Bulletin, Vol. 64(1). OMM, 2016Quelque 842 millions de personnes dans le monde n’ont pas les moyens de se nourrir convenablement et souff rent de faim chronique. L’insécurité alimentaire et la pauvreté sont clairement liées. Dans de nombreux pays, l’intégration des informations météorologiques et climatologiques dans la prise de décision en matière d’agriculture a permis d’optimiser la production agricole. Cependant, dans les pays en développement, où la plupart des petits exploitants agricoles dépendent de l’agriculture en sec, l’accès aux informations météorologiques et climatologiques pouvant faciliter la prise de décisi ...[article]
in Bulletin > Vol. 64(1) (2015) . - p.56-58
Quelque 842 millions de personnes dans le monde n’ont pas les moyens de se nourrir convenablement et souff rent de faim chronique. L’insécurité alimentaire et la pauvreté sont clairement liées. Dans de nombreux pays, l’intégration des informations météorologiques et climatologiques dans la prise de décision en matière d’agriculture a permis d’optimiser la production agricole. Cependant, dans les pays en développement, où la plupart des petits exploitants agricoles dépendent de l’agriculture en sec, l’accès aux informations météorologiques et climatologiques pouvant faciliter la prise de décision est limitée. Les pouvoirs publics devraient considérer ces informations, essentielles aux agriculteurs, comme un moyen de lutter contre la pauvreté et la faim.
Language(s): French; Other Languages: English, Russian, Spanish
Format: Digital (Free), Hard copy[article]Bulletin, Vol. 64(1). WMO, 2015Some 842 million people worldwide cannot afford to eat adequately and are chronically hungry. The links between food insecurity and poverty are clear. Factoring weather and climate information into agricultural decision-making has optimized agricultural production in many countries. However, in developing countries – where most smallholder farms are rain-fed – access to weather and climate information to guide decision-making is limited. Governments should view such information, crucial to farmers, as a means of alleviating poverty and hunger.[article]
in Bulletin > Vol. 64(1) (2015) . - p.56-58
Some 842 million people worldwide cannot afford to eat adequately and are chronically hungry. The links between food insecurity and poverty are clear. Factoring weather and climate information into agricultural decision-making has optimized agricultural production in many countries. However, in developing countries – where most smallholder farms are rain-fed – access to weather and climate information to guide decision-making is limited. Governments should view such information, crucial to farmers, as a means of alleviating poverty and hunger.
Language(s): English; Other Languages: French, Russian, Spanish
Format: Digital (Free), Hard copy[article]This document presents an overview on the impact of the Dry Corridor phenomenon in Central America, and the work the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) - in collaboration with its partners - is doing to support countries to increase disaster resilience of households, communities and institutions.Published by: FAO ; 2015
This document presents an overview on the impact of the Dry Corridor phenomenon in Central America, and the work the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) - in collaboration with its partners - is doing to support countries to increase disaster resilience of households, communities and institutions.
Format: Digital (Free)Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO); Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation (MOAI) Myanmar - gov ; Ministry of Livestock, Fisheries and Rural Development (MLFRD) Myanmar - gov ; et al. - FAO, 2015This report assesses the disaster impact of the cyclone Komen on agriculture and rural-based livelihoods of affected populations in Myanmar. The assessment was conducted in the six most-affected regions/states of Ayeyarwady, Bago, Chin, Magway, Rakhine and Sagaing. It was co-led by FAO and WFP under the framework of the Food Security Sector in partnership with UN women, World Vision, CESVI, CARE, JICA and LIFT.
Food and Agriculture Organization (Rome, Italia) ; Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation (MOAI) Myanmar - gov ; Ministry of Livestock, Fisheries and Rural Development (MLFRD) Myanmar - gov ; World Food ProgrammePublished by: FAO ; 2015
This report assesses the disaster impact of the cyclone Komen on agriculture and rural-based livelihoods of affected populations in Myanmar. The assessment was conducted in the six most-affected regions/states of Ayeyarwady, Bago, Chin, Magway, Rakhine and Sagaing. It was co-led by FAO and WFP under the framework of the Food Security Sector in partnership with UN women, World Vision, CESVI, CARE, JICA and LIFT.
Format: Digital (Free)This paper presents evidence on how the 2007−2010 drought contributed to the conflict in Syria. It was the worst drought in the instrumental record, causing widespread crop failure and a mass migration of farming families to urban centers. Century-long observed trends in precipitation, temperature, and sea-level pressure, supported by climate model results, strongly suggest that anthropogenic forcing has increased the probability of severe and persistent droughts in this region, and made the occurrence of a 3-year drought as severe as that of 2007−2010 2 to 3 times more likely than by natural ...Published by: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) ; 2015
Climate change in the Fertile Crescent and implications of the recent Syrian drought: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States, vol. 112 no. 11, pp. 3241–3246
This paper presents evidence on how the 2007−2010 drought contributed to the conflict in Syria. It was the worst drought in the instrumental record, causing widespread crop failure and a mass migration of farming families to urban centers. Century-long observed trends in precipitation, temperature, and sea-level pressure, supported by climate model results, strongly suggest that anthropogenic forcing has increased the probability of severe and persistent droughts in this region, and made the occurrence of a 3-year drought as severe as that of 2007−2010 2 to 3 times more likely than by natural variability alone.
Format: Digital (Free)This handbook provides decision makers, planners, responders and disaster management practitioners with an overview of the disaster management structure, policies, laws, and plans for ASEAN countries.
The handbook presents an overview of natural and man-made threats most likely to affect ASEAN countries, basic country background information, including cultural, demographic, geographic, infrastructure and other data, as well as endemic conditions such as poverty, water and sanitation, food security and other humanitarian issues. It also provides an overview of the health situatio ...PermalinkThis report examines the resilience of the global food system to extreme weather.
This summary is built on three detailed reports and presents evidence that the global food system is vulnerable to production shocks caused by extreme weather, and that this risk is growing. It highlights evidence that our reliance on increasing volumes of global trade, whilst having many benefits, also creates structural vulnerability via a liability to amplify production shocks in some circumstances. It argues that action is needed to improve the resilience of the global food system to weather-re ...PermalinkMalawi - government, 2015The PDNA report indicates that the Malawi 2015 floods affected 1,101,364 people, displaced 230,000 and killed 106 people. The assessment focuses on medium to long term reconstruction and provides the guiding principles for recovery, including assessment of the damage, losses, and recovery and reconstruction strategies for each sector are provided in detailed sector.PermalinkThis policy brief identifies possible implications of climate change disturbances on crops and livestock in world production centers by 2030, 2050 and 2080. Most of the studies on food systems under climate change are producer-centric, while this brief looks at options for importing countries, and discusses some recommendations.
The imperative of climate change adaptation for a resilient food system requires institutional, technological and economic transformation not only in food exporting but also food importing countries. Furthermore, mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions in ...PermalinkThis Topic Guide addresses the threat that climate change poses to food security and poverty reduction achievements. The peer-reviewed guide explains how programming around climate-smart agriculture can help adapt and build resilience to climate change – at the same time stimulating economic growth and poverty reduction in the agricultural sector.
The main message from this Topic Guide is that climate change is already affecting food security and agricultural growth under all types of agriculture, and is expected to continue to have an increasingly serious impact on smallholders and lar ...PermalinkThis report focuses on the risks of climate change to development in Latin America and the Caribbean, the Middle East and North Africa, and parts of Europe and Central Asia. For each region, the report addresses the regional patterns of climate change, such as heat extremes, extreme precipitation, droughts, tropical cyclones/hurricanes, and sea-level rise.
Building on earlier Turn Down the Heat reports, this new scientific analysis examines the likely impacts of present day (0.8°C), 2°C and 4°C warming above pre-industrial temperatures on agricultural production, water resource ...PermalinkWater, food and energy are fundamental to African development. However, several crucial issues need to be addressed. Are African resources used to meet African needs or are they being exploited to satisfy the needs of other actors facing food and energy insecurity?PermalinkThis report presents a series of tables which analyse the potential impact of a changed climate on the most common diseases afflicting cattle, sheep, goats, camels, donkeys, pigs, and chickens in Mali. For each livestock disease identified, the disease status under current climate was assessed, including the geographical range of the endemic zone, the rate of disease outbreaks within endemic zones, the mode of pathogen transmission, and the relative economic importance to livestock owners. These served as the baseline for an assessment of the likely change in risk of infection under climate sc ...Permalink2014Background: The amount and distribution of rainfall and temperature influences household food availability, thus increasing the risk of child under nutrition. However, few studies examined the local spatial variability and the impact of temperature and rainfall on child under nutrition at a smaller scale (resolution). We conducted this study to evaluate the effect of weather variables on child under nutrition and the variations in effects across the three agro ecologies of Ethiopia.
Methods: A longitudinal panel study was conducted. We used crop productions (cereals and oilseeds), lives ...PermalinkThe aim of this study is to compare and combine the results from different conservation agriculture experiments using meta-analysis in the hope of identifying patterns among study results, sources of disagreement among those results, or interesting relationships that may come to light in the context of the different studies.
