[number or issue]
Language(s): Spanish; Other Languages: English, French
Format: Digital (Free)[number or issue]AEE, 2011
[number or issue]
Language(s): French; Other Languages: English, Spanish
Format: Digital (Free)[number or issue]
in Bulletin > Vol. 60 (1) (2011) . - p.9-13
Language(s): English; Other Languages: French, Russian, Spanish
Format: Digital (Free), Hard copy[article]Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Huntrieser H.; Schlager H.; Lichtenstern M.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011During the "African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis" (AMMA) field phase in August 2006, a variety of measurements focusing on deep convection were performed over West Africa. The German research aircraft Falcon based in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) investigated the chemical composition in the outflow of large mesoscale convective systems (MCS). Here we analyse two different types of MCS originating north and south of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ, ~10° N), respectively. In addition to the airborne trace gas measurements, stroke measurements from the Lightning Location Network (LINE ...
Mesoscale convective systems observed during AMMA and their impact on the NOx and O3 budget over West Africa
in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) > Vol. 11. N° 3 [03/01/2011] . - p.2503-2536
During the "African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis" (AMMA) field phase in August 2006, a variety of measurements focusing on deep convection were performed over West Africa. The German research aircraft Falcon based in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) investigated the chemical composition in the outflow of large mesoscale convective systems (MCS). Here we analyse two different types of MCS originating north and south of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ, ~10° N), respectively. In addition to the airborne trace gas measurements, stroke measurements from the Lightning Location Network (LINET), set up in Northern Benin, are analysed. The main focus of the present study is (1) to analyse the trace gas composition (CO, O3, NO, NOx, NOy, and HCHO) in the convective outflow as a function of distance from the convective core, (2) to investigate how different trace gas compositions in the boundary layer (BL) and ambient air may influence the O3 concentration in the convective outflow, and (3) to estimate the rate of lightning-produced nitrogen oxides per flash in selected thunderstorms and compare it to our previous results for the tropics. The MCS outflow was probed at different altitudes (~10–12 km) and distances from the convective core (<500 km). Trace gas signatures similar to the conditions in the MCS inflow region were observed in the outflow close to the convective core, due to efficient vertical transport. In the fresh MCS outflow, low O3 mixing ratios in the range of 35–40 nmol mol−1 were observed. Further downwind, O3 mixing ratios in the outflow rapidly increased with distance, due to mixing with the ambient O3-rich air. After 2–3 h, O3 mixing ratios in the range of ~65 nmol mol−1 were observed in the aged outflow. Within the fresh MCS outflow, mean NOx (=NO+NO2) mixing ratios were in the range of ~0.3–0.4 nmol mol−1 (peaks ~1 nmol mol−1) and only slightly enhanced compared to the background. Both lightning-produced NOx (LNOx) and NOx transported upward from the BL contributed about equally to this enhancement. On the basis of Falcon measurements, the mass flux of LNOx in the investigated MCS was estimated to be ~100 g(N) s−1. The average stroke rate of the probed thunderstorms was 0.04–0.07 strokes s−1 (here only strokes with peak currents ≥10 kA contributing to LNOx were considered). The LNOx mass flux and the stroke rate were combined to estimate the LNOx production rate. For a better comparison with other published results, LNOx estimates per LINET stroke were scaled to Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) flashes. The LNOx production rate per LIS flash was estimated to 1.0 and 2.5 kg(N) for the MCS located south and north of the ITCZ, respectively. If we assume, that these different types of MCS are typical thunderstorms occurring globally (LIS flash rate ~44 s−1), the annual global LNOx production rate was estimated to be ~1.4 and 3.5 Tg(N) a−1.
