This publication examines the physical, material and psychological gender-differentiated impacts of weather and climate as well as the gender-specific needs for information and services on the basis of primary data emerging from 18 case studies, including three in-depth studies (Bangladesh, Fiji and Botswana) and other empirical evidence. It explores the experiences of different groups of women and men at the intersection with other social categories like age, economic status, location, disability, or marital status. It also analyzes gender relations and roles in two climate-sensitive sectors: ...Published by: WMO ; 2019 (2019 edition)
This publication examines the physical, material and psychological gender-differentiated impacts of weather and climate as well as the gender-specific needs for information and services on the basis of primary data emerging from 18 case studies, including three in-depth studies (Bangladesh, Fiji and Botswana) and other empirical evidence. It explores the experiences of different groups of women and men at the intersection with other social categories like age, economic status, location, disability, or marital status. It also analyzes gender relations and roles in two climate-sensitive sectors: (1) disaster risk reduction and (2) agriculture and food security. The publication provides practical recommendations to NMHSs and Members for bridging information asymmetries and providing gender-responsive services in terms of content, dissemination channels and feedback mechanisms, with the overall goal of enhancing adaptive capacity and reducing negative impacts of weather and climate.
Collection(s) and Series: Capstone Project Research Report
Format: Digital (Free)GCRF African-SWIFT is a programme of research and capability building, led by the National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS), and funded by UK Research and Innovation Global Challenges Research Fund. The project aims to deliver a step change in African weather forecasting capability from hourly to seasonal timescales, and build research capability to continue forecasting improvements in Africa for the foreseeable future.
The GCRF African-SWIFT team works with forecast users across sectors from aviation to agriculture, energy, water and emergency response to understand how to ...Published by: University of Leeds ; 2019
GCRF African-SWIFT is a programme of research and capability building, led by the National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS), and funded by UK Research and Innovation Global Challenges Research Fund. The project aims to deliver a step change in African weather forecasting capability from hourly to seasonal timescales, and build research capability to continue forecasting improvements in Africa for the foreseeable future.
The GCRF African-SWIFT team works with forecast users across sectors from aviation to agriculture, energy, water and emergency response to understand how to tailor the provision and delivery of weather forecasts and to ensure improved response to high-impact events (e.g. onset of rains, heat-waves, dry spells, strong winds); rapid emergency response to extreme events, such as urban flooding and prolonged droughts; and increased resilience, through integration of weather prediction into strategies for response to climate change.
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Format: Digital (Free) (Variable)The project was implemented by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in collaboration with the National Meteorological Services of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Chad, Côte d´Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo with funds provided by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Norwegian Government but also by the Government of Greece and minor contributions from AEMET (Spain), EUMETSAT and WMO regular budget.Published by: WMO ; 2019
The project was implemented by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in collaboration with the National Meteorological Services of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Chad, Côte d´Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo with funds provided by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Norwegian Government but also by the Government of Greece and minor contributions from AEMET (Spain), EUMETSAT and WMO regular budget.
Format: Digital (Free)The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) defined that the suitability is a function of crop climate requirements and land characteristics and it is a measure of how will the qualities of land unit matches the requirements of a particular form of land use. The aim of this research is to improve maize production in the lowlands of Lesotho, this is one of the agro-ecological zones with the most arable land and good soils so it is best to determine the suitability of each crop across this region. This will be achieved by quantitatively and qualitatively looking at the climate conditions require ...Published by: Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology ; 2019
The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) defined that the suitability is a function of crop climate requirements and land characteristics and it is a measure of how will the qualities of land unit matches the requirements of a particular form of land use. The aim of this research is to improve maize production in the lowlands of Lesotho, this is one of the agro-ecological zones with the most arable land and good soils so it is best to determine the suitability of each crop across this region. This will be achieved by quantitatively and qualitatively looking at the climate conditions required by maize and also looking at the physio-chemical soil properties that suffices for the maximum production of the crop.
Climatic potential of maize under dryland farming in the lowlands of Lesotho was investigated using five climatic suitability indices namely: probability of receiving heat units of greater than 1320GDD, probability of a frost-free growing season, probability of seasonal rainfall of more than 650mm and the slope of an area. Also the physio-chemical properties of the soils found in the area of study were investigated looking at 6 soil parameters (pH, porosity, permeability, infiltration, organic matter, moisture equivalence) which are crucial to maize growth. For each of the above parameters a coverage layer was prepared in GIS environment and the layers were overlaid to obtain the agro-climatic suitability map of maize in the lowlands of Lesotho. Weighted overlay method is used for suitability analysis. The spatial analysis show that suitable soils are distributed throughout the whole lowlands but they are highly concentrated in the middle parts of the lowlands and with water requirement, the north-most part of the lowlands is highly suitable while the central part is moderately suitable.
