Published by: WMO ; 2013
Commission for Atmospheric Sciences - Sixteenth session: Abridged final report with resolutions and recommendations
Collection(s) and Series: WMO- No. 1128
Language(s): English; Other Languages: Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian, Spanish
Format: Digital (Free)
ISBN (or other code): 978-92-63-11128-9This ninth WMO/GAW Annual GHG Bulletin reports atmospheric abundances and rates of change of the most important long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs) – carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide – and provides a summary of the contributions of the other gases. These three together with CFC-12 and CFC-11 account for approximately 96% of radiative forcing due to LLGHGs.Published by: WMO ; 2013
WMO Greenhouse Gas Bulletin (GHG Bulletin) - N°9: The State of Greenhouse Gases in the Atmosphere Based on Global Observations through 2012
This ninth WMO/GAW Annual GHG Bulletin reports atmospheric abundances and rates of change of the most important long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs) – carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide – and provides a summary of the contributions of the other gases. These three together with CFC-12 and CFC-11 account for approximately 96% of radiative forcing due to LLGHGs.
Language(s): English; Other Languages: Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian, Spanish
Format: Digital (Free), Hard copy (ill., charts)This report aims rather to contribute to a better understanding of the issues and challenges involved in drawing up baseline scenarios, by documenting and drawing lessons from the breadth of existing practices in a range of countries. This existing diversity is both a key asset for gradually increasing the robustness of baseline scenarios, but also the reason for a lack of comparability.Published by: RiceClima ; 2013
National Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baseline Scenarios: Learning from Experiences in Developing Countries
This report aims rather to contribute to a better understanding of the issues and challenges involved in drawing up baseline scenarios, by documenting and drawing lessons from the breadth of existing practices in a range of countries. This existing diversity is both a key asset for gradually increasing the robustness of baseline scenarios, but also the reason for a lack of comparability.
Format: DigitalPublished by: WMO ; 2013
Format: Digital (Free), Hard copy
ISBN (or other code): 978-92-63-11110-4Published by: 世界气象组织 (WMO) ; 2013
Collection(s) and Series: 世界气象组织 (WMO)- No. 1128
Language(s): Chinese; Other Languages: Arabic, English, French, Russian, Spanish
Format: Digital (Free)
ISBN (or other code): 978-92-63-51128-7PermalinkPermalinkPermalinkPermalinkتوفر هذه هي النشرة التاسعة من سلسلة النشرات السنوية المتعلقة بغازات الدفيئة والتي يصدرها برنامج المراقبة العالمية للغلاف الجوية ) )GAW التابع للمنظمة ) WMO ( معلومات حول وفرة أهم غازات الدفيئة الطويلة الأمد ) LLGHGs ( في الغلاف الجوي، ومعدلات تغيرها، وهي ثاني أكسيد الكربون، والميثان، وأكسيد النيتروز، كما تقدم ملخصاً يتناول مساهمات الغازات الأخرى. وتسهم هذه الغازات الثلاثة، إلى جانب الكلوروفلوروكربون ) CFC-12 (، والكلوروفلوروكربون ) )CFC-11 بنسبة 96 ٪ ] 4[ تقريباً من التأثير الإشعاعي القسري الناجم عن غازات الدفيئة ) LLGHGs.Permalink第九期WMO/GAW年度温室气体公报公布了最重要的 长生命期温室气体(LLGHG)(二氧化碳、甲烷、氧化亚氮)的 大气含量和变化速率，并提供了其它气体的贡献概况。这三种气体以及CFC-12和CFC-11共约占长生命期温室气体所造 成辐射强迫的96%.PermalinkBMO, 2013В этом девятом ежегодном бюллетене ГСА/ВМО по парниковым газам сообщается о концентрациях в атмосфере и темпах изме- нения важнейших долгоживущих парниковых газов (ДПГ) — двуокиси углерода, метана, закиси азота, а также приводится краткая информация о вкладах других газов. На эти три газа, наряду с ХФУ-12 и ХФУ-11, приходится приблизительно 96 % радиационного воздействия, обусловленного ДПГ.PermalinkEn este noveno boletín anual sobre los gases de efecto invernadero de la VAG de la OMM se informa acerca de la carga atmosférica y los índices de evolución de los principales gases de efecto invernadero de larga duración (CO2, CH4, N2O) y se resumen las contribuciones de otros gases. Esos tres gases junto con el CFC-12 y el CFC-11 contribuyen aproximadamente a un 96% del forzamiento radiativo debido a los gases de efecto invernadero de larga duración.PermalinkLe présent bulletin, le neuvième d’une série de bulletins sur les gaz à effet de serre publiés chaque année par l’OMM dans le cadre du Programme de la VAG, rend compte de l’évolution de la concentration atmosphérique des principaux gaz à effet de serre persistants (dioxyde de carbone, méthane, protoxyde d'azote) et présente un récapitulatif de la contribution des autres gaz. Avec les CFC-11 et CFC-12, ces trois gaz sont responsables de 96 % environ du forçage radiatif induit par les gaz à effet de serre persistants.Permalinkis an issue of 気象研究所技術報告. Meteorological Research Institute, 2012In this technical report, we describe a newly developed method for evaluating monthly fields of oceanic pCO2 and the subsequent temporal