Format: Digital (Free)[article]Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 369. N° 1934. Thornton Philip K.; Jones Peter G.; Ericksen Polly J.; et al. - The Royal Society, 2011Agricultural development in sub-Saharan Africa faces daunting challenges, which climate change and increasing climate variability will compound in vulnerable areas. The impacts of a changing climate on agricultural production in a world that warms by 4°C or more are likely to be severe in places. The livelihoods of many croppers and livestock keepers in Africa are associated with diversity of options. The changes in crop and livestock production that are likely to result in a 4°C+ world will diminish the options available to most smallholders. In such a world, current crop and livestock variet ...
in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences > Vol. 369. N° 1934 (2011) . - p. 117-136
Agricultural development in sub-Saharan Africa faces daunting challenges, which climate change and increasing climate variability will compound in vulnerable areas. The impacts of a changing climate on agricultural production in a world that warms by 4°C or more are likely to be severe in places. The livelihoods of many croppers and livestock keepers in Africa are associated with diversity of options. The changes in crop and livestock production that are likely to result in a 4°C+ world will diminish the options available to most smallholders. In such a world, current crop and livestock varieties and agricultural practices will often be inadequate, and food security will be more difficult to achieve because of commodity price increases and local production shortfalls. While adaptation strategies exist, considerable institutional and policy support will be needed to implement them successfully on the scale required. Even in the 2°C+ world that appears inevitable, planning for and implementing successful adaptation strategies are critical if agricultural growth in the region is to occur, food security be achieved and household livelihoods be enhanced. As part of this effort, better understanding of the critical thresholds in global and African food systems requires urgent research.
Format: Digital (Free)[article]PermalinkMany experts believe that low-cost mitigation opportunities in agriculture are abundant and comparable in scale to those found in the energy sector. They are mostly located in developing countries and have to do with how land is used. By investing in projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), countries can tap these opportunities to meet their own Kyoto Protocol obligations. The CDM has been successful in financing some types of agricultural projects, including projects that capture methane or use agricultural by-products as an energy source. But agricultural land-use projects are s ...
PermalinkEEA, 2011The main project partners are the national environmental and statistical organisations leading in the field of environmental information within the ENPI area: ministries, agencies and statistical offices responsible for collecting, producing, storing and disseminating environmental data and information.
PermalinkOne of the main reasons cited for inadequate representation of biodiversity in the development processes is a lack of readily available information on inland water taxa. In response to this need for basic for information on species, the IUCN Species Programme conducted a regional assessment of the status and distribution of 2,261 taxa of freshwater fishes, molluscs, odonates, crabs and selected families of aquatic plants from throughout central Africa. This study is based on the collation and analysis of existing information, and the knowledge of regional experts.
PermalinkOCHA, 2011I. HIGHLIGHTS/KEY PRIORITIES
· In total, an estimated 708,000 people were affected by floods and/or storms in southern Africa this rainfall season, with 314,361 either displaced or evacuated and 477 people killed.
· In comparison with the previous four seasons, the 2010/2011 flood season was average in terms of number of people affected, although the number of deaths was markedly high.
· Heavy rains early in the season affected Mozambique, South Africa and Lesotho. South Africa, which is usually not seriously affected by flooding, experienced large-scale devastation.
PermalinkThis module introduces a variety of meteorological and hydrological products that can improve the quality of heavy rainfall forecasts and assist with hydrological management during extensive precipitation events in Southern Africa. Among the products are the satellite-based ASCAT, SMOS, and ASAR GM soil moisture products and the hydro-estimator. The products are presented within the context of a case, the flooding of South Africa's Vaal Dam region in 2009/2010.
PermalinkThe World Meteorological Organization is working in developing countries to improve atmospheric observations for climate change research.
PermalinkThe objective of this report is to catalyse thinking about the ways in which agriculture – which has a vital role in global food security, development and natural resources use – can and must be fully integrated into national strategies and a consensus-based multilateral framework to address the challenges of climate change. The report brings forth questions that will occupy the world community over the next decade or more regarding the role of agriculture in climate change adaptation and mitigation. The report offers some answers and concrete proposals – while recognizing that much more needs ...