The overall maize suitability in the lowlands of Lesotho indicate that 45.7% of the area is moderately suitable and this are concentrated in the middle to northern lowlands. 49.3% of the lowlands are found to be suitable for maize growth and are distributed throughout the whole lowlands but with the highest concentration in the north-most parts. Of the 5% remaining only 4.3% is highly suitable and it some area in the central part of Maseru near Moshoeshoe-I station.
Future projections show that there will be an improvement of growing degree days across the whole lowlands due to an increase in temperature but as of water requirement satisfaction there is a notable change of reduction especially in Mafeteng and Moshoeshoe-I this is due to reduction in annual accumulated rainfall, this is the case for both two (RCP 4.5, RCP 4.5) scenarios undertaken in this study.
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Format: Digital (Available online for logged-in users)Based on Global Precipitation Climatology center (GPCC) precipitation data and Era-Interim Zonal and Meridional wind, relative humidity, Sea Level Pressure and Sea surface temperature data from ECMWF, Statistical methods were conducted to find out the interannual variability of rainfall and its dynamic factors in AGLR from 1981 to 2016. The results show that there are two (long and short) rainfall seasons over AGLR, MAM and OND respectively. The empirical orthogonal function was used to reveal through the dominant principal components (PC1) of the first EOF, the extreme years (wet and dry) for ...Published by: College of Atmospheric Science ; 2019
Spatial/Temporal Distribution of Rainfall and the Dynamic Factors Associated over African Great Lakes Region from 1981 to 2016
Based on Global Precipitation Climatology center (GPCC) precipitation data and Era-Interim Zonal and Meridional wind, relative humidity, Sea Level Pressure and Sea surface temperature data from ECMWF, Statistical methods were conducted to find out the interannual variability of rainfall and its dynamic factors in AGLR from 1981 to 2016. The results show that there are two (long and short) rainfall seasons over AGLR, MAM and OND respectively. The empirical orthogonal function was used to reveal through the dominant principal components (PC1) of the first EOF, the extreme years (wet and dry) for both MAM and OND. Since previous analysis have shown that OND rainfall has high variability than the long rainy season MAM, further analysis (composite analysis) was conducted to investigate the dynamic factors behind the extreme (wet and dry) years for OND season. Results of composite analysis suggest that the Indian Ocean SST regulates the precipitation over the study area; warm SST influences the wind circulation resulting in an upward motion of warm air due to convergence of wind during wet years and the contrary is observed during dry years.
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Format: Digital (Available online for logged-in users)The World Meteorological Organization dispatched an expert mission to Mozambique to assess the requirements and capabilities of the National Institute of Meteorology (INAM) and the National Directorate of Water Resources Management (DNGRH) and their coordination with the National Disaster Management Institute (INGC) for an End-to-End Multi-Hazard Early Warning System in the context of disaster risk management. The results of the mission should inform plans and investments in strengthening the Early Warning System and disaster risk management in the country, particularly during reconstruction t ...PermalinkPermalinkPermalinkHIGHWAY delivers improved early warnings to local communities by using innovative products and leveraging existing scientific expertise of the national meteorological services in the East African Region.PermalinkHIGHWAY delivers improved early warnings to local communities by using innovative products and leveraging existing scientific expertise of the national meteorological services in the East African Region.PermalinkMany initiatives and partnerships have flourished under the umbrella of the African Union’s Strategy on Meteorology by aligning their actions with its priorities and demonstrating coherence of efforts. This report highlights key initiatives that have been made possible as a result of the increased visibility AMCOMET has brought to weather, climate and water services in Africa. The report gives us an opportunity to review the first eight years of AMCOMET and to give recognition to its many achievements.PermalinkPermalinkوازدهرت مبادرات وشراكات عديدة تحت مظلة استراتیجیة الاتحاد الأفريقي للأرصاد الجوية عن طريق مواءمة أعمالها مع أولوياتها وإثبات تماسك الجهود. ويبرز هذا التقرير المبادرات الرئیسیة التي تأتت نتیجة زيادة تسلیط المؤتمر الوزاري الضوء على خدمات الطقس والمناخ والماء في أفريقیا. ويتیح هذا التقرير لنا الفرصة لاستعراض سنوات المؤتمر الوزاري الثماني الأولى والاعتراف بإنجازاتھ العديدة.PermalinkDe nombreux partenariats et initiatives se sont épanouis grâce à la Stratégie pour la météorologie de l’Union africaine en alignant leurs activités sur ses priorités et en agissant de manière cohérente et concertée. Le présent rapport met en lumière les principales initiatives qui ont vu le jour grâce aux projecteurs que l’AMCOMET a braqués sur les services météorologiques, climatologiques et hydrologiques en Afrique. Il nous permet de faire le bilan des huit premières années de l’AMCOMET et de reconnaître à leur juste valeur ses nombreuses réalisationsPermalinkAgriculture is the largest employer in the world and is probably the most dependent on the climate of all human activities. In recent years there have been events that have put in evidence the vulnerability of global food security to major meteorological phenomena, both in global agricultural markets and the world economy. The food price crisis and the subsequent economic crisis reduced the purchasing power of large segments of the population in many developing countries, which seriously reduced their access to food and thus undermined their food security. During the years 2009 and 2010 in Ven ...PermalinkPermalinkThis educational video describes the approach to implementing rovin seminars. Organized as part of the METAGRI project, roving seminars aim to increase the resilience of rural producers to climate change.PermalinkCette vidéo éducative décrit l'approche de mise en oeuvre des séminaires itinérants. Organisés dans le cadre du projet METAGRI, les séminaires itinérants visent à renforcer la résilience des producteurs ruraux face au changement climatique.Permalink
