Published by: WMO ; 2013
Commission for Atmospheric Sciences - Sixteenth session: Abridged final report with resolutions and recommendations
Collection(s) and Series: WMO- No. 1128
Language(s): English; Other Languages: Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian, Spanish
Format: Digital (Free)
ISBN (or other code): 978-92-63-11128-9This ninth WMO/GAW Annual GHG Bulletin reports atmospheric abundances and rates of change of the most important long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs) – carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide – and provides a summary of the contributions of the other gases. These three together with CFC-12 and CFC-11 account for approximately 96% of radiative forcing due to LLGHGs.Published by: WMO ; 2013
WMO Greenhouse Gas Bulletin (GHG Bulletin) - N°9: The State of Greenhouse Gases in the Atmosphere Based on Global Observations through 2012
This ninth WMO/GAW Annual GHG Bulletin reports atmospheric abundances and rates of change of the most important long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs) – carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide – and provides a summary of the contributions of the other gases. These three together with CFC-12 and CFC-11 account for approximately 96% of radiative forcing due to LLGHGs.
Language(s): English; Other Languages: Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian, Spanish
Format: Digital (Free), Hard copy (ill., charts)This report aims rather to contribute to a better understanding of the issues and challenges involved in drawing up baseline scenarios, by documenting and drawing lessons from the breadth of existing practices in a range of countries. This existing diversity is both a key asset for gradually increasing the robustness of baseline scenarios, but also the reason for a lack of comparability.Published by: RiceClima ; 2013
National Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baseline Scenarios: Learning from Experiences in Developing Countries
This report aims rather to contribute to a better understanding of the issues and challenges involved in drawing up baseline scenarios, by documenting and drawing lessons from the breadth of existing practices in a range of countries. This existing diversity is both a key asset for gradually increasing the robustness of baseline scenarios, but also the reason for a lack of comparability.
Format: DigitalPublished by: WMO ; 2013
Format: Digital (Free), Hard copy
ISBN (or other code): 978-92-63-11110-4Published by: 世界气象组织 (WMO) ; 2013
Collection(s) and Series: 世界气象组织 (WMO)- No. 1128
Language(s): Chinese; Other Languages: Arabic, English, French, Russian, Spanish
Format: Digital (Free)
ISBN (or other code): 978-92-63-51128-7PermalinkPermalinkPermalinkPermalinkتوفر هذه هي النشرة التاسعة من سلسلة النشرات السنوية المتعلقة بغازات الدفيئة والتي يصدرها برنامج المراقبة العالمية للغلاف الجوية ) )GAW التابع للمنظمة ) WMO ( معلومات حول وفرة أهم غازات الدفيئة الطويلة الأمد ) LLGHGs ( في الغلاف الجوي، ومعدلات تغيرها، وهي ثاني أكسيد الكربون، والميثان، وأكسيد النيتروز، كما تقدم ملخصاً يتناول مساهمات الغازات الأخرى. وتسهم هذه الغازات الثلاثة، إلى جانب الكلوروفلوروكربون ) CFC-12 (، والكلوروفلوروكربون ) )CFC-11 بنسبة 96 ٪ ] 4[ تقريباً من التأثير الإشعاعي القسري الناجم عن غازات الدفيئة ) LLGHGs.Permalink第九期WMO/GAW年度温室气体公报公布了最重要的 长生命期温室气体(LLGHG)(二氧化碳、甲烷、氧化亚氮)的 大气含量和变化速率，并提供了其它气体的贡献概况。这三种气体以及CFC-12和CFC-11共约占长生命期温室气体所造 成辐射强迫的96%.PermalinkBMO, 2013В этом девятом ежегодном бюллетене ГСА/ВМО по парниковым газам сообщается о концентрациях в атмосфере и темпах изме- нения важнейших долгоживущих парниковых газов (ДПГ) — двуокиси углерода, метана, закиси азота, а также приводится краткая информация о вкладах других газов. На эти три газа, наряду с ХФУ-12 и ХФУ-11, приходится приблизительно 96 % радиационного воздействия, обусловленного ДПГ.PermalinkEn este noveno boletín anual sobre los gases de efecto invernadero de la VAG de la OMM se informa acerca de la carga atmosférica y los índices de evolución de los principales gases de efecto invernadero de larga duración (CO2, CH4, N2O) y se resumen las contribuciones de otros gases. Esos tres gases junto con el CFC-12 y el CFC-11 contribuyen aproximadamente a un 96% del forzamiento radiativo debido a los gases de efecto invernadero de larga duración.PermalinkLe présent bulletin, le neuvième d’une série de bulletins sur les gaz à effet de serre publiés chaque année par l’OMM dans le cadre du Programme de la VAG, rend compte de l’évolution de la concentration atmosphérique des principaux gaz à effet de serre persistants (dioxyde de carbone, méthane, protoxyde d'azote) et présente