PermalinkGEF, 2011One third of all African people live today in drought-prone areas, and 250 million are exposed to drought every year. "Land, Water, and Forests" is a publication that covers the topics of land degradation, deforestation, desertification and water scarcity in the cases of the Congo Basin, Lake Chad and the Sahel region.
PermalinkUN/ISDR, 2011This report addresses drought, which is considered the major disaster occurring in the Arab region, where the total people affected between the years 1970-2009 by drought is of about 38.09 million. The report focuses on Syria, considered one of the most economically affected countries by drought in the region. The case study provides information on historical droughts in the country between 2000-2010, including data on frequency, vulnerabilities and lessons learned with drought impacts.
PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; ANAMS ; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) - WMO, 2011Severe weather events in West Africa are associated mainly with meso-scale thunderstorms and squall lines. Forecasting such severe weather to reduce the risk of hazards is one of the challenges faced by many met services. However, the recent progress in the area of numerical weather prediction has enabled some countries to forecast these events in a better way.
Due to lack of capacity, many of the West African countries were not able to use numerical weather prediction systems effectively in their day to day forecasting activities. The CPC/African Desk has been playing big role in buil ...
PermalinkUNDP, 2011The guide is part of a series of publications for decision makers in developing countries on how to design, finance and implement effective actions to address climate change. It is based on the outcome of the Conference on Strategies for Adapting Public and Private Infrastructure to Climate Change held in El Salvador in 2010, as a response to the impacts caused by extreme weather events in Central America.
The guide emphasizes the development benefits of climate-proofing infrastructure. It notes that adapting infrastructure to the risks of climate change reduces the loss of live ...
PermalinkThis paper constructs an integrated assessment model of tropical cyclones in order to quantify the impact that climate change may have on tropical cyclone damages in countries around the world. The paper relies on a tropical cyclone generator in each ocean and several climate models to predict tropical cyclones with and without climate change. A damage model is constructed to compute the resulting damage when a cyclone strikes each country. Economic development is expected to double global tropical cyclone damages because more will be in harm's way. Climate change is expected to double global ...
PermalinkThe increased pressures on the world’s natural resources and ecological systems in the past century, has been accompanied by rapid urban population growth. Urban centres themselves have ecological reputations since they drive unsustainable environmental change, rapidly increasing the use of fossil fuels and carbon dioxide emissions due to increasing per capita consumption levels. They also lead to high levels of resource use and waste generation, causing serious ecological consequences locally, regionally and globally, especially in terms of climate change. However, addressing the issue of urb ...
PermalinkUNEP FI, 2011Financial institutions need more developed information services regarding the physical impacts of changing weather patterns. The survey showed that with the risks of climate change expected to increase, financial service providers need enhanced access and availability of climate information to further enhance related risk management within their industry. The influence of these financial institutions worldwide could in this way play a key role in accelerating the implementation of adaptation measures by the private sector more broadly. The report, sponsored by the German Federal Ministry of Ed ...
PermalinkUNEP, 2011The report highlights water, agriculture, energy and climate change issues in Central Asia’s Amu Darya River Basin.
PermalinkEEA, 2011This report documents the most recent emissions and projections information provided by the Member States of the European Union under the National Emission Ceilings Directive (NECD) (1) at the end of 2010.
The directive requires all 27 Member States to report information annually concerning emissions and projections for four main air pollutants: nitrogen oxides (NOX), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and ammonia (NH3). These pollutants harm both human health and the environment by contributing to the formation of ozone and particulate matter and by ...
PermalinkUNCTAD, 2011This series of publications seeks to contribute to exploring current issues in science, technology and innovation,
with particular emphasis on their impact on developing countries
PermalinkThis briefing stems from a project that focused on electricity supply and the extent to which it’s traded within Southern Africa and South America. Within this the current and projected regional energy production mixes were established and since concerns over climate change are finding their way into many aspects of economic growth and development the project also explored the role that the regional ‘anchor states’ (South Africa and Brazil respectively) are likely to play in securing the future balance in light of climate change and related mitigation imperatives.