disaster Risk Reduction (SC-DRR) project. The project aimed to improve safety in Indonesia by considering the ways in which DRR can be integrated into the cou ...PermalinkUnited Nations, 2012This fact sheet is part of the press kit produced for Rio+20 conference. It presents an overview of the situation, key facts, success stories and proposals in order to include disaster resilience in a sustainable development framework. Demonstrating the major challenge posed by disaster risk to sustainable development through facts and numbers, it features good practices from the Philippines, South Africa, as well as the success of the Indian Ocean tsunami early warning systems following the recent Indonesian earthquake. Among the recommendations, it calls for: (i) reinforcing the importance o ...PermalinkGFDRR, 2012This report – Avoiding Future Famines: Strengthening the Ecological Basis of Food Security through
Sustainable Food Systems - has been a unique collaboration of 12 leading scientists and
experts involved in world food systems including marine and inland fisheries.
The institutions involved include the UN Environment Programme, the International Fund
for Agricultural Development, the Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations,
the World Bank, the World Food Programme and the World Resources Institute. The report provides
detai ...PermalinkThis Policy and Practice Note grows out of extensive consultations with countries, regional organizations, and donors and other development partners, and it is addressed primarily to high-level policymakers and decision makers within them. Its analysis and recommendations are meant to inform DRR and CCA planning across a range of institutions at all levels. Specifically, they are intended to inform the design and implementation of the joint Roadmap towards a Post 2015 Integrated Regional Strategy for Disaster Risk Management and Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation, as well as preparation ...PermalinkUNCTAD, 2012he report explores the opportunities that a low carbon green growth path offers to the region. It articulates five tracks on which to drive the economic system change necessary to pursue low carbon green growth as a new economic development path.
In particular, the “visible structure” of the economy, comprising such physical infrastructure as transport, buildings and energy systems, together with the “invisible structure”, which encompasses market prices, governance, regulations and lifestyles, have to be re-oriented towards resource efficiency. The Roadmap provides policymakers ...PermalinkThe Little Green Data Book is a pocket-sized ready reference on key environmental data for over 200 economies. Key indicators are organized under the headings of agriculture, forestry, biodiversity, energy, emission and pollution, and water and sanitation.PermalinkHay John E.; United Nations Development Programme (UNDP); United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UN/ISDR); et al. - UN/ISDR, 2012This study provides an analysis of the current level of integration of DRR and CCA in the region, with an emphasis on the policy and institutional environment. The report outlines some of the barriers to integration and makes recommendations on how they can be addressed. The analysis presented includes seven PICs (Cook Islands, FSM, Fiji, Palau, Samoa, Tonga, and Vanuatu).The countries analysed are typical in terms of the current low level of integration of DRR and CCA.This report also explores how and why the fields of DRR and CCA have developed in parallel globally as well as in the Pacific, ...PermalinkThis synthesis addresses the global increase in frequency of intense floods and storms in Asia and the Pacific amid the spectre of climate change, and points to the need for better mitigation and adaptation to natural disasters. It presents the lessons drawn from evaluations of information sourced from publicly available databasesPermalinkA healthy ocean is a valuable natural asset that, if maintained and nurtured, can provide ‘ecosystem services’ that contribute to economic expansion – or ‘blue growth’ – in developing coastal and island countries. World Bank investments in the oceans between 2007 and 2011 have supported developing coastal and island countries in improving the health of their ocean environments, enhancing the value of the ecosystem services they provide to the local and global economy. In particular, these investments supported countries to manage the transition to more sustainable fisheries, establish coastal ...PermalinkCDP, 2012This study focuses on the 2006 landslide tragedy in the Philippines, where an entire community, including its people, its productive assets, and its socio-cultural resources, was totally buried. It reports on the various levels of recovery that have been achieved among the provision of community services and facilities such as health, education, recreation, infrastructure, livelihood opportunities and psychosocial services; and identifies the limitations of the principle of "build back better" as well as those areas of concern in which the principle can best be applied.
It affi ...PermalinkClimate change will increase the frequency of extreme weather events, making more geographic places inhospitable to human habitation and secure livelihoods. This report presents a detailed picture of the potential impacts of climate change on migration in Asia and the Pacific. It draws upon a wealth of research to provide policy makers with informed analysis of an emerging phenomenon requiring urgent attention by governments and the international community. The report also suggests that climate-induced migration should be seen not only as a threat to human well-being but also as a potential to ...PermalinkIRENA, 2012The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific.