variations of the sea-air CO2 flux over extensive regions of the North and South Pacific by using synthesized observational data. The application of this method is expected to contribute to understanding of future changes in the ocean carbon sink and the ocean's role in controlling the rate of atmospheric CO2 increase.PermalinkLaw Rachel M.; Raupach Mickael R.; Abramowitz G. - Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, 2012The Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) model describes landatmosphere exchanges of energy, carbon, water and momentum, together with related biogeochemical, vegetation-dynamic and disturbance processes. CABLE is coupled with several climate models including the UKMO Unified Model as part of ACCESS1.3, used in CAWCR for IPCC AR5 climate projections. CABLE is also a key part of the Australian contributions to two international projects: RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessments and Processes), and LUCID (Land Use Change, IDentification of robust impacts).PermalinkPermalinkPermalinkPredicting and adapting to climate change is one of the major challenges for the twenty-first century. To better understand the future changes in precipitation associated with climate change on the global and regional scale, this thesis investigates, for the past 140 years, the time-varying impact of the major climate forcings on precipitation. To do so, the global climate is simulated between 1870 and 2005 in a transient mode with the atmospheric general circulation model “ECHAM5- HAM”. The model is forced with observationally based time-varying sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and the major ...Permalink
PermalinkThis report presents an overview of the progress achieved so far by the EU, its Member States and other EEA member countries towards their respective targets under the Kyoto Protocol and the EU burden-sharing agreement, as well as 2020 targets set at EU level. The assessment is based on greenhouse gas (GHG) emission data in Europe for the period 2008 2011, including recent EEA estimates of proxy 2011 GHG emissions.PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; International Maritime Organization (IMO); Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO); et al. - WMO, 2012The atmospheric input of chemicals to the ocean is closely related to a number of important global change issues. The increasing input of atmospheric anthropogenic nitrogen species to much of the ocean may cause a low level fertilization of the ocean that could result in an increase in marine 'new' productivity of up to ~3% and thus impact carbon drawdown from the atmosphere. However, the increase in nitrogen inputs are also likely to increase the formation of nitrous oxide in the ocean. The increased emission of this powerful greenhouse gas will partially offset the climate forcing impact res ...PermalinkTsunami Strike! Caribbean Edition offers an interactive learning experience in which learners take on the role of a journalist writing an article for a news magazine. Sixteen multimedia lessons on tsunami science, safety, and history are interwoven within the learning scenario as resources for the article. The material is aimed at middle school and high school students (ages 13-17) but will be useful to a broader audience wishing to learn more about tsunamis in general, and in particular about tsunami risks in the Caribbean.PermalinkThis module explains how climate models work. Because the modeling of both weather and climate share many similarities, the content throughout this module draws frequent comparisons and highlights the differences. We explain not only how, but why climate models differ from weather models. To do so, we explore the difference between weather and climate, then show how models are built to simulate climate and generate the statistics that describe it. We conclude with a discussion of models are tuned and tested. Understanding how climate responds to changes in atmospheric composition and other fac ...PermalinkAll 42 Parties included in Annex I to the Convention (Annex I Parties) submitted their greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory common reporting format (CRF) tables and national inventory reports (NIRs) in 2012. By the deadline of 15 April, 41 sets of CRF tables and 36 NIRs had been received. From 1990 to 2010, total aggregate GHG emissions excluding emissions/removals from land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) for all Annex I Parties decreased by 8.9 per cent, and total GHG emissions/removals including LULUCF decreased by 14.6 per cent. For Annex I Parties with economies in transition ( ...PermalinkThis eighth WMO/GAW Annual Bulletin reports on the atmospheric burdens and rates of change of the most important long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs) – carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, CFC-12 and CFC-11 – and provides a summary of the contributions of the other gases. These five major gases account for approximately 96% of