un récapitulatif de la contribution des autres gaz. Avec les CFC-11 et CFC-12, ces trois gaz sont responsables de 96 % environ du forçage radiatif induit par les gaz à effet de serre persistants.Permalinkis an issue of 気象研究所技術報告. Meteorological Research Institute, 2012In this technical report, we describe a newly developed method for evaluating monthly fields of oceanic pCO2 and the subsequent temporal variations of the sea-air CO2 flux over extensive regions of the North and South Pacific by using synthesized observational data. The application of this method is expected to contribute to understanding of future changes in the ocean carbon sink and the ocean's role in controlling the rate of atmospheric CO2 increase.PermalinkLaw Rachel M.; Raupach Mickael R.; Abramowitz G. - Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, 2012The Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) model describes landatmosphere exchanges of energy, carbon, water and momentum, together with related biogeochemical, vegetation-dynamic and disturbance processes. CABLE is coupled with several climate models including the UKMO Unified Model as part of ACCESS1.3, used in CAWCR for IPCC AR5 climate projections. CABLE is also a key part of the Australian contributions to two international projects: RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessments and Processes), and LUCID (Land Use Change, IDentification of robust impacts).PermalinkPermalinkPermalinkPredicting and adapting to climate change is one of the major challenges for the twenty-first century. To better understand the future changes in precipitation associated with climate change on the global and regional scale, this thesis investigates, for the past 140 years, the time-varying impact of the major climate forcings on precipitation. To do so, the global climate is simulated between 1870 and 2005 in a transient mode with the atmospheric general circulation model “ECHAM5- HAM”. The model is forced with observationally based time-varying sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and the major ...Permalink
PermalinkThis report presents an overview of the progress achieved so far by the EU, its Member States and other EEA member countries towards their respective targets under the Kyoto Protocol and the EU burden-sharing agreement, as well as 2020 targets set at EU level. The assessment is based on greenhouse gas (GHG) emission data in Europe for the period 2008 2011, including recent EEA estimates of proxy 2011 GHG emissions.PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; International Maritime Organization (IMO); Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO); et al. - WMO, 2012The atmospheric input of chemicals to the ocean is closely related to a number of important global change issues. The increasing input of atmospheric anthropogenic nitrogen species to much of the ocean may cause a low level fertilization of the ocean that could result in an increase in marine 'new' productivity of up to ~3% and thus impact carbon drawdown from the atmosphere. However, the increase in nitrogen inputs are also likely to increase the formation of nitrous oxide in the ocean. The increased emission of this powerful greenhouse gas will partially offset the climate forcing impact res ...PermalinkTsunami Strike! Caribbean Edition offers an interactive learning experience in which learners take on the role of a journalist writing an article for a news magazine. Sixteen multimedia lessons on tsunami science, safety, and history are interwoven within the learning scenario as resources for the article. The material is aimed at middle school and high school students (ages 13-17) but will be useful to a broader audience wishing to learn more about tsunamis in general, and in particular about tsunami risks in the Caribbean.PermalinkThis module explains how climate models work. Because the modeling of both weather and climate share many similarities, the content throughout this module draws frequent comparisons and highlights the differences. We explain not only how, but why climate models differ from weather models. To do so, we explore the difference between weather and climate, then show how models are built to simulate climate and generate the statistics that describe it. We conclude with a discussion of models are tuned and tested. Understanding how climate responds to changes in atmospheric composition and other fac ...PermalinkAll 42 Parties included in Annex I to the Convention (Annex I Parties) submitted their greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory common reporting format (CRF) tables and national inventory