The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment cl ...PermalinkMejorar la predicción de los ciclones es uno de los objetivos de la investigación meteorológica internacional. Este caso práctico de un tifón de 2009 que estuvo a punto de impactar sobre Filipinas ofrece una perspectiva del alcance de la predicción por conjuntos.PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Miyazaki Y.; Kawamura K.; Jung J.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Marine aerosol samples were collected over the western North Pacific along the latitudinal transect from 44° N to 10° N in late summer 2008 for measurements of organic nitrogen (ON) and organic carbon (OC) as well as isotopic ratios of total nitrogen (TN) and total carbon (TC). Increased concentrations of methanesulfonic acid (MSA) and diethylammonium (DEA+) at 40–44° N and subtropical regions (10–20° N) together with averaged satellite chlorophyll-a data and 5-day back trajectories suggest a significant influence of marine biological activities on aerosols in these regions. ON exhibited incre ...PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; U.S. Department of Commerce ; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) - WMO, 2011World Weather Records (WWR) have been published since 1927, and include monthly mean values of pressure, temperature, precipitation, and where available, station metadata notes documenting observation practices and station configurations. Data were supplied by National Meteorological Services as members of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).PermalinkAlam M.; Asian Institute of Technology ; International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) - Adaptation Knowledge Platform, 2011This report presents the findings of desktop research that examined the extent to which Southeast Asian countries are prepared for anticipated climate change impacts. It is divided into separate country profiles and includes analysis of the following countries: Lao PDR, Viet Nam, the Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, Cambodia, Union of Myanmar and Malaysia. Each profile describes an individual country’s attributes, anticipated climate change impacts, vulnerability, necessary adaptation measures and cross-sectoral institutional settings. Each profile concludes with a summary of key gaps, constr ...PermalinkGiven the likely pace of change in the electric vehicle market, it is important that the environmental externalities are identified and quantified. In this report we present the results of a modelling study which investigated how ozone pollution in the Greater Metropolitan Region of Sydney NSW, Australia would respond to the replacement of Sydney’s internal combustion engine (ICE) passenger vehicle fleet with a fleet of electric vehicles. A brief description of the modelling methodology is provided in the next section, and a summary of the modelling outcomes is provided in the following sectio ...PermalinkUNFCCC, 2011The SBI at its 33rd session requested the secretariat to organize, before its thirty-fifth session, a workshop to identify gaps and challenges in the implementation of risk management approaches to the adverse effects of climate change, building on the lessons learned and practical experience of international, regional and national organizations and the private sector.PermalinkThe authors use regression analysis to assess the potential welfare impact of rainfall shocks in rural Indonesia. In particular, they consider two shocks: (i) a delay in the onset of monsoon and (ii) a significant shortfall in the amount of rain in the 90 day post-onset period. Focusing on households with family farm businesses, the analysis finds that a delay in the monsoon onset does not have a significant impact on the welfare of rice farmers. However, rice farm households located in areas exposed to low rainfall following the monsoon are negatively affected. Rice farm households appear to ...PermalinkClimate Change in the Pacific is a rigorously researched, peer-reviewed scientific assessment of the climate of the western Pacific region. Building on the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, this two volume publication represents a comprehensive resource on the climate of the Pacific.
Volume 2 presents individual country reports which provide country-specific projections and relevant climate information.PermalinkClimate Change in the Pacific is a rigorously researched, peer-reviewed scientific assessment of the climate of the western Pacific region. Building on the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, this two volume publication represents a comprehensive resource on the climate of the Pacific.
Volume 1 presents an overview of the region: analysis of large-scale climate phenomena such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, seasonal variability and past climate trends and further develops regional climate change projections.PermalinkGreenwood Robert; Schuiz Eric; Parkinson Murray; et al. - Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, 2011The Tasman International Geospace Environment Radar systems (TIGER) located in Tasmania and New Zealand are High Frequency (HF) Over-The-Horizon Radar (OTHR) systems and represent Australia’s contribution to the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN). SuperDARN is a network of more than 20 HF radars located at mid-high latitudes with fields of view covering the polar regions for the study of ionospheric physics. The TIGER systems have overlapping fields of view that cover much of the Southern Ocean in the Australian sector. The development and operation of TIGER has been led by La Trobe ...PermalinkThe aims of the meeting are to: 1) understand the role of atmospheric chemistry and composition in global atmospheric change as expressed in the Australasian region and internationally; and 2) to provide a forum for atmospheric composition researchers from different disciplines (in-situ observations, remote sensing observations, modelling) to share ideas, enhance collaboration and develop a coordinated regional approach to characterising atmospheric processes in Australasia.PermalinkRaupach Mickael R.; Harman Ian N.; Canadell Josep G. - Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, 2011There are many different ways of quantifying the broad goal of "avoidance of dangerous human interference with the climate system", including targets for global temperature rise, radiative forcing, greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations, GHG emissions in particular years, and cumulative GHG emissions ("carbon budgets"). The purpose of this report is to provide relationships between these different statements of a climate goal. Broadly, the approach is to start from target for global temperature increase above preindustrial temperatures (such as two degrees Celsius or any other target, to be met w ...PermalinkCharles Andrew; Hendon Harry H.; Wang Q.J.; et al. - Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, 2011Ensemble forecasts of South Eastern Australian rainfall from POAMA 1.5, a coupled oceanatmosphere dynamical model based seasonal prediction system run experimentally at the Bureau of Meteorology, tend