radiative forcing due to LLGHGs.PermalinkClimate projections for the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) are made using the newly developed representative concentration pathways (RCPs) under the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project 5 (CMIP5). This article provides multi-model and multi-scenario temperature and precipitation projections for India for the period 1860–2099 based on the new climate data. We find that CMIP5 ensemble mean climate is closer to observed climate than any individual model. The key findings of this study are: (i) under the business-asusual (between RCP6.0 and RCP8.5 ...PermalinkThe last six years (2007–2012) show a persistent change in early summer Arctic wind patterns relative to previous decades. The persistent pattern, which has been previously recognized as the Arctic Dipole (AD), is characterized by relatively low sea-level pressure over the Siberian Arctic with high pressure over the Beaufort Sea, extending across northern North America and over Greenland. Pressure differences peak in June. In a search for a proximate cause for the newly persistent AD pattern, we note that the composite 700 hPa geopotential height field during June 2007–2012 exhibits a positive ...PermalinkEEA, 2012Greenhouse gases covered by the UNFCCC Kyoto Protocol include amongst others, three groups of fluorinated greenhouse gases (the so called 'F-gases'): hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). These F-gases typically have very long lifetimes in the atmosphere and high global warming potentials (GWPs).
The European Union Regulation (EC) No 842/2006 on certain fluorinated greenhouse gases (the 'F-Gas Regulation') introduced a requirement for each producer, importer and exporter of more than one tonne of F-gases to report to the European Commission ...PermalinkWorld Bank, 2012The purpose of this report is to improve the knowledge base for facilitating investments in land management technologies that sequester soil organic carbon. While there are many studies on soil carbon sequestration, there is no single unifying volume that synthesizes knowledge on the impact of different land management practices on soil carbon sequestration rates across the world. A meta-analysis was carried out to provide soil carbon sequestration rates in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. This is one important element in decision-making for sustainable agricultural intensification, agro-ecosy ...PermalinkEn este octavo boletín anual de la VAG se informa acerca de la carga atmosférica y los índices de evolución de los principales gases de efecto invernadero de larga duración (CO2 , CH4 , N2 O, CFC-12 y CFC-11) y se resumen las contribuciones de otros gases. Esos cinco gases principales contribuyen aproximadamente a un 96% del forzamiento radiativo debido a los gases de efecto invernadero de larga duraciónPermalinkLe présent bulletin, le huitième d’une série de bulletins annuels sur les gaz à effet de serre publiés par l’OMM dans le cadre du Programme de la VAG, rend compte de l’évolution de la concentration atmosphérique des principaux gaz à effet de serre persistants (dioxyde de carbone, méthane, protoxyde d'azote, CFC-12 et CFC-11) et présente un récapitulatif de la contribution des autres gaz. Les cinq principaux gaz contribuent pour 96 % environ au forçage radiatif induit par les gaz à effet de serre persistantsPermalinkWMO/GAW第八期年度温室气体公报给出最重要的长生命期温室气体（LLGHG）（二氧化碳、甲烷、氧化亚氮、CFC-12和CFC-11）的大气含量和变化速率，并给出其他气体的贡献概况。这五种主要气体约占由长生命期温室气体造成的辐射强迫96%.PermalinkBMO, 2012В этом восьмом ежегодном бюллетене ГСА/ВМО сообщается о содержании в атмосфере и темпах изменения важнейших долгоживущих парниковых газов (ДПГ) — двуокиси углерода, метана, закиси азота, ХФУ-12 и ХФУ-11, а также приводится крат-кая информация о вкладе в радиационное воздействие дру-гих газов на атмосферу. На эти пять основных газов приходится приблизительно 96 % радиационного воздействия на атмо-сферу, обусловленного ДПГ.PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Korhonen H.; Sihto S.-L.; Kerminen V.-M.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Several mathematical tools have been developed in recent years to analyze new particle formation rates and to estimate nucleation rates and mechanisms at sub-3 nm sizes from atmospheric aerosol data. Here we evaluate these analysis tools using 1239 numerical nucleation events for which the nucleation mechanism and formation rates were known exactly. The accuracy of the estimates of particle formation rate at 3 nm (J3) showed significant sensitivity to the details of the analysis, i.e. form of equations used and assumptions made about the initial size of nucleating clusters, with the fraction o ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Um J.; McFarquhar G.M. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011The projections of small ice crystals (with maximum dimensionPermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Córdoba-Jabonero C.; Sorribas M.; Guerrero-Rascado J.L.