Conservation agriculture involves reduced or no-tillage, permanent soil cover and crop rotations to enhance soil fertility and crop yields. Conservation agriculture practices are increasingly promoted on smallholder farms in sub-Saharan Africa as a means to overcome ...PermalinkCentral and South America. The report assesses the implications of climate change for agriculture, with a particular focus on those aspects of climate change that will have greatest impact on the crops currently grown in each region. The study investigated the ability of General Circulation Models (GCMs) and downscaled climate change scenarios to reproduce already observed climates, to establish the reliability of future climate projections, as well as projections of how associated crops might grow under future conditions.PermalinkThis document provides some recommendations for addressing disaster risk in agriculture in the post-2015 framework for disaster risk reduction. It presents: (i) the status of mainstreaming disaster risk in agriculture, reporting on the progresses and highlighting some emerging trends; (ii) the drivers for mainstreaming disaster risk into agriculture; (iii) the regional/international policy frameworks and initiatives within agriculture to be targeted; (iv) measuring disaster risk in agriculture; (v) a list of agencies contributing and description of institutional commitment; and (vi) key docume ...PermalinkThis study has a focus on climate adaptation strategies for farmers in Malawi.
This paper assesses farmers’ incentives and conditioning factors that hinder or promote adaptation strategies and evaluates its impact on crop productivity by utilizing household level data collected in 2011 from nationally representative sample households in Malawi. The study distinguishes between (i) exposure to climatic disruptions, (ii) bio-physical sensitivity to such disruptions, (iii) household adaptive capacity in terms of farmers’ ability to prepare and adjust to the resulting stress, and, finally, ( ...PermalinkRusinga O. - 2014PermalinkThis case study aims to illustrate how the Western Province in Sri Lanka is promoting urban and peri-urban agriculture and forestry as a strategy to reduce vulnerability to climate change, while at the same time enhancing urban liveability and livelihoods. Key messages include that the province is promoting the rehabilitation of flood zones through their productive use as a strategy to improve storm water infiltration and mitigate flood risks. It is recommended that future upscaling of these interventions will need new urban design concepts and the development of a provincial climate change ...PermalinkThis paper is the first in a series of Evaluation Reviews, which are intended to highlight and distil findings from published evaluations of climate change related programme interventions. This paper is aimed at sharing some design, monitoring, and evaluation (DME) ‘lessons learned’ that are pertinent to Climate Change Adaptation (CCA), which have been drawn from a small selection of agriculture/food security (AFS) programmes across Asia. The paper is organised into five sections. It begins with a brief overview of climate change in Asia and the implications for agriculture and food security, ...PermalinkThis working paper summarises work on the costs and benefits of climate change adaptation for the water sector in Africa. It reviews adaptation cost estimates for the continent and the main economic appraisal methods used, then summarises results. It focuses on adaptation to climate impacts on the water sector, such as damage to water infrastructure, rather than impacts from water on other sectors, such as agricultural drought. The paper identifies two key priorities for future appraisals: 1) greater focus on the costs and benefits of ‘soft’, non-infrastructure adaptation interventions 2) use ...PermalinkThis paper deals with the consequences of climate change for farmers in Africa, including increasing temperatures and changing rainfall, increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide content and impacts on agricultural production. The paper attempts to illustrate local conditions that must be taken into account to understand the impacts/consequences of climate change for African farmers and how they may cope with them. The review is in three parts; climate change is approached by dealing with the three sides from which the danger comes: (i) global warming, (ii) increasing climate variability, (iii) mo ...PermalinkThis paper highlights the impact of climate change on agriculture. It argues that the erratic climate of the region has strongly impacted the local food system especially the seed availability and therefore food security in general. This paper identifies some of the innovation in water use efficiency, water management at crop levels, and proposes some agriculture interventions in order to achieve a sustainable local seed systems, participatory breeding, livestock adaptation measures and improvement of existing agroforestry as well as knowledge management.PermalinkThis report examines four topics: (i) disasters in 2012, with a focus on recurring disasters; (ii) the role of regional organizations in disaster risk management; (iii) wildfires; and (iv) the important role of women in disaster risk management. It highlights the value given by governments and other actors in working together to prevent disasters and, to a lesser extent, to respond to disasters occurring in the region. It also features the development of strong regional initiatives and different mechanisms for encouraging collaboration, including frameworks for disaster risk reduction, regiona ...PermalinkThis paper argues that the high and volatile food prices that triggered a renewed interest in food security since the 2008–09 crisis are expected to continue due to the impacts of climate change. It notes that current policy is focused on food production; however, a broader approach based on food systems would be more appropriate as it encompasses all aspects of food production, storage, distribution and consumption. As most low-income groups in both rural and urban areas are net buyers of food, access and affordability are central concerns. There is also a need for more attention to urban foo ...PermalinkEuropean Commission, 2013In the wake of the Sahelian droughts and the resulting food insecurity crises of the 1970s and mid-1980s, the international community and national governments alike have focused on early warning systems as a mechanism to prevent famines and avert acute malnutrition. Thirty years later, food insecurity still prevails in many areas of the globe, amidst rapidly evolving geopolitics. A different and innovative way to tackle the problem of the fluctuating food availability attracted the attention of development agencies and governments in developing countries some 15 years ago: index-based crop ins ...PermalinkThis report evaluates the extent to which farms facing higher levels of drought risk are more likely to participate in conservation programs, and finds a strong link between drought risk and program participation. It examines drought risk adaptation, defined as the choices that farmers make in response to drought risk exposure, and addresses the policy uncertainty by examining the role of drought risk within agricultural conservation programs and considering potential changes in conservation program design, such as adjustments in contract ranking criteria or changes in eligibility requirements ...PermalinkThis assessment was conducted in 2012. Field research focused on Gulu, Lira, Luweero, Mbale, Isingiro, and Kasese, USAID/Feed the Future priority districts that include important cropping systems, represent different agro-ecological zones, and are near weather stations that have collected consistent rainfall and temperature data for a long period of time.
The research and analysis show how current climate patterns shape – and how future climate patterns may influence – key crop value chains and the livelihoods of households that depend on them.PermalinkPlan International, 2013This study shows that climate change and environmental degradation are causing pronounced negative effects on food, water and energy, with two distinctive features – gender and geographic inequality, where men, women and children are disproportionately affected and where some areas are more vulnerable and hit much harder than others. The study also reveals that the effects of climate change have a tendency of being accompanied by other human-induced impacts such as resource over-exploitation, which are already posing a major environmental challenge in Africa. These factors represent a major ch ...PermalinkThis case study is designed to provide a practical example of how to use climate information to support adaptation planning and policy-making. The paper focuses on the Bagamoyo district in coastal Tanzania. Local livelihoods are mostly based on natural resources, including small-scale agriculture, seaweed farming, traditional fishing and small-scale eco-tourism. People living on the coast report that climate variability and climate change are affecting their lives due to factors such as unreliable timing and intensity of rainfall, major flooding and sea-level rise. These impacts have increased ...PermalinkAccording to this report, the global livestock sector contributes a significant share to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, but it can also deliver a significant share of the necessary mitigation effort. The authors call for urgent, concerted and collective action from all sector stakeholders to ensure that existing and promising mitigation strategies are implemented. They also highlight a need to reduce the sector’s emissions and its environmental footprint, especially in view of its continuing expansion to ensure food security and feed a growing, richer and more urbanized world populati ...PermalinkSub-Saharan Africa is particularly vulnerable to global challenges such as food insecurity, climate change, rural poverty, malnutrition and environmental protection. This puts pressure on the fragile food production system.