reports (NIRs) in 2012. By the deadline of 15 April, 41 sets of CRF tables and 36 NIRs had been received. From 1990 to 2010, total aggregate GHG emissions excluding emissions/removals from land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) for all Annex I Parties decreased by 8.9 per cent, and total GHG emissions/removals including LULUCF decreased by 14.6 per cent. For Annex I Parties with economies in transition ( ...PermalinkThis eighth WMO/GAW Annual Bulletin reports on the atmospheric burdens and rates of change of the most important long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs) – carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, CFC-12 and CFC-11 – and provides a summary of the contributions of the other gases. These five major gases account for approximately 96% of radiative forcing due to LLGHGs.PermalinkClimate projections for the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) are made using the newly developed representative concentration pathways (RCPs) under the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project 5 (CMIP5). This article provides multi-model and multi-scenario temperature and precipitation projections for India for the period 1860–2099 based on the new climate data. We find that CMIP5 ensemble mean climate is closer to observed climate than any individual model. The key findings of this study are: (i) under the business-asusual (between RCP6.0 and RCP8.5 ...PermalinkThe last six years (2007–2012) show a persistent change in early summer Arctic wind patterns relative to previous decades. The persistent pattern, which has been previously recognized as the Arctic Dipole (AD), is characterized by relatively low sea-level pressure over the Siberian Arctic with high pressure over the Beaufort Sea, extending across northern North America and over Greenland. Pressure differences peak in June. In a search for a proximate cause for the newly persistent AD pattern, we note that the composite 700 hPa geopotential height field during June 2007–2012 exhibits a positive ...PermalinkEEA, 2012Greenhouse gases covered by the UNFCCC Kyoto Protocol include amongst others, three groups of fluorinated greenhouse gases (the so called 'F-gases'): hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). These F-gases typically have very long lifetimes in the atmosphere and high global warming potentials (GWPs).
The European Union Regulation (EC) No 842/2006 on certain fluorinated greenhouse gases (the 'F-Gas Regulation') introduced a requirement for each producer, importer and exporter of more than one tonne of F-gases to report to the European Commission ...PermalinkWorld Bank, 2012The purpose of this report is to improve the knowledge base for facilitating investments in land management technologies that sequester soil organic carbon. While there are many studies on soil carbon sequestration, there is no single unifying volume that synthesizes knowledge on the impact of different land management practices on soil carbon sequestration rates across the world. A meta-analysis was carried out to provide soil carbon sequestration rates in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. This is one important element in decision-making for sustainable agricultural intensification, agro-ecosy ...PermalinkEn este octavo boletín anual de la VAG se informa acerca de la carga atmosférica y los índices de evolución de los principales gases de efecto invernadero de larga duración (CO2 , CH4 , N2 O, CFC-12 y CFC-11) y se resumen las contribuciones de otros gases. Esos cinco gases principales contribuyen aproximadamente a un 96% del forzamiento radiativo debido a los gases de efecto invernadero de larga duraciónPermalinkLe présent bulletin, le huitième d’une série de bulletins annuels sur les gaz à effet de serre publiés par l’OMM dans le cadre du Programme de la VAG, rend compte de l’évolution de la concentration atmosphérique des principaux gaz à effet de serre persistants (dioxyde de carbone, méthane, protoxyde d'azote, CFC-12 et CFC-11) et présente un récapitulatif de la contribution des autres gaz. Les cinq principaux gaz contribuent pour 96 % environ au forçage radiatif induit par les gaz à effet de serre persistantsPermalinkWMO/GAW第八期年度温室气体公报给出最重要的长生命期温室气体（LLGHG）（二氧化碳、甲烷、氧化亚氮、CFC-12和CFC-11）的大气含量和变化速率，并给出其他气体的贡献概况。这五种主要气体约占由长生命期温室气体造成的辐射强迫96%.PermalinkBMO, 2012В этом восьмом ежегодном бюллетене ГСА/ВМО сообщается о содержании в атмосфере и темпах изменения важнейших долгоживущих парниковых газов (ДПГ) — двуокиси углерода, метана, закиси азота, ХФУ-12 и ХФУ-11, а также приводится крат-кая информация о вкладе в радиационное воздействие дру-гих газов на атмосферу. На эти пять основных газов приходится приблизительно 96 % радиационного воздействия на атмо-сферу, обусловленного ДПГ.PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Korhonen H.; Sihto S.