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011The synergetic use of meteorological information, remote sensing both ground-based active (lidar) and passive (sun-photometry) techniques together with backtrajectory analysis and in-situ measurements is devoted to the characterization of dust intrusions. A case study of air masses advected from the Saharan region to the Canary Islands and the Iberian Peninsula, located relatively close and far away from the dust sources, respectively, was considered for this purpose. The observations were performed over three Spanish geographically strategic stations within the dust-influenced area along a co ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Fiedler V.; Arnold F.; Ludmann S.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Airborne measurements of trace gases and aerosol particles have been made in two aged biomass burning (BB) plumes over the East Atlantic (Gulf of Guinea). The plumes originated from BB in the Southern-Hemisphere African savanna belt. On the day of our measurements (13 August 2006), the plumes had ages of about 10 days and were respectively located in the middle troposphere (MT) at 3900–5500 m altitude and in the upper troposphere (UT) at 10 800–11 200 m. Probably, the MT plume was lifted by dry convection and the UT plume was lifted by wet convection. In the more polluted MT-plume, numerous me ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Held A.; Brooks I.M.; Leck C.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011We present direct eddy covariance measurements of aerosol number fluxes, dominated by sub-50 nm particles, at the edge of an ice floe drifting in the central Arctic Ocean. The measurements were made during the ice-breaker borne ASCOS (Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study) expedition in August 2008 between 2°–10° W longitude and 87°–87.5° N latitude. The median aerosol transfer velocities over different surface types (open water leads, ice ridges, snow and ice surfaces) ranged from 0.27 to 0.68 mm s−1 during deposition-dominated episodes. Emission periods were observed more frequently over the open ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Markovic M.Z.; Hayden K.L.; Murphy J.G.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011The Border Air Quality and Meteorology Study (BAQS-Met) was an intensive, collaborative field campaign during the summer of 2007 that investigated the effects of transboundary pollution, local pollution, and local meteorology on air quality in southwestern Ontario. This analysis focuses on the measurements of the inorganic constituents of particulate matter with diameter of less than 1 μm (PM1), with a specific emphasis on nitrate. We evaluate the ability of AURAMS, Environment Canada's chemical transport model, to represent regional air pollution in SW Ontario by comparing modelled aerosol in ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Miyazaki Y.; Kawamura K.; Jung J.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Marine aerosol samples were collected over the western North Pacific along the latitudinal transect from 44° N to 10° N in late summer 2008 for measurements of organic nitrogen (ON) and organic carbon (OC) as well as isotopic ratios of total nitrogen (TN) and total carbon (TC). Increased concentrations of methanesulfonic acid (MSA) and diethylammonium (DEA+) at 40–44° N and subtropical regions (10–20° N) together with averaged satellite chlorophyll-a data and 5-day back trajectories suggest a significant influence of marine biological activities on aerosols in these regions. ON exhibited incre ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Tapia A.; Villanueva F.; Salgado M.S.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011A study of the kinetics and products obtained from the reactions of 3-methylfuran with the main atmospheric oxidants has been performed. The rate coefficients for the gas-phase reaction of 3-methylfuran with OH and NO3 radicals have been determined at room temperature and atmospheric pressure (air and N2 as bath gases), using a relative method with different experimental techniques. The rate coefficients obtained for these reactions were (in units cm3 molecule−1 s−1) kOH = (1.13 ± 0.22) × 10−10 and kNO3 = (1.26 ± 0.18) × 10−11. Products from the reaction of 3-methylfuran with OH, NO3 and Cl at ...PermalinkThis study compares the properties of atmospheric dust from the Saharan deserts and the Asian deserts using data from CALIPSO and AERONET during 2006 and 2007 along with simulations using a coupled climate-microphysical sectional model. Saharan deserts are largely south of 30° N, while Asian ones are primarily north of 30° N, hence they experience different meteorological regimes. Saharan dust lifting occurs all year long, primarily due to subtropical weather systems. However, Asian dust is lifted mostly in spring when mid-latitude frontal systems lead to high winds. Rainfall is more abundant ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Vakkari V.; Laakso H.; Kulmala M.