The term ‘Sustainable Intensification’ – ‘producing more outputs with more efficient use of all inputs on a durable basis, while reducing environmental damage and building resilience, natural capital and the flow of environmental services’ – has become synonymous with big, industrial agriculture. The writers of the report are concerned that as the world’s population ...PermalinkThis Issues Brief is based on the proceedings of the Expert Group Meeting on the Impact of Climate Change on ASEAN Food Security held in June 2013. This meeting called for higher priority to be given to research on climate shifts, a greater focus on agricultural research and development and also highlighted the need for resource and knowledge inputs from those involved in food value chains across Southeast Asia.PermalinkFuture Fit is a DFID Executive Management Committee initiative, to produce a vision and strategy for the department’s response to the challenges and opportunities that climate change and resource scarcity pose for poverty reduction and development. The Future Fit strategy asks the question what strategic shifts in front line sectors - Food, Water, Energy, and Cities - are needed to protect development gains and respond to the challenge of climate change and resource scarcity. Answers to this question will feed into the review of the DFID business model and resource allocation. As part of this ...PermalinkThis report aims to assist decision-makers in Jordan and Lebanon in understanding the specific challenges and opportunities posed by climate change in the agricultural sector and to develop local-level priorities, informed by stakeholder input, in order to build agricultural resilience in the two countries. The report is divided into four chapters: (i) chapter one introduces the background of the study and the structure of the report; (ii) chapter two provides a synthesis of evidence of climate variability and change in Jordan and Lebanon; (iii) chapter three explains the methodology of the st ...PermalinkThis policy brief by the Asian Development Bank argues that, given the negative impact of climate change on Mongolia, it is crucial to select mitigation actions that reduce vulnerability to climate change, support the achievement of national development goals, and are feasible given local constraints.PermalinkEvidence on Demand was requested by DFID to carry out a climate and environmental assessment. This was for part of the Business Case for building an evidence base in Yemen by gathering high quality, nationally representative data on key poverty indicators and living conditions.PermalinkThis report presents a brief and interactive summary of the Climate Change in Africa research and capacity program’s chief contributions. It provides a guided tour of the program’s efforts and legacy – its aims and means, the principal outcomes of the funding and mentoring it provided to African researchers, and the lessons it offers for future adaptation efforts in Africa and elsewhere. Throughout this report, there are links to programme and project resources, and directions for delving further into its scientific findings.PermalinkThis report focuses on the specific issue of urban food security, describing the demographic and environmental trends as well as food production and infrastructure challenges that impact supply and demand for food in urban areas. Before providing specific examples of the food security challenges faced by cities around the world, the authors propose a framework, or matrix, of issues for policymakers to use in developing and assessing urban food security strategies. The report focuses on case studies in the United States before looking in depth at Chicago, highlighting the city’s challenges as w ...PermalinkWith the intention of providing elements useful for decision making, this study by the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) analyses the potential impacts of climate change on the agricultural sector in Belize. The document is organised into six chapters. The first chapter contains a review of the literature related to the impact of climate change on the agricultural sector, emphasising the work in the region and Belize. The second chapter provides an overview of the current situation in the agricultural sector, as well as the strategies adopted by the Belizean gover ...PermalinkIn Mesoamerica, coffee is an important part of agricultural GDP and export revenues which supports about half a million farmers, and employs millions of people on the farms and all along the supply chain. This policy brief summarises the potential risks and impacts of climate change on coffee farming in the region. Traditional coffee agroforests provide important ecosystem services and conserve significant carbon stocks. Climate change threatens coffee production, as projected increases in temperature and changes in rainfall will likely reduce crop suitability in most current growing areas. Op ...PermalinkThis framework explains the Disaster Risk Reduction for Food and Nutrition Security Framework Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) which has been undertaken with the goal of enhancing the resilience of livelihoods against threats and emergencies to ensure the food and nutrition security of vulnerable farmers, fishers, herders, foresters and other at risk groups. The framework presents four thematic pillars which mirror the priorities outlined in the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA): (i) enable the environment, emphasizing good governance and effective ...PermalinkThis paper identifies sixteen cases of large-scale actions in the agriculture and forestry sectors that have adaptation and/or mitigation outcomes, and distils lessons from the cases. The cases cover policy and strategy development (including where climate-smart objectives were not the initial aim), climate risk management through insurance, weather information services and social protection, and agricultural initiatives that have a strong link to climate change adaptation and mitigation.PermalinkThis brief focuses on the key disaster risk reduction (DRR) activities that the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) carries out in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (WBGS). It seeks to give an overview of FAO's DRR strategy and briefly describe their activities in WBGS to protect livelihoods from shocks, to make food production systems more resilient and more capable of absorbing the impact of, and recovering from, disruptive events, such as floods, droughts, earthquakes, animal and plants pests and diseases.PermalinkThis report focuses on the risks of climate change to development in Sub-Saharan Africa, South East Asia and South Asia. Building on the 2012 report, Turn Down the Heat: Why a 4°C Warmer World Must be Avoided, this new scientific analysis gives a more detailed look at how the negative impacts of climate change already in motion could create devastating conditions especially for those least able to adapt. It asserts that the case for resilience has never been stronger. This report demands action. It reinforces the fact that climate change is a fundamental threat to economic development and the ...PermalinkClimate-smart interventions are highly location-specific and knowledge-intensive. Therefore, considerable efforts are required to develop the knowledge and capacities to make climate-smart agriculture (CSA) a reality. The purpose of this sourcebook is to further elaborate the concept of CSA and demonstrate its potential, as well as its limitations. It is aimed as a reference tool for planners, practitioners and policymakers working in agriculture, forestry and fisheries at national and subnational levels, dealing with the effects of climate change.PermalinkGero Anna; National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility (NCCARF); University of Technology - NCCARF, 2013This research paper examines the nexus between disasters, human health, and climate change in the Pacific in order determine methods of effective disaster response in a changing climate to enhance long term adaptive capacity. The aim of this paper is to identify gaps in post-disaster support and to disseminate information regarding those gaps among policy-makers so as to establish a society more resilient to disaster.PermalinkGero Anna; National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility (NCCARF); University of Technology - NCCARF, 2013This research paper examines the nexus between disasters, human health, and climate change in the Pacific in order determine methods of effective disaster response in a changing climate to enhance long term adaptive capacity. The aim of this paper is to identify gaps in post-disaster support and to disseminate information regarding those gaps among policy-makers so as to establish a society more resilient to disaster.PermalinkThe study used the innovation system approach to ascertain the intensity and trends of linkages among key actors in the climate change and food security innovation system in Nigeria, Sierra Leone and Liberia. Data were collected through the use of semi structured interview schedule, key informant interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) and analyzed using percentages, mean scores and trend analysis. Only 1.8% of the
farmers from Nigeria, 2.5% from Sierra Leone and 0.7% from Liberia possessed special training on climate change adaptation and food security issues. The presence of loc ...PermalinkThis book examines the food security threats facing 11 west African countries — Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo — and explores how climate change will increase the efforts needed to achieve sustainable food security throughout the region. Through the use of hundreds of scenario maps, models, figures and detailed analysis, the publication presents plausible future scenarios that combine economic and biophysical characteristics to explore the possible consequences for agriculture, food security and resources management to ...PermalinkUN/ISDR, 2013A declaration by the Mayors and Local Government representatives together with National Government Officials emphasizing the importance of reducing disaster risk in Arab cities, in which the participants of the First Arab conference for disaster risk reduction recognize the vulnerability Arab cities and towns to disasters such as earthquakes, volcanoes, flooding, flash flooding and storms, as well as to climate change induced droughts, desertification, flash flooding, and storms leading to food insecurity. They call for: (i) sustainable development principles to be closely linked to urban deve ...Permalink
Adaptation inspiration book: 22 implemented cases of local climate change adaptation to inspire European citizensAl-Bakri J.T. - 2013Focusing on the climate problem, it is now clear that developing countries, especially fast-growing regions such as those in the so-called BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China), will have a major impact on future emission dynamics and will play a major role in climate negotiations.PermalinkYengoh Genesis T. - 2013Just how influential is rainfall on agricultural production in the Sudan-Sahel of Africa? And, is there evidence that support for small-scale farming can reduce the vulnerability of crop yields to rainfall in these sensitive agro-ecological zones? These questions are explored based on a case study from Cameroon’s Sudan-Sahel region. Climate data for 20 years and crop production data for six major food crops for the same years are used to find patterns of correlation over this time period. Results show a distinction of three periods of climatic influence of agriculture: one period before 1989, ...PermalinkIISD, 2013This report is a product of the Climate Risk Management – Technical Assistance Support Project, which is supported by UNDP’s Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery and Bureau for Development Policy. This is one in a series of reports that examines high-risk countries and focusses on a specific socio-economic sector in each country. The series illustrates how people in different communities and across a range of socio-economic sectors may have to make adaptations to the way they generate income and cultivate livelihoods in the face of a changing climate. These reports present an evidence ...PermalinkThis policy brief addresses the high agricultural loss due to natural hazards in agricultural sectors in Indonesia, and the lack of adequate ex-ante risk management policy to guide risk reduction in the sector, which will affect the country's food security. The research examines the impact of disasters and climate hazards on Indonesian agricultural and food crops. The findings firmly conclude that natural catastrophes have already caused a great deal of loss in agricultural sectors in particular food crops. Loss accumulation over the last decade has caused significant leakage of central govern ...PermalinkThis review analyses some of the major events and trends related to natural disasters and humanitarian disaster response and looks at the experience of developed countries with natural disasters in 2011. Highlighting evidences from the Japanese earthquake-tsunami-nuclear accident, the earthquake in Christchurch, New Zealand, floods in Australia, and tornadoes, hurricanes and drought in the United States, it reminds that natural hazards affect all regions of the world and even rich countries have much to learn about both disaster risk reduction and disaster response.
The review ...PermalinkThis document presents a range of experiences, publications and organisations involved in the strategies used to build capacities for climate change adaptation in the Latin American region, by: (i) improving natural resource conservation; (ii) providing access to new technologies; (iii) capturing traditional knowledge and practices; and (iv) maintaining water resources and agrobiodiversity. It concludes with lessons that could prove useful to other mountain regions of the world.PermalinkWarner Koko; CARE France ; Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN); et al. - UNU, 2012This report explores the interrelationships among rainfall variability, food and livelihood security, and human mobility in a diverse set of research sites in eight countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America. While climate change affects nearly all aspects of food security – from production and availability, to the stability of food supplies, access to food, and food utilization – the Rainfalls research focuses on linkages between shifting rainfall patterns and food production and the stability of food supplies.PermalinkWorld Bank, 2012This report presents an extensive review of the World Bank’s experience dealing with climate variability and climate change, offering valuable lessons on adaptation efforts worldwide. It answers questions in three areas: (i) dealing with climate variability; (ii) factoring climate change risks into investment projects; and (iii) anticipating climate change. In addition to this learning-focused agenda, the evaluation also asks how the Bank Group has performed against climate adaptation goals of the Bank Group’s Strategic Framework for Development and Climate Change (FY09-11).