-L.; Kerminen V.-M.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Several mathematical tools have been developed in recent years to analyze new particle formation rates and to estimate nucleation rates and mechanisms at sub-3 nm sizes from atmospheric aerosol data. Here we evaluate these analysis tools using 1239 numerical nucleation events for which the nucleation mechanism and formation rates were known exactly. The accuracy of the estimates of particle formation rate at 3 nm (J3) showed significant sensitivity to the details of the analysis, i.e. form of equations used and assumptions made about the initial size of nucleating clusters, with the fraction o ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Um J.; McFarquhar G.M. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011The projections of small ice crystals (with maximum dimensionPermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Córdoba-Jabonero C.; Sorribas M.; Guerrero-Rascado J.L.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011The synergetic use of meteorological information, remote sensing both ground-based active (lidar) and passive (sun-photometry) techniques together with backtrajectory analysis and in-situ measurements is devoted to the characterization of dust intrusions. A case study of air masses advected from the Saharan region to the Canary Islands and the Iberian Peninsula, located relatively close and far away from the dust sources, respectively, was considered for this purpose. The observations were performed over three Spanish geographically strategic stations within the dust-influenced area along a co ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Fiedler V.; Arnold F.; Ludmann S.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Airborne measurements of trace gases and aerosol particles have been made in two aged biomass burning (BB) plumes over the East Atlantic (Gulf of Guinea). The plumes originated from BB in the Southern-Hemisphere African savanna belt. On the day of our measurements (13 August 2006), the plumes had ages of about 10 days and were respectively located in the middle troposphere (MT) at 3900–5500 m altitude and in the upper troposphere (UT) at 10 800–11 200 m. Probably, the MT plume was lifted by dry convection and the UT plume was lifted by wet convection. In the more polluted MT-plume, numerous me ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Held A.; Brooks I.M.; Leck C.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011We present direct eddy covariance measurements of aerosol number fluxes, dominated by sub-50 nm particles, at the edge of an ice floe drifting in the central Arctic Ocean. The measurements were made during the ice-breaker borne ASCOS (Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study) expedition in August 2008 between 2°–10° W longitude and 87°–87.5° N latitude. The median aerosol transfer velocities over different surface types (open water leads, ice ridges, snow and ice surfaces) ranged from 0.27 to 0.68 mm s−1 during deposition-dominated episodes. Emission periods were observed more frequently over the open ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Markovic M.Z.; Hayden K.L.; Murphy J.G.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011The Border Air Quality and Meteorology Study (BAQS-Met) was an intensive, collaborative field campaign during the summer of 2007 that investigated the effects of transboundary pollution, local pollution, and local meteorology on air quality in southwestern Ontario. This analysis focuses on the measurements of the inorganic constituents of particulate matter with diameter of less than 1 μm (PM1), with a specific emphasis on nitrate. We evaluate the ability of AURAMS, Environment Canada's chemical transport model, to represent regional air pollution in SW Ontario by comparing modelled aerosol in ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Miyazaki Y.; Kawamura K.; Jung J.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Marine aerosol samples were collected over the western North Pacific along the latitudinal transect from 44° N to 10° N in late summer 2008 for measurements of organic nitrogen (ON) and organic carbon (OC) as well as isotopic ratios of total nitrogen (TN) and total carbon (TC). Increased concentrations of methanesulfonic acid (MSA) and diethylammonium (DEA+) at 40–44° N and subtropical regions (10–20° N) together with averaged satellite chlorophyll-a data and 5-day back trajectories suggest a significant influence of marine biological activities on aerosols in these regions. ON exhibited incre ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Tapia A.; Villanueva F.; Salgado M.S.