to be under dispersed leading to overconfident probability forecasts. The poor reliability of seasonal forecasts based on dynamical coupled models is a barrier to their adoption as official outlooks by the Bureau of Meteorology. One approach to correcting this problem is model calibration, in which the probability distribution produced by the model is adjusted in light of available information ab ...PermalinkIn this report we assess forecasts from Predictive Ocean Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA) in comparison to international dynamical coupled model forecast systems, which are archived as part of the ENSEMBLES project. We investigate how universal the lack of reliability is in dynamical forecasts of regional rainfall, in order to highlight any potential for improvement of the POAMA system. The systems assessed in this report show that overconfidence and lack of reliability for regional rainfall forecasts is a common problem. Due to the clear need for improved reliability and more accurate s ...PermalinkExtra-tropical cyclones that develop near the east coast of Australia often have severe consequences such as flash flooding and damaging winds and seas, as well as beneficial consequences such as being responsible for heavy rainfall events that contribute significantly to total rainfall and runoff. There is subjective evidence that the development of most major events, commonly known as East Coast Lows, is associated with the movement of a high amplitude upper-tropospheric trough system over eastern Australia. This report examines a number of large-scale diagnostic quantities in the upper trop ...PermalinkThe rationale behind Norway’s support for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) is to make a substantial contribution in the struggle against global warming. This report presents the findings of an evaluation of the support provided by Norway to the formulation and implementation of national REDD strategies and other REDD readiness efforts in Indonesia up until the end of August 2010.PermalinkThis report presents the first national assessment of peatlands in Malaysia. It identifies remaining peatlands of high conservation value, and presents preliminary recommendations toward the development of a national strategy for Malaysia’s peatlands. The report comes at a critical time for the management of Malaysia’s forests and wetlands, and is a first step toward developing a national strategy for Malaysia’s peatlands.PermalinkThis brief discusses research into awareness and information needs related to Ecosystem-Based Approaches (EBA) to climate change adaptation in the Asia and Pacific region. EBA refers to approaches that recognize the potential of ecosystem services to reduce the impact of climate change on people. This study was undertaken to inform the design of a decision-support tool for development, adaptation and disaster risk reduction stakeholders. It examines climate change impacts and adaptation options in the region. Research found that key stakeholder groups are generally aware of ecosystem-based ada ...PermalinkTropical wetland ecosystems, especially peatlands and mangroves, are important in global carbon cycling. This brief notes that Indonesia has more tropical wetlands than any other country on Earth and that coastal mangroves are important for both mitigation and adaptation. It examines ramifications for Indonesia’s wetlands and calls for ecosystem-based or watershed-wide approaches for communities to manage wetlands.PermalinkThe Met.Office, 2011Understanding the potential impacts of climate change is essential for informing both adaptation strategies and actions to avoid dangerous levels of climate change.
But assessing the impacts is scientifically challenging and has, until now, been fragmented. To date, only a limited amount of information about past climate change and its future impacts has been available at national level, while approaches to the science itself have varied between countries.
In April 2011, we were asked by the United Kingdom's Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change to begi ...PermalinkThe Pacific island governments view climate change as a priority issue, especially in terms of its potential impacts on food security, but need clear directions in addressing both issues. Their agricultural production until the mid-1990s, has been stagnant for the last 45 years, and per capita agricultural production has declined in all countries. This report examines the issues of food security and climate change in the Pacific and the contributing factors based on the Pacific food security framework. It suggests focal areas of assistance for the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and other donors ...PermalinkUNICEF, 2011PermalinkThis paper constructs an integrated assessment model of tropical cyclones in order to quantify the impact that climate change may have on tropical cyclone damages in countries around the world. The paper relies on a tropical cyclone generator in each ocean and several climate models to predict tropical cyclones with and without climate change. A damage model is constructed to compute the resulting damage when a cyclone strikes each country. Economic development is expected to double global tropical cyclone damages because more will be in harm's way. Climate change is expected to double global ...PermalinkUN/ISDR, 2011This report was prepared to provide a snapshot of how disaster risk reduction (DRR) and climate change adaptation (CCA) are undertaken and integrated, if at all, in the Asia Pacific region. It does so by taking stock of past and ongoing regional initiatives and by looking into the role of certain organizations in the implementation process. It also discusses key developments in three areas—political, policy and institutional—which are instrumental in facilitating the integration of DRR and CCA agendas in the region. Concluding remarks and next steps to push the integration forward are presente ...PermalinkTypologies are a systematic grouping of entities or units of interest based on similarity. Typologies are widely applied in a variety of domains of research and practice including natural resource management, agriculture, health, marketing and development. They are used mainly to reduce complexity in the domain of concern to improve understanding and communication, detect patterns, aid decisions, prioritise and allocate resources, and tailor a variety of activities, strategies and processes. In this paper, we assess the current use of typologies within the realm of climate vulnerability assess ...PermalinkUNESCO, 2011An astrolabe is an ancient instrument used to measure the position of the sun and stars. In the past it was used for a number of purposes, such as determining the time of day or night and measuring one’s current position in relation to the north and south poles. A mariner’s astrolabe was used to determine the latitude of a ship at sea and guide its direction.
Similar to the mariner’s astrolabe, the Asia-Pacific Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) Astrolabe aims to assist UNESCO Member States in determining the current position of ESD in their country and guiding educatio ...Permalink