The evalua ...PermalinkThe report analyses the effects of climate change on U.S. agriculture on the basis of research needs categorized within a vulnerability framework addressing specific actions that would improve understanding of the exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity to: (i) improve projections of future climate conditions, including extreme temperatures, precipitation, and related variables; (ii) evaluate and develop process-level understanding of the sensitivity of plant and animal production systems; and (iii) develop and extend the knowledge, management strategies and tools needed by U.S. agricultur ...PermalinkThis research examines the feasibility of creating a global early warning system for climate change, the CLIM-WARN system, which purpose is to provide timely and actionable warnings to institutions, businesses, governments and the general public about the imminence of climate related extreme events. CLIM-WARN focuses on hydrometeorological hazards such as heat waves, droughts, floods and wildfires.PermalinkRecent food crises and growing concerns about global climate change have placed agriculture on top of the international agenda. Decision-makers have recognised the strong link between the dual goals of eradicating hunger and making agriculture sustainable. Achieving these goals will require a significant increase in agricultural investment but, more importantly, it will require improving the quality of this investment. This annual flagship report by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) reviews the economic and social rationale for agricultural investment, examines the causes of underinv ...PermalinkEEA, 2012Analysing the security risks resulting from climate change is essential for effective policy-making. The Organization for Security Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and the European Environment Agency (EEA) is running the joint project 'Security implications of climate change in the OSCE regions' with the aim of improving understanding of the links between global megatrends and environment, and the security of food, fuel and water in different regions. It also aims to enhance cooperation and networking among the main institutions addressing climate security issues. A participatory-based scenario-bu ...PermalinkWhy are demand and renewal rates for micro-insurance so low despite the important protection against disasters it may offer? To address the puzzle this paper provides a selective overview of the current state of research on demand from farmers for risk micro-insurance mostly associated to lack and excess of rainfall (drought and flood). It first looks at the theoretical research and then reviews the empirical evidence on the factors influencing risk attitude and demand for disaster insurance from low-income farmers.PermalinkThis publication, Guidelines for Climate Proofing Investment in Agriculture, Rural Development, and Food Security aims to present a step-by-step methodological approach to assist project teams to assess and incorporate climate change adaptation measures into agriculture, rural development, and food security investment projects. While the Guidelines focus on the project level, an improved understanding of climate change impacts should also be used to incorporate climate change considerations into agriculture planning and policy at the country level. Though rural development projects include irr ...PermalinkGerman Government, 2012This publication aims to pinpoint commonalities between disaster risk management and adaptation to climate change. It describes the experience gathered from German development cooperation’s work in seven countries, which we see as a stimulus to aim for more effective and efficient interaction between the two fields and to work towards a significant reduction of risk in our partner countries by implementing risk management measures adapted to the respective conditions.PermalinkClimate change is a serious threat to crop productivity in regions that are already food insecure. We assessed the projected impacts of climate change on the yield of eight major crops in Africa and South Asia using a systematic review and meta-analysis of data in 52 original publications from an initial screen of 1144 studies. Here we show that the projected mean change in yield of all crops is 8% by the 2050s in both regions. Across Africa, mean yield changes of 17% (wheat), 5% (maize), 15% (sorghum) and 10% (millet) and across South Asia of 16% (maize) and 11% (sorghum) were estimated. No m ...PermalinkThe publication provides an overview of the main issues in current adaptation discussions and suggests adaptation options in six different fields related to rural areas: (i) agriculture; (ii) forests; (iii) biodiversity; (iv) water resources; (v) coastal zones; and (vi) disaster risk management. It describes concepts and approaches for adaptation and its integration into development planning using examples from India, as well as other parts of the world, to illustrate how existing theory can be put into practice.PermalinkASP, 2012One of the most significant challenges to the global security system in the 21st Century will be a changing climate; the effects of these changes are already being felt all over the world. Climate change poses a clear and present danger to the United States through its effects on our global allies as well as its direct effects on our agriculture, infrastructure, economy and public health.PermalinkThornton Philip K.; CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) - CCAFS, 2012PermalinkRecent droughts in the midwestern United States threaten to cause global catastrophe driven by a speculator amplified food price bubble. Here we show the effect of speculators on food prices using a validated quantitative model that accurately describes historical food prices. During the last six years, high and fluctuating food prices have lead to widespread hunger and social unrest. While the spring of 2012 had a relative dip in the food prices, a massive drought in the American midwest in June and July threatens to trigger another crisis. In a previous paper, we constructed a model that qua ...PermalinkThis issue travels to Ceará State in northeastern Brazil, an area that faced increasingly frequent drought conditions, and the efforts of community organizations to develop strategies to minimize the negative impacts from droughts and adapt their livelihoods in such a way that makes families more resilient. It describes how the residents, using techniques to conserve water, enhance agricultural practices, and diversify income sources, have managed to mitigate the risk of drought.PermalinkThis issue examines the desert locust, a pest that affects the lives of millions of people in more than 65 countries throughout Africa, the Middle East, and Southwest Asia, an area that represents about 20 percent of the earth’s surface. It presents the case of Mauritania, one of several countries in West Africa, the Horn of Africa, and the Middle East to benefit from the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)’s locust prevention system known as the EMPRES Program, to which USAID and other donors contribute.PermalinkThis edition focuses on the potato as a targeted disaster risk reduction effort in western Afghanistan. By helping farmers adapting how they handle the potatoes, it describes how the USAID program is enabling farmers to grow more food to last through the cold winter months and even have a chance to sell surplus produce when prices are favorable to them. It demonstrates that a more resilient livelihood means less vulnerability to weather-related and economic shocks.PermalinkThornton P.; CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) - CCAFS, 2012^An analysis of the effects of climate change on 22 critical agricultural commodities and three important natural resources in the developing world reveals a number of cross-cutting themes: The world’s agricultural systems face an uphill struggle in feeding a projected nine to ten billion people by 2050. Climate change introduces a significant hurdle in this struggle.
- Securing and maintaining necessary levels of calories, protein and nutrients for populations around the world will be an exceptional challenge.