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011This study is based on 18 months (20 July 2006–5 February 2008) of continuous measurements of aerosol particle size distributions, air ion size distributions, trace gas concentrations and basic meteorology in a semi-clean savannah environment in Republic of South Africa. New particle formation and growth was observed on 69% of the days and bursts of non-growing ions/sub-10 nm particles on additional 14% of the days. This new particle formation frequency is the highest reported from boundary layer so far. Also the new particle formation and growth rates were among the highest reported in the li ...PermalinkEsporo, N° 151. CTA, 2011De acordo com um estudo realizado, seria possível diminuir o total das emissões relacionadas com o gado, em cerca de 12%, mediante simples melhoramentos na produção.PermalinkSpore: the magazine for agricultural and rural development in ACP countries, N° 151. CTA, 2011Some 12% of total livestock-related emissions could be cut with simple improvements in production, says a study.PermalinkSpore: le magazine du développement agricole et rural des pays ACP, N°151. CTA, 2011D’après une étude, quelque 12 % des émissions totales imputables au bétail pourraient être supprimés grâce à de simples améliorations de la production, incluant l’adoption de pâtures plus nutritives et l’ajout de faibles quantités de résidus de récoltes ou de céréales.PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 5. Helfter C.; Famulari D.; Phillips G.J.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Johnson M.S.; Meskhidze N.; Kiliyanpilakkil V.P.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011The supply of bioavailable iron to the high-nitrate low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters of the Southern Ocean through atmospheric pathways could stimulate phytoplankton blooms and have major implications for the global carbon cycle. In this study, model results and remotely-sensed data are analyzed to examine the horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust and quantify the effect of iron-laden mineral dust deposition on marine biological productivity in the surface waters of the South Atlantic Ocean (SAO). Model simulations for the atmospheric transport and deposition of mineral du ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Brock C.A.; Cozic J.; Bahreini R.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011We present an overview of the background, scientific goals, and execution of the Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC) project of April 2008. We then summarize airborne measurements, made in the troposphere of the Alaskan Arctic, of aerosol particle size distributions, composition, and optical properties and discuss the sources and transport of the aerosols. The aerosol data were grouped into four categories based on gas-phase composition. First, the background troposphere contained a relatively diffuse, sulfate-rich aerosol extending from the top of the sea ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Barletta B.; Nissenson P.; Meinardi S.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011This work presents results from the NASA Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) study. Whole air samples were obtained on board research flights that flew over California during June 2008 and analyzed for selected volatile organic compounds, including several halogenated species. Samples collected over the South Coast Air Basin of California (SoCAB), which includes much of Los Angeles (LA) County, were compared with samples from inflow air masses over the Pacific Ocean. The levels of many halocarbon species were enhanced significantly over t ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Huntrieser H.; Schlager H.; Lichtenstern M.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011During the "African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis" (AMMA) field phase in August 2006, a variety of measurements focusing on deep convection were performed over West Africa. The German research aircraft Falcon based in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) investigated the chemical composition in the outflow of large mesoscale convective systems (MCS). Here we analyse two different types of MCS originating north and south of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ, ~10° N), respectively. In addition to the airborne trace gas measurements, stroke measurements from the Lightning Location Network (LINE ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Foucher P.Y.; Chédin A.; Armante R.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Major limitations of our present knowledge of the global distribution of CO2 in the atmosphere are the uncertainty in atmospheric transport and the sparseness of in situ concentration measurements. Limb viewing spaceborne sounders such as the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS) offer a vertical resolution of a few kilometres for profiles, which is much better than currently flying or planned nadir sounding instruments can achieve. After having demonstrated the feasibility of obtaining CO2 vertical profiles in the 5–25 km altitude range with an accuracy of ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Emeis S.; Forkel R.; Junkermann W.