PermalinkPermalinkPermalinkRainfall is a very important weather and climate parameter that affects social and economic activities in Djibouti. This leads to droughts, floods and humanitarian disasters over the country. The rainfall climatology of the country has some changes which need to be taken into account while planning for economic activities such as civil and structural engineering. The whole country receives significant rains in the months of (October – December) and (March – April) as known except for the southern parts of the country. The southern part of the country gets its rains in the months of (June to Au ...PermalinkFloods and droughts are one of extreme weather climatic events that result in loss of life and property in Malawi. However, a well detailed knowledge of understanding of previous extreme climatic events and their associated impacts can be a precautionary in reducing their impacts, as it will help to project future events timely. Therefore this paper presents an analysis of Dec-Feb seasonal flood/drought events and their associated circulation anomalies over Malawi. The DJF seasonal flood/drought was studied using monthly data from 9 selected stations for the period of 1978-2010. A set of regio ...PermalinkClimate is one of the key factors that affect agriculture. Climate change and climate variability have been observed, typically shown as global warming due to the increased greenhouse gases. The change in climate is even predicted to be rapped and sharp in recent future and the impacts of extreme climate condition associated with climate change will be high on agriculture. Studying the impacts of climate change, especially the effects of temperature and precipitation on agriculture, is important for food safety, agricultural management, and sustainable development.Permalink
PermalinkTo apprehend the temporal and spatial distribution of the rainfall over CAR, we computed thirty-three years (1981-2013) of monthly rainfall, relative humidity over the country divided into four (4) distinct sub-regions. Bearing different characteristics one to another, we found that Region 2 and Region 4 were having a statistical significant upward trend along the long term rainfall variation; meanwhile Region 3 was the one having a highest coefficient of variation on the yearly basis. The composite analysis showed that December, January and February were the months with higher frequency of va ...PermalinkThe rainy season in Sierra Leone is unimodal from April to October; an understanding of the inter-annual variability of rainfall in Sierra Leone is of importance to economic sectors such as fisheries, agriculture, infrastructure, hydro-electric power generation (HEP) and water resources. This study investigated the variation of the intra-seasonal rainfall characteristics in Sierra Leone. Daily rainfall data from 4 synoptic stations was obtained from the Sierra Leone Meteorological Department from 1990-2014.PermalinkA Regional Climate Outlook Forum is a platform that brings together climate experts and sector representatives from countries in a climatologically homogenous region to provide consensus based climate prediction and information, with input from global and regional producing centres and National Meteorological and Hydrological Services, with the aim of gaining substantial socio-economic benefits in climate sensitive sectors.PermalinkWhile drought conditions are generally a common and recurring phenomenon of the climate in Southern Africa especially Lesotho, the frequency of droughts in Lesotho has increased significantly over the past few years. Lesotho has suffered the devastating impacts of drought during the past several decades resulting in poor harvests and large livestock losses to rural farmers. The majority of the population in Lesotho engages with rain- fed agriculture and is dependent to some degree on own production for household food supply and/or cash income (Dejene, Midgley, & Marake, 2011). Any negative cha ...PermalinkThis study attempted to investigate the variability of extreme rainfall and temperature over Rwanda and the associated circulation anomalies forecasting on wet and dry rainfall events between 1961 and 2010. The datasets used to achieve the objectives includes Temperature, the rainfall dataset, wind vector, pressure vertical velocity (omega) and the Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST). The methods used include correlation analysis, Standardized anomaly, composite analysis, and Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) analysis. The results show that the mean annual cycle depict two rainy Seas ...PermalinkThe Sahel drought mechanism: insights from two contrasting extreme events during boreal summer July-August-September (JAS) is investigated in this study using the standardized precipitation index (SPI). Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) and composite analyses were deployed in this study, where the global precipitation climatology center (GPCC) rainfall data is used. The SPI shows large widespread decreasing rainfall trend in the Sahel in the mid-1980s; thereafter, Sahel rainfall have recovered somewhat through the late 1990s, even though the drought conditions have not ended in the region. A ...PermalinkThis research investigates the dynamical and thermodynamical process of mesoscale convective system that intensifies squall lines wind speed propagation. The generation of African Easterly Waves (AEWs) and its lifecycle. The characteristics of squall lines (SLs) over West Africa (WA) which occurred In Guinea for two cases periods June 01-02 and June 13-14, 2015. In all six (6) AEWs have been tracked using reanalysis data from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). European Meteorological Satellite images (EUMETSAT) and Earth Networks WeatherBug StreamerRT were also used to ...PermalinkPrecipitations vary consistently in Benin from 1981 to 2010. The present study reveals that the variation of Benin JJAS precipitation is positively correlated to MAM Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in Atlantic Ocean with correlation coefficient more than 0.7. When the SST is higher (lower) in the Atlantic Ocean, precipitation over Benin tends to be above (below) normal. The years 1988, 1989, 2003, 2007 and 2008, were wet with 1988, 2003, 2008 high SST over Tropical Southern Atlantic Ocean (STAO) while the years 1982, 1983, 1992 and 1997 formed the dry years with low SST over Tropical Southern At ...PermalinkThe southern coastal region of West Africa (SCWA) is located between 40N-80N latitudes and 100W -50E longitudes near the equator in the northern Hemisphere, the south and west are respectively equatorial and West Atlantic Ocean, and it is consisted to seven countries (Sierra Leon, Liberia, Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, Benin and Nigeria). The rainy season starts from spring to the summer, mainly from May to October. The rainfall is very important for southern coastal of West Africa region which their economy and food supply are highly dependent on agricultural production. Understanding of previo ...PermalinkThe variability and predictability of summer rainfall over Zimbabwe at inter-annual time scale is studied. Dry and wet seasons are identified using Zimbabwe Standardized Rainfall Index (ZRI). Seasonal rainfall and circulation patterns are investigated at inter annual time scale. The study focuses on the temporal and spatial variation of summer rainfall over Zimbabwe and tries to explain the circulation mechanisms associated with such phenomenon.PermalinkFor Zimbabwe, where rain fed agriculture is the backbone of the economy, the importance of accurate rainfall seasonal forecasts cannot be overemphasized (Makarau and Jury, 1997). In fact, extremes in interseasonal variability of rainfall can significantly complicate human livelihoods. In addition, there have been predictions of increased precipitation variability and hydro-meteorological hazards such as floods, droughts, and erratic rainfall due to global warming (Field et al., 2014; Mushore, 2013a). Thus, detailed understanding of the major contributors to the rainfall variability over Zimbab ...PermalinkPermalinkPermalinkDeveloped countries have made little progress in providing climate finance for the transition towards low-emission and climateadaptive development pathways in developing countries. It is expected that a new legal agreement on climate finance will be reached at the UN Climate Change Conference in Paris (COP 21) later this year. It is vital that developing countries are able to motivate for greater climate finance accessibility. To this end, developing countries must demonstrate their ability to manage funds, develop projects that respond to social needs and indicate clear impact and results. Rw ...PermalinkGood rainfall draws many people to settle across the eastern Africa highlands for farming and other businesses. However, factors such as steep terrain, logging, livestock grazing, agriculture, and construction, have increased erosion and contributed to less stable slopes. These factors can lead to devastating landslides and mudslides, especially during episodes of very heavy rain. Forecasting and monitoring heavy rainfall is challenging, especially in mountainous regions that have few surface observations. This make satellite data critical for meteorologists and hydrologists forecasting for th ...PermalinkHigh swell events can develop far from the coast under cyclonic conditions, and take several days to travel to land. If early warnings are not issued, they can take an area by surprise and have a devastating impact. This lesson aims to improve the ability of marine forecasters to forecast extreme marine events related to high swells. It does so by providing background information on winds and waves, and presenting a process for monitoring and forecasting high swell events using a variety of data. These include ASCAT scatterometer wind data and the ECMWF Extreme Forecast Index (EFI) product, wh ...PermalinkThis case study lesson demonstrates the use of scatterometer wind and, to a lesser extent, altimeter significant wave height products in marine forecasting. A brief introduction to cold fronts and their impact on weather and sea state conditions sets the stage for the main part of the lesson, the case study. The case follows the passage of a cold front over the South Atlantic Ocean on 23 and 24 November 2013 when the Polarstern research vessel was transiting the area. Learners use ASCAT wind and Jason significant wave height data to help determine current conditions and evaluate GFS and WAVEWA ...PermalinkThe climate of most of the coastal region of Libya can be classified as semi-arid, while that of the rest of the country is arid. Rainfall is erratic with extremely variable yearly rainfall amounts: a series of dry years may follow a year with adequate rainfall. Furthermore, monthly and seasonal totals are not homogenous and most precipitation occurs during winter months.