- Recalibrating agriculture in the face of climate change is more t ...PermalinkEnvironment and Security Initiative (ENVSEC); United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP); Zoï Environment Network (Zoï) - ENVSEC, 2012PermalinkThis study predicts the potential impacts that climate change will have on the production of maize and beans, the two most important food crops in Central America. Using state-of-the-art climate models and GIS tools, agronomic research and socio-economic analyses, it makes recommendations to climate change adaptation strategies tailored to El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. The results of the study are intended to fill a critical gap in the knowledge of the impacts of climate change on maize/bean production in Central America, in order for stakeholders to shift from a position of ...PermalinkAgriculture accounts for 30 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions. How agriculture is practised, therefore, has significant potential for mitigating climate change, providing food security and improving the livelihoods of food producers worldwide. There is growing interest in the use of market governance mechanisms for tackling climate change by giving the financial incentives to make the required changes. The key messages emerging from this study are that economic measures have a vital part to play, but to be effective, emissions from food production and consumption must be addressed to ...PermalinkAgriculture is highly sensitive to climate variability and weather extremes. Various impact studies have considered the effects of projected long-run trends in temperature, precipitation and carbon dioxide concentrations caused by climate change on global food production and prices. However, according to this study, an area that remains underexplored is the food price impacts that may result from an expected increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. The study uses a global dynamic multi-region computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to explore the potential food pri ...PermalinkCCAFS, 2012The document attempts to distil what is currently known about the likely impacts of climate change on the commodities and natural resources that comprise the mandate of CGIAR and its 15 Centres. It was designed as one background document for a review carried out by the High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition (HLPE) at the behest of the UN Committee on World Food Security (CFS) on what is known about the likely effects of climate change on food security and nutrition, with a focus on the most affected and vulnerable regions and populations. A total of 25 summaries covering 22 ...PermalinkUNESCO, 2012This collection of papers, presented at the symposium ‘Climate change, water stress, conflict and migration’ held on 21 September 2011 in the Netherlands, highlight how climate change, water stress and other environmental problems threaten human security. For example, the paper by Muniruzzaman ilustrates how water ignores political and community boundaries, and how decisions in one place can significantly affect water use elsewhere. India’s plans to build more dams could, for instance, have devastating affects for Pakistan’s agricultural productivity which is highly dependent on water supply f ...PermalinkAchieving food security under climate change is one of the biggest challenges of the 21st century. The challenge becomes even greater when contextualised within our current limited understanding of how the food system functions as a complex, adaptive socioecological system, with food security as one of its outcomes. Adding climate change into this already complex and uncertain mix creates a ‘wicked problem’ that must be solved through the development of adaptive food governance. The thesis has 4 key aims: 1. To move beyond an understanding of food security that is dependent solely on agricultu ...PermalinkIslamic Relief Worldwide, 2012This report shows the positive difference Islamic Relief Worldwide is beginning to make in the area of disaster risk reduction (DRR) by highlighting how village disaster committees and earthworks to raise people’s houses have reduced the impact of seasonal flooding in north-western Bangladesh. It shows how irrigated vegetable growing and microfinance loans for small businesses are helping former pastoralists to build new livelihoods in north-eastern Kenya that are less vulnerable to drought. It provides evidence that being better prepared can save money as well as lives and shows that it can b ...PermalinkThis concept paper aims at: (i) providing the background information on climate risks in Indonesia; (ii) describing in detail the Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) frameworks and the Climate Risk Management (CRM) concept; (iii) discussing advantages and challenges of adopting the CRM methodology; (iv) reviewing examples and good practices of projects that incorporate both CCA and DRR components in Indonesia; and (v) finally highlighting strategic entry points for a joint CCA/DRR approach in Indonesia. It is intended to offer the Government of Indonesia a practic ...PermalinkEmissions from human activities are changing the ocean’s chemistry and temperature in ways that threaten the livelihoods of those who depend on fish and seafood for all or part of their diets. The changes may reduce the amount of wild caught seafood that can be supplied by the oceans and also redistribute species, changing the locations at which seafood can be caught and creating instability for ocean-based food security, or seafood security. This report ranks nations based on the seafood security hardships they may experience by the middle of this century due to changing ocean conditions from ...PermalinkNational Drought Mitigation Center ; United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) - University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), 2012This guide is designed to help rangeland managers to better prepare for and manage drought. For ranchers in the United States, drought can be defined as too little soil moisture to meet the needs of dominant forage species during their rapid growth windows. The longer you wait to make decisions, the fewer options you will have available to you and producers who focus on increasing flexibility and maximizing the health of resources are more likely to find solutions during drought that minimize painful decisions with limited resources. Accordingly, having a plan will help producers get through a ...PermalinkContinued population growth, urbanization and rising incomes are likely to continue to put pressure on food demand. International prices for most agricultural commodities are set to remain at 2010 levels or higher, at least for the next decade (OECD-FAO, 2010). Small-scale producers in many developing countries were not able to reap the benefits of high food prices during the 2007-2008 food price crises. Yet, this upward food price trend could have been an opportunity for them to increase their incomes and food security. The opportunity that high food prices could have provided as a pat ...PermalinkBigas Harriet; Axworthy Thomas S.; UN University Institute for Water, Environment and Health (UNU-INWEH); et al. - UNU, 2012In March 2011, high-level experts from around the world were invited to Toronto, Canada, to meet with members of the InterAction Council about the status of the world’s freshwater supply as it relates to global security issues (see List of Participants in this volume). These experts reported that that the global water crisis is real and that there is urgency in addressing the growing number of security risks associated with threatened water supply and quality. They also, however, expressed hope and identified opportunities that can be realized by the timely triggering of change in policies, in ...PermalinkIWMI, 2012This report addresses the effective use of available water as a way to help to improve productivity and reduce poverty in sub-Saharan Africa. It combines the practical improved water management systems and approaches, including the reduction of risks associated with climate variability through environmental risks monitoring. It documents the benefits of irrigation already been invested by farmers in small-scale irrigation, and provides practical recommendations and tools for governments, the private sector, donors and organizations to effectively support these farmer-led initiatives to improve ...PermalinkWe explore the relationship between farming practice changes made by households coping with the huge demographic, economic, and ecological changes they have seen in the last 10 years and household food security. We examine whether households that have been introducing new practices, such as improved management of crops, soil, land, water, and livestock (e.g. cover crops, micro-catchments, ridges, rotations, improved pastures, and trees) and new technologies (e.g. improved seeds, shorter-cycle and drought-tolerant varieties) are more likely to be food secure than less innovative farming househo ...PermalinkThe consequences of climate change for agriculture and food security in developing countries are of serious concern. Due to their reliance on rain-fed agriculture, both as a source of income and consumption, many low-income countries are considered to be the most vulnerable to climate change. This paper estimates the impact of climate change on food security in Tanzania. Representative climate projections are used in calibrated crop models to predict crop yield changes for 110 districts in the country. The results are in turn imposed on a highly-disaggregated, recursive dynamic economy-wide mo ...PermalinkClimate change is making extreme weather much more likely. As the 2012 drought in the USA shows, extreme weather means extreme food prices.
Our failure to slash greenhouse gas emissions presents a future of greater food price volatility, with severe consequences for the precarious lives and livelihoods of people living in poverty.
This briefing draws on new research commissioned by Oxfam which models the impact of extreme weather – like droughts, floods and heat waves – on the prices of key international staple crops in 2030. It suggests that existing research, wh ...PermalinkADB, 2012On 12 July 2012, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Plus Three intergovernmental agreement establishing the ASEAN Plus Three Emergency Rice Reserve (APTERR) entered into force. In this paper, lead author Roehlano Briones, a senior research fellow at the Philippine Institute for Development Studies, assesses the effectiveness of APTERR as a mechanism for addressing food security in light of the rising challenges of climate change and price volatility. Using Riceflow, a model of the global rice economy, he studies the possible impacts of APTERR releases on the rice market by simu ...PermalinkWinpenny James; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - UNESCO, 2012 (UNESCO Side publications series-No. 02)Water makes a critical contribution to all aspects of personal welfare and economic life. However, global water resources are coming under increasing pressure. It is widely recognized that over the next few decades global drivers such as climate change, population growth and improving living standards will increase pressure on the availability, quality and distribution of water resources. Managing the impacts of these drivers to maximize social and economic welfare will require intelligent policy and management responses at all levels of collection, production and distribution of water. The go ...PermalinkSteduto Pasquale; Hsiao Theodore C.; Fereres Elias; et al. - FAO, 2012 (FAO irrigation and drainage paper-No. 66)Food production and water use are inextricably linked. Water has always been the main factor limiting crop production in much of the world where rainfall is insufficient to meet crop demand. With the ever-increasing competition for finite water resources worldwide and the steadily rising demand for agricultural commodities, the call to improve the efficiency and productivity of water use for crop production, to ensure future food security and address the uncertainties associated with climate change, has never been more urgent.PermalinkThis report provides input into the discussions at the 2012 World Water Week in Stockholm and its special focus on water and food security. This report presents the latest thinking and new approaches to emerging and persistent challenges to achieve food security in the 21st century, including the use of early warning systems to bolster food security by reducing damages caused to agriculture by water scarcity and drought. It focuses on critical issues that have received less attention in the literature to date, such as: food waste, land acquisitions, gender aspects of agriculture, and early war ...PermalinkThis document illustrates the relationship between climate change and agriculture; reviews and demonstrates how current climate change policy responses fall short of addressing the realities of poor rural farmers who are the most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change; and paints an alternative way forward by defining Climate Resilient Sustainable Agriculture (CRSA) and suggesting recommendations to national governments. CRSA prioritises the right to food, environmental conservation, and long-term community resilience in order to reduce food insecurity at the local level, and contribute t ...PermalinkThe Management for Adaptation to Climate Change (MACC) project in Malawi is implemented by Total Land Care (TLC) with funding from the Royal Norwegian Embassy in Malawi and a 5 years time frame from 2008 to mid 2013. The key objectives of the project are to reduce deforestation, to improve household food security and incomes, and to develop rural-based enterprises. The review team found the project in line with Malawian as well as Norwegian development policy. TLC also has an extensive and good cooperation with Malawian NGOs as well as with international organisations, both in Malawi and abroa ...PermalinkThis report demonstrates that shortage of food is only part of the severe and life-threatening crisis facing children in the Sahel region of west Africa in 2012. It focuses in particular on the experience of children, and makes detailed recommendations around disaster risk reduction, nutrition, and social protection to build resilience. The report also addresses the urgent need for political ambition to change the international system and end the everyday emergencies.PermalinkThis document addresses how people in disaster prone areas of Bangladesh are at risk to lose their lives, land, and livelihoods due to floods, cyclones, earthquakes and drought, and how sustainable development and effective risk reduction can help prevent these risks. It also discusses how disasters in Bangladesh hamper the country's long-term ability to effectively tackle poverty. The document acknowledges the growing awareness among citizens that disaster risk reduction (DRR) is necessary to assist vulnerable communities; and that there needs to be a coordinated effort to undertake intensive ...PermalinkThis report analyses the connected problem of food security and climate change. It observes that a social vulnerability lens is essential to understand why certain individuals, households or communities experience differences in food insecurity risks, even when they are in the same geographic region. Examples of strategies for community-based adaptation include improving water management practices, adopting practices to conserving soil moisture, organic matter and nutrients, and setting up community-based seeds and grain banks. The report includes the following recommendations: integrate food ...PermalinkThis study investigates the choice of occupational focus versus diversification between household members in rural Bangladesh as an autonomous and proactive adaptation strategy against ex ante local rainfall variability risks. The analysis combines nationally representative household level survey data with historical climate variability information at the Upazila level. The authors note that flood prone Upazilas may face reduced risks from local rainfall variability as compared with non-flood prone Upazilas. They find that two members of the same household are less likely to be self-employed i ...PermalinkPermalinkUnited Nations, 2012Three important targets on poverty, slums and water have been met three years ahead of 2015, says this year’s Report on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Meeting the remaining targets, while challenging, is possible ─ but only if Governments do not waiver from their commitments made over a decade ago.PermalinkUNEP, 2012This report – Avoiding Future Famines: Strengthening the Ecological Basis of Food Security through
Sustainable Food Systems - has been a unique collaboration of 12 leading scientists and
experts involved in world food systems including marine and inland fisheries.