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011The spatial structure and the progression speed of the first ash layer from the Icelandic Eyjafjallajökull volcano which reached Germany on 16/17 April is investigated from remote sensing data and numerical simulations. The ceilometer network of the German Meteorological Service was able to follow the progression of the ash layer over the whole of Germany. This first ash layer turned out to be a rather shallow layer of only several hundreds of metres thickness which was oriented slantwise in the middle troposphere and which was brought downward by large-scale sinking motion over Southern Germa ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Bon D.M.; Ulbrich I.M.; de Gouw J.A.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Volatile organic compound (VOC) mixing ratios were measured with two different instruments at the T1 ground site in Mexico City during the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign in March of 2006. A gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) quantified 18 light alkanes, alkenes and acetylene while a proton-transfer-reaction ion-trap mass spectrometer (PIT-MS) quantified 12 VOC species including oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) and aromatics. A GC separation system was used in conjunction with the PIT-MS (GC-PIT-MS) to evaluate PIT-MS measurements an ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Amato F.; Viana M.; Richard A.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Size and time-resolved roadside enrichments of atmospheric particulate pollutants in PM10 were detected and quantified in a Mediterranean urban environment (Barcelona, Spain). Simultaneous data from one urban background (UB), one traffic (T) and one heavy traffic (HT) location were analysed, and roadside PM10 enrichments (RE) in a number of elements arising from vehicular emissions were calculated. Tracers of primary traffic emissions (EC, Fe, Ba, Cu, Sb, Cr, Sn) showed the largest REs (>70%). Other traffic tracers (Zr, Cd) showed lower but still consistent REs (25–40%), similar to those obtai ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Ci Z.J.; Zhang X.S.; Wang Z.W.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011The Yellow Sea, surrounded by East China and the Korea Peninsula, is a potentially important receptor for anthropogenic mercury (Hg) emissions from East Asia. However, there is little documentation about the distribution and cycle of Hg in this marine system. During the cruise covering the Yellow Sea in July 2010, gaseous elemental mercury (GEM or Hg(0)) in the atmosphere, total Hg (THg), reactive Hg (RHg) and dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM, largely Hg(0)) in the waters were measured aboard the R/V Kexue III. The mean (±SD) concentration of GEM over the entire cruise was 2.61 ± 0.50 ng m−3 (ra ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Feng L.; Palmer P.I.; Yang Y.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011We evaluate the GEOS-Chem atmospheric transport model (v8-02-01) of CO2 over 2003–2006, driven by GEOS-4 and GEOS-5 meteorology from the NASA Goddard Global Modeling and Assimilation Office, using surface, aircraft and space-borne concentration measurements of CO2. We use an established ensemble Kalman Filter to estimate a posteriori biospheric+biomass burning (BS + BB) and oceanic (OC) CO2 fluxes from 22 geographical regions, following the TransCom-3 protocol, using boundary layer CO2 data from a subset of GLOBALVIEW surface sites. Global annual net BS + BB + OC CO2 fluxes over 2004–2006 for ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Ebert M.; Worringen A.; Benker N.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011During an intensive campaign at the high alpine research station Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, in February/March 2006 ice particle residuals within mixed-phase clouds were sampled using the Ice-counterflow virtual impactor (Ice-CVI). Size, morphology, chemical composition, mineralogy and mixing state of the ice residual and the interstitial (i.e., non-activated) aerosol particles were analyzed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Ice nuclei (IN) were identified from the significant enrichment of particle groups in the ice residual (IR) samples relative to the interstitial aerosol. In ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Gilardoni S.; Vignati E.; Marmer E.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011The quantification of sources of carbonaceous aerosol is important to understand their atmospheric concentrations and regulating processes and to study possible effects on climate and air quality, in addition to develop mitigation strategies.