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011A study of the kinetics and products obtained from the reactions of 3-methylfuran with the main atmospheric oxidants has been performed. The rate coefficients for the gas-phase reaction of 3-methylfuran with OH and NO3 radicals have been determined at room temperature and atmospheric pressure (air and N2 as bath gases), using a relative method with different experimental techniques. The rate coefficients obtained for these reactions were (in units cm3 molecule−1 s−1) kOH = (1.13 ± 0.22) × 10−10 and kNO3 = (1.26 ± 0.18) × 10−11. Products from the reaction of 3-methylfuran with OH, NO3 and Cl at ...PermalinkThis study compares the properties of atmospheric dust from the Saharan deserts and the Asian deserts using data from CALIPSO and AERONET during 2006 and 2007 along with simulations using a coupled climate-microphysical sectional model. Saharan deserts are largely south of 30° N, while Asian ones are primarily north of 30° N, hence they experience different meteorological regimes. Saharan dust lifting occurs all year long, primarily due to subtropical weather systems. However, Asian dust is lifted mostly in spring when mid-latitude frontal systems lead to high winds. Rainfall is more abundant ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Vakkari V.; Laakso H.; Kulmala M.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011This study is based on 18 months (20 July 2006–5 February 2008) of continuous measurements of aerosol particle size distributions, air ion size distributions, trace gas concentrations and basic meteorology in a semi-clean savannah environment in Republic of South Africa. New particle formation and growth was observed on 69% of the days and bursts of non-growing ions/sub-10 nm particles on additional 14% of the days. This new particle formation frequency is the highest reported from boundary layer so far. Also the new particle formation and growth rates were among the highest reported in the li ...PermalinkEsporo, N° 151. CTA, 2011De acordo com um estudo realizado, seria possível diminuir o total das emissões relacionadas com o gado, em cerca de 12%, mediante simples melhoramentos na produção.PermalinkSpore: the magazine for agricultural and rural development in ACP countries, N° 151. CTA, 2011Some 12% of total livestock-related emissions could be cut with simple improvements in production, says a study.PermalinkSpore: le magazine du développement agricole et rural des pays ACP, N°151. CTA, 2011D’après une étude, quelque 12 % des émissions totales imputables au bétail pourraient être supprimés grâce à de simples améliorations de la production, incluant l’adoption de pâtures plus nutritives et l’ajout de faibles quantités de résidus de récoltes ou de céréales.PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 5. Helfter C.; Famulari D.; Phillips G.J.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Johnson M.S.; Meskhidze N.; Kiliyanpilakkil V.P.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011The supply of bioavailable iron to the high-nitrate low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters of the Southern Ocean through atmospheric pathways could stimulate phytoplankton blooms and have major implications for the global carbon cycle. In this study, model results and remotely-sensed data are analyzed to examine the horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust and quantify the effect of iron-laden mineral dust deposition on marine biological productivity in the surface waters of the South Atlantic Ocean (SAO). Model simulations for the atmospheric transport and deposition of mineral du ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Brock C.A.; Cozic J.; Bahreini R.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011We present an overview of the background, scientific goals, and execution of the Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC) project of April 2008. We then summarize airborne measurements, made in the troposphere of the Alaskan Arctic, of aerosol particle size distributions, composition, and optical properties and discuss the sources and transport of the aerosols. The aerosol data were grouped into four categories based on gas-phase composition. First, the background troposphere contained a relatively diffuse, sulfate-rich aerosol extending from the top of the sea ...Permalink