The institutions involved include the UN Environment Programme, the International Fund
for Agricultural Development, the Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations,
the World Bank, the World Food Programme and the World Resources Institute. The report provides
detai ...PermalinkThis position paper outlines how, through the Global Framework for Climate Services experts from various disciplines and regions will work together to develop science-based climate and environmental information tailored to end-users’ needs for the purpose of increasing agricultural productivity to improve food security and reduce hunger; Improving and optimizing management of water resources to provide sustainable access to freshwater for drinking, irrigation and household use; Reducing the risk of disasters and other climate hazards, the cost of which often burdens developing and least develo ...PermalinkAs a follow-up to a first paper A preliminary analysis of flood and storm disaster data in Viet Nam, this Quang Binh case study provides a more in-depth disaster profile of one particular province in Viet Nam, including specific temporal and spatial distribution patterns while using district aggregated data. It also looks deeper into the relationship between disasters and poverty through analysis of various indicators: number of deaths, impact on housing and agricultural produce, poverty rate and the percentage of poor households.
The first part of this paper examines the disas ...PermalinkAligning with the priorities outlined in the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015: Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters, this plan responds to the need to develop a longer-term strategic approach that helps articulate funding and program priorities to allow for comprehensive disaster programming that reduces future humanitarian needs in the Southern Africa region. It presents the disaster risk reduction DRR activities selected for implementation in coordination with other USG agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), U.N. agencies, other donors, higher educati ...PermalinkThis paper addresses the crisis in the Horn of Africa in 2011 and the need to enable communities to withstand droughts and move forward by building resilience and fostering sustainable growth. It presents USAID's vision for change through: (i) key principles, such as early action in response to early warning, connecting humanitarian and development programmes, fostering women's empowerment, ensuring evidence-based decision making and supporting and strengthening local, national, and regional capacities; and (ii) a new way of doing business, which includes joint planning, joint focus on resilie ...PermalinkTogether, both women and men play a significant role in safeguarding food security. It is important to understand their respective roles and responsibilities to ensure that they benefit equally from climate-smart agriculture practices. However, insufficient research has been undertaken to understand how they are adapting to climate change, mitigating emissions and maintaining food security. To address the gap, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security have jointly come up with this training guide. Its ...PermalinkStarting with an overview of the concept of climate change, the course then looks at its impact on food security. After examining strategies for mitigating or adapting to the effects of climate change, it suggests concrete ways to make sure agriculture is “climate smart”.
The course is aimed at policy makers and people working in development agencies, who need to better understand how climate change affects agriculture and food systems, and what concrete actions can be taken.
The course also includes face to face training materials, such as exercises, trainer’s no ...PermalinkНастоящий позиционный документ содержит информацию о том, как при помощи Глобальная рамочная основа для климатического обслуживания основы экс-перты в различных областях и из различных регионов смогут сотрудничать для подготовки научно обосно-ванной информации о климате и окружающей среде,ориентированной на потребности конечных поль-зователей, с целью: увеличения продуктивности сельского хозяй-ства для повышения продовольственной безо-пасности и искоренения голода; улучшения и оптимизации водохозяйственной деятельности для обеспечения устойчивого доступа к пресной воде, годной для питья, ирри- ...Permalink[Ce document] montre comment, par le biais du Cadre mondial, des experts de diverses disciplines et de différentes régions vont oeuvrer de concert afin de produire des informations scientifiques sur le climat et l’environnement adaptées aux besoins des utilisateurs finals, pour: Accroître la productivité agricole en vue d’améliorer la sécurité alimentaire et de réduire la faim dans le monde; Optimiser la gestion des ressources en eau afin d’offrir un accès durable à l’eau douce destinée à la consommation, à l’irrigation et aux ménages; Réduire les risques de catastrophes et d’autres périls cli ...PermalinkEn este documento se describe la forma en que los expertos en diversas disciplinas de distin¬tas regiones colaborarán, por medio del Marco Mundial para los Servicios Climáticos, para desarrollar información climática y ambiental basada en conocimientos científicos y adaptada a las necesi¬dades de los usuarios, con el fin de: aumentar la productividad agrícola para mejorar la seguridad alimentaria y luchar contra el hambre; mejorar y optimizar la gestión de los recursos hídricos para facilitar un acceso sostenible al agua dulce para su uso como agua potable, de riego y de uso doméstico; reducir ...PermalinkNations Unies, 2012Le rapport de 2011 souligne des avancées réelles dans la réalisation des Objectifs du Millénaire pour le développement notamment un déclin de la pauvreté dans le monde, reflété par un accès à l’éducation plus poussé et un recul de la mortalité infantile. Qui plus est, l’accès à l’eau potable s’est généralisé malgré l’isolement de certaines régions comme en Afrique subsaharienne, où les populations les plus pauvres en milieu rural – les plus vulnérables - sont souvent les plus dures à atteindre.
Face aux disparités demeurantes, ce rapport n’est pas sans rappeler l’engagement réitéré en s ...Permalinkis an issue of Options. IIASA, 2011One of the three global problem areas IIASA will focus on this decade.PermalinkEl doctor Salinger, ex presidente de la Comisión de Meteorología Agrícola de la OMM (2006-2010), esboza los retos de la Comisión por lo que respecta a contribuir a la seguridad alimentaria, desarrollando así el papel que ha desempeñado durante los últimos 60 años.PermalinkScience for Environment Policy, 238. EEA, 2011Diverse agricultural systems can sustainably improve food security and supply a varied, healthy diet for people, according to a recent analysis of the benefits of agricultural biodiversity. The food-based approach, when integrated with other strategies, can be used to tackle malnutrition, micronutrient deficiencies and the impact of climate change on farming.PermalinkEsporo, N° 151. CTA, 2011“A luta contra a fome não será conseguida sem eles”, afirmou o Director-Geral da FAO, na apresentação da política desta organização para o reforço da cooperação e do diálogo com as populações indígenas e tribais em todo o mundo. Esta nova política visa garantir a integração, em todas as acções da FAO, dos interesses e património de conhecimento destes povos, que constituem cerca de 5 por cento da população mundial, mas também 15 por cento dos pobres do planeta.PermalinkSpore: the magazine for agricultural and rural development in ACP countries, N° 151. CTA, 2011“The fight against hunger will not be achieved without them”, said FAO’s Director-General, presenting the organisation’s policy to strengthen cooperation and dialogue with indigenous and tribal people worldwide. The new policy seeks to take account of the interests of indigenous people in all FAO activities, and make good use of the wealth of knowledge they have to offer. Indigenous people make up 5% of the world’s population, but they account for 15% of the world’s poor.PermalinkSpore: le magazine du développement agricole et rural des pays ACP, N°151. CTA, 2011“La lutte contre la faim n’aboutira pas sans eux”, a affirmé le directeur général de la FAO lors de la présentation de la politique de l’organisation pour le renfort de la coopération et du dialogue avec les peuples autochtones et tribaux dans le monde. Cette nouvelle politique vise à garantir, dans toute action de la FAO, l’intégration des intérêts et du patrimoine de connaissances de ces peuples qui constituent près de 5 % de la population mondiale et 15 % des pauvres de la planète.PermalinkPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 369. N° 1934. Thornton Philip K.; Jones Peter G.; Ericksen Polly J.; et al. - The Royal Society, 2011Agricultural development in sub-Saharan Africa faces daunting challenges, which climate change and increasing climate variability will compound in vulnerable areas. The impacts of a changing climate on agricultural production in a world that warms by 4°C or more are likely to be severe in places. The livelihoods of many croppers and livestock keepers in Africa are associated with diversity of options. The changes in crop and livestock production that are likely to result in a 4°C+ world will diminish the options available to most smallholders. In such a world, current crop and livestock variet ...PermalinkSEI, 2011This paper for the Bonn2011 Nexus Conference presents initial evidence for how a nexus approach can enhance water, energy and food security in a green economy by increasing efficiency, reducing trade-offs, and building synergies across sectors. It also underpins the policy recommendations, which are detailed in a separate paper.PermalinkPermalinkThis report summarises current knowledge of the anticipated impacts of climate change on water availability for agriculture. It examines the implications for local and national food security and the methods and approaches for assessing climate change impacts on water and agriculture. It emphasises the need for a closer alignment between water and agricultural policies and makes the case for immediate implementation of ‘no-regrets’ strategies which have both positive development outcomes and make agricultural systems resilient to future impacts.PermalinkThe study objective of evaluating and costing the most suitable climate change adaptation measures responding to the Rwandan Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy, 2008-2012, in which climate change and its adverse impacts were recently identified as a high priority. The EDPRS highlights the establishment of criteria for secure settlements in the areas that are exposed to meteorological hazards, as well as the development and implementation of early warning systems to improve drought and food security. This study has particularly focused on coffee and banana farming systems and a ...PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; Sivakumar Mannava V.K.; Faiz S.M.A.; et al. - Springer-Verlag GmbH, 2011Selection of papers presented at the International Symposium on Climate Change and Food Security in South Asia from 25 to 29 August 2008 in Dhaka, Bangladesh, organized by WMO, FAO and the Ohio State University.PermalinkFAO-Adapt serves a double purpose. First, it systemises the adaptation activities currently underway across the organisation, which serves to ensure that all efforts can move ahead toward a clear and unified goal. This, in turn, enables FAO to present a comprehensive body of work to the outside world. The document consists of five main sections: Chapter 1 introduces the background and context of FAO-Adapt; Chapter 2 discusses climate change impacts on the agriculture sectors and food security; Chapter 3 defines adaptation in the context of the agriculture sectors and describes means and measur ...PermalinkThe objective of this report is to catalyse thinking about the ways in which agriculture – which has a vital role in global food security, development and natural resources