In the framework of the European Integrated Project on Aerosol Cloud Climate Interactions (EUCAARI) fine (DpPermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Wu D.L.; Chae J.H.; Lambert A.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011A research algorithm is developed for noise evaluation and feature detection of the CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) Level 1 (L1) backscatter data with an emphasis on cloud/aerosol features in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS). CALIOP measurement noise of the version v2.01 and v2.02 L1 backscatter data aggregated to (5 km) horizontal resolution is analyzed with two approaches in this study. One is to compare the observed and modeled molecular scatter profiles by scaling the modeled profile (with a fitted scaling factor α) to the observed clear-sky ba ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Flechard C.R.; Nemitz E.; Smith R.I.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Inferential models have long been used to determine pollutant dry deposition to ecosystems from measurements of air concentrations and as part of national and regional atmospheric chemistry and transport models, and yet models still suffer very large uncertainties. An inferential network of 55 sites throughout Europe for atmospheric reactive nitrogen (Nr) was established in 2007, providing ambient concentrations of gaseous NH3, NO2, HNO3 and HONO and aerosol NH4+ and NO3− as part of the NitroEurope Integrated Project.
Network results providing modelled inorganic Nr dry deposition ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Schneising O.; Buchwitz M.; Reuter M.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases contributing to global climate change. SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT (launch 2002) was the first and is now with TANSO onboard GOSAT (launch 2009) one of only two satellite instruments currently in space whose measurements are sensitive to CO2 and CH4 concentration changes in the lowest atmospheric layers where the variability due to sources and sinks is largest.PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Russo M.R.; Marécal V.; Hoyle C.R.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Fast convective transport in the tropics can efficiently redistribute water vapour and pollutants up to the upper troposphere. In this study we compare tropical convection characteristics for the year 2005 in a range of atmospheric models, including numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, chemistry transport models (CTMs), and chemistry-climate models (CCMs). The model runs have been performed within the framework of the SCOUT-O3 (Stratospheric-Climate Links with Emphasis on the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere) project. The characteristics of tropical convection, such as seasonal c ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Rosa I.M.D.; Pereira J.M.C.; Tarantola S. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Atmospheric emissions from wildfires in Portugal were estimated yearly over the period 1990–2008 using Landsat-based burnt area maps and land cover maps, national forest inventory data, biometric models, and literature review data. Emissions were calculated as the product of area burnt, biomass loading per unit area, combustion factor, and emission factor, using land cover specific values for all variables. Uncertainty associated with each input variable was quantified with a probability density function or a standard deviation value. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of estimates were perf ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Kurtén T.; Petäjä T.; Smith J.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011The state-of-the art method for measuring atmospheric gas-phase sulfuric acid is chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) based on nitrate reagent ions. We have assessed the possible effect of the sulfuric acid molecules clustering with base molecules on CIMS measurements using computational chemistry. From the computational data, three conclusions can be drawn. First, a significant fraction of the gas-phase sulfuric acid molecules are very likely clustered with amines if the amine concentration is around or above a few ppt. Second, some fraction of these acid-amine clusters may not be cha ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Kopacz M.; Mauzerall D.L.; Wang J.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011The remote and high elevation regions of central Asia are influenced by black carbon (BC) emissions from a variety of locations. BC deposition contributes to melting of glaciers and questions exist, of both scientific and policy interest, as to the origin of the BC reaching the glaciers. We use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model to identify the location from which BC arriving at a variety of locations in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau originates. We then calculate its direct and snow-albedo radiative forcing. We analyze the seasonal variation in the origin of BC using an adjoint sensitivity ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Kuhn T.; Earle M.E.; Khalizov A.F.