Dust and sand storms, the focus of the present study, are one of the main extreme weather phenomena that affect Libya. In this paper, spatial and temporal distribution, frequency and seasonality are studied and analyze ...PermalinkThis article assesses the current state of disaster risk reduction (DRR) in the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA), and focuses on interventions and policies to mitigate hydrometeorological risks. The research analyzes, as main case study, the program “Regional Climate Prediction and Risk Reduction in the Greater Horn of Africa” funded by the Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (USAID OFDA) in the early 2000 that targeted risk preparedness.PermalinkDroughts pose a major risk in most African countries including Ghana where agricultural activities are heavily dependent on rainfall. Efforts at assessing droughts and providing decision support tools to farmers are hampered by a lack of rainfall and other meteorological data over many parts of Africa. Satellite based rainfall measurements have been suggested to fill the rainfall data gaps over Africa to enable effective assessment of droughts. Traditional methods of assessing droughts have been based on statistical formulations that relied mostly on precipitation. This approach to assessing d ...PermalinkThis study attempts to reveal features of rainfall over Togo, in relationship to the
prevailing atmospheric circulation. The study employed correlation analysis and composite analysis in
the analysis of rainfall, sea surface temperature, wind, and humidity. Empirical orthogonal functions
(EOF) analysis was employed in this study. The years: 1989, 1991, 1995, 2003 and 2007 were
identified to be anomalously wet years while 1982, 1983, 1990, 1992, 2001 and 2006 fall in the
anomalously dry years’ category. The dominant mode of variability exhibits a dipole patter ...PermalinkThis scoping study report is an analysis of the monitoring and evaluation frameworks and tools in Uganda with focus on climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction. It provides an overview of Uganda’s climate change and other related policy context and their provisions for monitoring and evaluation frameworks. The report also highlights the current reporting systems and the mandates of different institutions for climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction. The tools and systems used for data and information collection, processing, reporting, storage and dissemination are hig ...PermalinkThis paper examines agricultural vulnerability to climate change in eight selected rural settlements in Sokoto State, Nigeria.
An integrated approach is used which combines environmental and socio-economic determinants. Results show that while there were downward trends of annual rainfall and raindays in Sokoto, annual mean temperatures show upward trend. Annual droughts were of slight and moderate intensities during the period under review. The results also revealed that unreliable rainfall, desertification, increasing temperatures, scarcity of pastures and inaccessibility to c ...PermalinkThis synthesis report summarises research on how climate finance has been spent so far, and whether or not it has been spent on improving people’s water security.
The report highlights that the global community has committed to mobilise US $100 billion every year, from 2020 onwards. The study aims to identify the type and scale of national and subnational programmes and projects that have been funded by climate finance and how they relate to local water security. Findings are summarised from three case studies in Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Zambia.
There is a brief d ...PermalinkCopernicus Publications, 2015This study compares the contributions of climate change and socioeconomic development to potential future changes of agricultural land use in West Africa.
It uses a prototype land use projection (LandPro) algorithm which is based on a balance between food supply and demand, and accounts for the impact of socioeconomic drivers on the demand side and the impact of climate-induced crop yield changes on the supply side. It considers the impact of human decision-making on land use.
The paper argues that without agricultural intensification, the climate-induced decrease ...Permalink