use – can and must be fully integrated into national strategies and a consensus-based multilateral framework to address the challenges of climate change. The report brings forth questions that will occupy the world community over the next decade or more regarding the role of agriculture in climate change adaptation and mitigation. The report offers some answers and concrete proposals – while recognizing that much more needs ...PermalinkThe Commission on Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Change has reviewed the scientific evidence to identify a pathway to achieving food security in the context of climate change. Food systems must shift to better meet human needs and, in the long term, balance with planetary resources. This will demand major interventions, at local to global scales, to transform current patterns of food production, distribution and consumption. Investment, innovation, and deliberate effort to empower the world's most vulnerable populations will be required to construct a global food system that adapts to cli ...PermalinkFor developing countries, particularly LDCs (Least Developed Countries), this publication provides guidelines on enhancing the contribution of WMO and NMHSs (National Meteorological and Hydrological Services) to the achievement of the MDGs (Millenium Development Goals). Benefiting from the GFCS (Global Framework for Climate Services), NMHSs should be encouraged to use these guidelines, among others, to mainstream their activities, including generation and effective delivery of relevant weather-, climate- and water-related information and services into national sustainable development strategie ...PermalinkThe global food security and sustainable agriculture are the key challenges before the scientific community in the present era of enhanced climate variability, rapidly rising population and dwindling resources. No part of the world is immune from meteorological extremes of one sort or another posing threat to the food security. Agrometeorology has to make most efficient use of the opportunities available in achieving the objectives of enhancing productivity and maintenance of sustainability. Increased awareness and technological advancement have provided opportunities to develop efficient agro ...PermalinkThe Pacific island governments view climate change as a priority issue, especially in terms of its potential impacts on food security, but need clear directions in addressing both issues. Their agricultural production until the mid-1990s, has been stagnant for the last 45 years, and per capita agricultural production has declined in all countries. This report examines the issues of food security and climate change in the Pacific and the contributing factors based on the Pacific food security framework. It suggests focal areas of assistance for the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and other donors ...PermalinkThe Commission on Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Change has reviewed the scientific evidence to identify a pathway to achieving food security in the context of climate change. Food systems must shift to better meet human needs and, in the long term, balance with planetary resources. This will demand major interventions, at local to global scales, to transform current patterns of food production, distribution and consumption. Investment, innovation, and deliberate effort to empower the world's most vulnerable populations will be required to construct a global food system that adapts to cli ...PermalinkUNICEF, 2011Permalink, 2011The aim of the workshops was to identify, compile and analyze relevant indigenous and local observations, knowledge and practices related to understanding climate change impacts, adaptation and mitigation. The workshops will provide a key opportunity to ensure that experience, sources of information and knowledge (scientific, indigenous and local), along with data and literature (scientific and grey), focusing on vulnerable and marginalized regions of the world are made available to the authors of the IPCC 5th Assessment Report and the global community.PermalinkUnited Nations, 2011The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight targeted development aims designed to free humanity from extreme poverty, hunger, illiteracy and disease by 2015. Together, they form a blueprint for development agreed upon by all the worlds countries and all the worlds leading development institutions.
Reliable, timely and internationally comparable data on the MDG progress indicators are crucial for holding the international community to account, encouraging public support and funding for development, allocating aid effectively, and comparing progress among regions and across ...PermalinkFor a large number of developing countries, agriculture remains the single most important sector. Climate change has the potential to damage irreversibly the natural resource base on which agriculture depends, with grave consequences for food security. However, agriculture is the sector that has the potential to transcend from being a problem to becoming an essential part of the solution to climate change provided there is a more holistic vision of food security, agricultural mitigation, climate-change adaptation and agriculture’s pro-poor development contribution. What is required is a rapid ...PermalinkThis year’s report focuses on the costs of food price volatility, as well as the dangers and opportunities presented by high food prices. Climate change and an increased frequency of weather shocks, increased linkages between energy and agricultural markets due to growing demand for biofuels, and increased financialization of food and agricultural commodities all suggest that price volatility is here to stay. The report describes the effects of price volatility on food security and presents policy options to reduce volatility in a cost-effective manner and to manage it when it cannot be avoide ...PermalinkThe impacts of climate change on the global hydrological cycle are expected to vary the patterns of demand and supply of water for agriculture – the dominant user of freshwater. The extent and productivity of both irrigated and rainfed agriculture can be expected to change. As a result, the livelihoods of rural communities and the food security of a predominantly urban population are at risk from water-related impacts linked primarily to climate variability. The rural poor, who are the most vulnerable, are likely to be disproportionately affected. Adaptation measures that build upon improved l ...PermalinkUNEP/GRID, 2011Africa is currently the least urbanised region in the world, but this is changing fast. Of the billion people living on the African continent, about 40 per cent lives in urban areas. The urban population in Africa doubled from 205 million in 1990 to 400 million in 2010, and by 2050, it is expected that this would have tripled to 1.23 billion. Of this urban population, 60 per cent is living in slum conditions. In a time of such urban growth, Africa is likely to experience some of the most severe impacts of climate change, particularly when it comes to water and food security. This places huge p ...PermalinkThis report describes the crisis from Kenya’s refugee camps and Wajir in the north, as millions of people in the Horn of Africa are affected by the devastating drought and famine. The famine in Somalia that has sent a tide of refugees into the Dadaab refugee camps 100 km across the border in Kenya has recently drawn international attention, but in fact the problem has been building for years, and reached a crucial point months ago.PermalinkThis volume brings together top analysts from inside and outside FAO to examine a problem that has become increasingly relevant as food prices once again, soar to high levels. This volume stresses that countries themselves can do a great deal to safeguard food security in the event of turmoil by establishing social safety nets, emergency food reserves and other schemes to protect the poor. The book also presents guidelines on “smart subsidies”, those which provide production incentives and improve supply responsesPermalinkUNEP, 2011Against the current challenges to enhance food security worldwide, the publication aims at illustrating the importance of healthy ecosystems for the provisioning of key services that contribute to food security. Such ecosystem services are water provisioning and food production. In this regard the publication will provide an overview of the linkages between ecosystems, water, and food security. The publication further will explore how to manage ecosystems for a variety of ecosystem services such as provisioning of water and food, and how to manage ecosystems in a sustainable way so they can su ...PermalinkUNCTAD, 2011This series of publications seeks to contribute to exploring current issues in science, technology and innovation,
with particular emphasis on their impact on developing countriesPermalinkThis paper explores the reduction of food insecurity in Bolivia, adopting a supply side approach that analyzes the role of agricultural spending on vulnerability. Vulnerability to food insecurity is captured by a municipal level composite—developed locally within the framework of World Food Program food security analysis—that combines welfare outcomes, weather conditions and agricultural potential for all 327 municipalities in 2003, 2006 and 2007. Our econometric results indicate that levels of public agricultural spending are positively associated with high or very high vulnerability. The aut ...PermalinkThe report notes that women make significant contributions to the rural economy in all developing country regions.PermalinkWFP, 2011In response to a request from the Government of DPRK for food assistance, WFP, FAO, and UNICEF organized a Rapid Food Security Assessment Mission (RFSA). The assessment commenced in early February with WFP Country Office staff assessing the situation in several counties where WFP operates. Between 14 and 21 February WFP staff assessed five counties where WFP does not currently have operations. From 21 February through 11 March, an interagency UN mission made of WFP, FAO and UNICEF staff visited DPRK to: forecast the 2011 production of winter and spring crops; update the assessment of the cerea ...PermalinkThe study draws on specific examples from Africa, Asia and Latin America as well as from some developed countries to show how constraints to successfully integrating production of food and energy crops can be overcome.PermalinkThis paper investigates the potential of and constraints to a rice Green Revolution in Sub-Saharan Africa's large-scale irrigation schemes, using data from Uganda, Mozambique, Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, and Senegal. The authors find that adequate irrigation, chemical fertilizer, and labor inputs are the key to high productivity. Chemical fertilizer is expensive in Uganda and Mozambique and is barely used. This is aggravated when water access is limited because of the complementarities between fertilizer and irrigation. Meanwhile, in the schemes located in four countries in West Africa's Sahel ...PermalinkThe Foresight project Global Food and Farming Futures final report and executive summary provide an overview of the evidence and discuss the challenges and choices for policy makers and others whose interests relate to all aspects of the global food system.PermalinkEnergy, food, water, urbanisation and finance are areas significantly affected by the effects of population growth. How can the engineering profession respond to key challenges in order to ensure the provision of food, water, shelter and energy in the context of an increasing population?PermalinkWorld Economic Forum, 2011There are three “clusters” of risks that will create significant liabilities during the coming decade, according to the report, which was compiled after a survey of about 580 respondents and will form a starting point for risk-based discussions at the upcoming WEF meeting of global business and political leaders at Davos and Klosters, Switzerland, later this month.
Those clusters are macroeconomic risks, including unfunded social liabilities and weak financial markets; the illegal economy, including organized crime and corruption; and limits to growth caused by lack of resources ...PermalinkPour les pays en développement, en particulier les PMA (Pays les moins avancés), cette publication fournit des lignes directrices visant à renforcer la contribution de l'OMM et des SMHN (Services météorologiques et hydrologiques nationaux) à la réalisation des OMD (Objectifs du Millénaire pour le développement). Bénéficiant du CMSC (Cadre mondial pour les services climatologiques), les SMHN devraient être encouragés à se fonder sur ces lignes directrices pour notamment inscrire leurs activités, y compris la production et la fourniture effective d'informations et de services météorologiques, ...PermalinkNaciones Unidas, 2011Desde que fueron aprobados, los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio (ODM) han promovido la concienciación y han generado una visión más amplia, que sigue siendo el marco de referencia global de las actividades de desarrollo de las Naciones Unidas.
El presente informe se basa en una serie de datos originales reunidos por el Grupo Interinstitucional y de Expertos sobre los indicadores de los ODM, bajo la coordinación del Departamento de Asuntos Económicos y Sociales de la Secretaría de las Naciones Unidas, en respuesta a la petición de la Asamblea General de que se realicen evalu ...PermalinkEl informe del año en curso se centra en los costos de la volatilidad de los precios de los alimentos, así como en los riesgos y oportunidades que plantean los elevados precios de los alimentos. El cambio climático y la mayor frecuencia de las perturbaciones meteorológicas, el aumento de los vínculos entre los mercados energéticos y agrícolas debido a la creciente demanda de biocombustibles y el aumento de la “financierización” de los productos alimenticios y agrícolas básicos apuntan a que la volatilidad de los precios será una realidad perdurable. En este informe se describen los efectos de ...PermalinkLa presente edición de El estado mundial de la agricultura y la alimentación aborda el tema de Las mujeres en la agricultura: cerrar la brecha de género en aras del desarrollo. El sector agrícola tiene un bajo rendimiento en muchos países en desarrollo y una de las principales razones es que las mujeres no tienen igualdad de acceso a los recursos y oportunidades que necesitan para ser más productivas. El presente informe confirma claramente que los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio sobre la igualdad de género (ODM 3) y la pobreza y la seguridad alimentaria (ODM 1) se refuerzan mutuamente.Permalinkويركز تقرير هذا العام على تكاليف تقلب أسعار الأغذية والأخطار والفرص الناجمة عن ارتفاع أسعار الأغذية. فالتغيُّرات المناخية وازدياد تواتر صدمات الأحوال الجوية، وازدياد الصلات بين أسواق الطاقة والأسواق الزراعية نتيجة لازدياد الطلب على الوقود الحيوي، وازدياد التوظيف المالي للسلع الغذائية والزراعية توحي كلها بأن تقلب الأسعار سيظل مستمراً. ويبين التقرير آثار تقلب الأسعار على الأمن الغذائي، ويعرض خيارات السياسات التي يمكن بها الحد من التقلبات على نحو يتسم بفعالية التكلفة، والتكيُّف معها عندما يتعذر تلافيها.Permalink今年这份报告注重粮价波动的代价以及高粮价所带来的危险与机遇。气候变化及天气冲击的频率增加，由于对生物燃料的需求增加而促使能源与农业市场之间联系增强，粮食和农业商品的金融化程度增加，所有这些都表明价格波动会普遍化。本报告说明了价格波动对粮食安全的影响，提出了以经济有效方式减少价格波动、当无法避免时予以控制的政策方案。Permalink今年的《粮食及农业状况》涉及“农 业中的女性：填性别鸿沟 促农业发展”。 在很多发展中国家，农业领域发展不足， 其中一个主要原因便是女性没有平等地 获得提高生产力所需的资源和机会。本 报告明确说明，针对两性平等的千年发 展目标（目标3）与针对扶贫和针对粮食 安全的千年发展目标（目标1）之间是相 辅相成的。我们必须促进农业中的两性 平等并赋予妇女权力，以不断获得反饥 饿抗极端贫困之战的胜利。我坚信，实 现千年发展目标3 会有助于实现千年发 展目标1。PermalinkCCAFS, 2011Dans le système alimentaire mondialement interconnecté qui est le nôtre, le statu quo ne nous apportera ni sécurité alimentaire ni durabilité environnementale. Entre le changement climatique, la croissance démographique et l'insoutenabilité de notre consommation des ressources, plusieurs menaces convergentes imposent de plus en plus et de façon constante à l'humanité et aux gouvernements mondiaux un changement des modes de production, de distribution et de consommation de la nourriture.PermalinkCCAFS, 2011Dans le système alimentaire mondialement interconnecté qui est le nôtre, le statu quo ne nous apportera ni sécurité alimentaire ni durabilité environnementale. Entre le changement climatique, la croissance démographique et l'insoutenabilité de notre consommation des ressources, plusieurs menaces convergentes imposent de plus en plus et de façon constante à l'humanité et aux gouvernements mondiaux un changement des modes de production, de distribution et de consommation de la nourriture.PermalinkLe rapport de cette année porte sur les coûts de la volatilité des prix des denrées alimentaires ainsi que sur les dangers et les avantages des hauts niveaux de prix. Le changement climatique et la multiplication des chocs météorologiques, le renforcement des liens entre les marchés de l'énergie et les marchés agricoles lié à la demande croissante en biocarburants, et enfin, la financiarisation progressive des produits alimentaires et agricoles, sont autant de réalités qui laissent penser que la volatilité des prix n’est pas près de disparaître. Le rapport décrit les répercussions de la volati ...PermalinkИзменение климата и учащение погодных катаклизмов, усиление связи между энергетическими и сельскохозяйственных рынками из-за растущего спроса на биотопливо и увеличение финансиализации продуктов питания и сельскохозяйственной продукции, - все это означает, что волатильность цен возросла надолго. В докладе проанализированы последствия колеблемости цен с точки зрения продовольственной безопасности и представлены возможные меры политики, призванные уменьшить волатильность экономически эффективным образом и регулировать ее, когда она не может быть предотвращена.PermalinkLa présente édition de La situation mondiale de l’alimentation et de l’agriculture est consacrée au rôle de la femme dans l’agriculture et aux mesures à prendre pour combler le fossé hommes-femmes en vue de soutenir le développement. Dans de nombreux pays en développement, le secteur agricole n’est pas vraiment performant, en partie parce que les femmes n’ont pas accès aux mêmes ressources et opportunités que les hommes pour accroître leur production. La présente publication confirme, sans l’ombre d’un doute, que les objectifs du Millénaire sur l’égalité des sexes (OMD 3) et la pauvreté et la ...PermalinkPermalinkЭтот выпуск доклада «Положение дел в области продовольствия и сельского хозяйства» посвящен теме «Женщины в сельском хозяйстве: устранение гендерного разрыва в интересах развития». Сектор сельского хозяйства во многих развивающихся странах показывает низкие результаты, и одна из главных причин этого – то, что женщины не имеют равного доступа к ресурсам и возможностям, необходимым им для повышения производительности труда. В докладе убедительно подтверждается, что цели развития тысячелетия по гендерному равенству (ЦРТ-3) и продовольственной безопасности (ЦРТ-1) дополняют друг друга.PermalinkSciences au sud, 56. Institut de recherche pour le développement (IRD), 2010PermalinkThere is little doubt that trade and climate change issues have (and will continue to have) important implications for food security, both at the national and regional levels in mainland Southeast Asia. However, the relationship of trade policy and climate change to food security is not straightforward. Making the right policy choices can be difficult. In fact, the cross-cutting nature of food security is being increasingly recognized by policymakers, though a full appreciation of its complexity still needs to be reflected in policy strategies. With the help of a country case study of Cambodia ...PermalinkFAO, 2010Governments need to acknowledge that problems of undernutrition and micronutrient deficiency persist, and they should sensitize the public to the magnitude of th