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011The relative roles of volume and surface nucleation were investigated for the homogeneous freezing of pure water droplets. Experiments were carried out in a cryogenic laminar aerosol flow tube using supercooled water aerosols with maximum volume densities at radii between 1 and 3 μm. Temperature- and size-dependent values of volume- and surface-based homogeneous nucleation rates between 234.8 and 236.2 K were derived using a microphysical model and aerosol phase compositions and size distributions determined from infrared extinction measurements in the flow tube. The results show that the cont ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Zieger P.; Weingartner E.; Henzing J.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011In the field, aerosol in-situ measurements are often performed under dry conditions (relative humidity RHPermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Zieger P.; Weingartner E.; Henzing J.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011In the field, aerosol in-situ measurements are often performed under dry conditions (relative humidity RHPermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Kopacz M.; Mauzerall D.L.; Wang J.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011The remote and high elevation regions of central Asia are influenced by black carbon (BC) emissions from a variety of locations. BC deposition contributes to melting of glaciers and questions exist, of both scientific and policy interest, as to the origin of the BC reaching the glaciers. We use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model to identify the location from which BC arriving at a variety of locations in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau originates. We then calculate its direct and snow-albedo radiative forcing. We analyze the seasonal variation in the origin of BC using an adjoint sensitivity ...PermalinkPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 369. N° 1934. Anderson Kevin; Bows Alice - The Royal Society, 2011The Copenhagen Accord reiterates the international community’s commitment to ‘hold the increase in global temperature below 2 degrees Celsius’. Yet its preferred focus on global emission peak dates and longer-term reduction targets, without recourse to cumulative emission budgets, belies seriously the scale and scope of mitigation necessary to meet such a commitment. Moreover, the pivotal importance of emissions from non-Annex 1 nations in shaping available space for Annex 1 emission pathways received, and continues to receive, little attention. Building on previous studies, this paper uses a ...PermalinkPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 369. N° 1934. Bowerman Niel H.A.; Frame David J.; Huntingford Chris; et al. - The Royal Society, 2011A number of recent studies have found a strong link between peak human-induced global warming and cumulative carbon emissions from the start of the industrial revolution, while the link to emissions over shorter periods or in the years 2020 or 2050 is generally weaker. However, cumulative targets appear to conflict with the concept of a ‘floor’ in emissions caused by sectors such as food production. Here, we show that the introduction of emissions floors does not reduce the importance of cumulative emissions, but may make some warming targets unachievable. For pathways that give a most likely ...Permalinkis an issue of iLEAPS Newsletter. iLEAPS, 2011The latest iLEAPS Newsletter No. 10 deals with "Terrestrial feedbacks and Earth system models".PermalinkEEA, 2011This report presents an overview of the progress achieved so far by the EU, its Member States and other EEA member countries towards their respective targets under the Kyoto Protocol and the EU burden-sharing agreement, as well as 2020 targets set at EU level. The assessment is based on greenhouse gas (GHG) emission data in Europe for the period 2008–2010, including recent EEA estimates of proxy 2010 GHG emissions.PermalinkThe aims of the meeting are to: 1) understand the role of atmospheric chemistry and composition in global atmospheric change as expressed in the Australasian region and internationally; and 2) to provide a forum for atmospheric composition researchers from different disciplines (in-situ observations, remote sensing observations, modelling) to share ideas, enhance collaboration and develop a coordinated regional approach to characterising atmospheric processes in Australasia.PermalinkRaupach Mickael R.; Harman Ian N.; Canadell Josep G. - Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, 2011There are many different ways of quantifying the broad goal of "avoidance of dangerous human interference with the climate system", including targets for global temperature rise, radiative forcing, greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations, GHG emissions in particular years, and cumulative GHG emissions ("carbon budgets"). The purpose of this report is to provide relationships between these different statements of a climate goal. Broadly, the approach is to start from target for global temperature increase above preindustrial temperatures (such as two degrees Celsius or any other target, to be met w ...PermalinkCorbin Katherine D.; Law Rachel M. - Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, 2011 (CAWCR Technical Report-No. 035)The Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator (ACCESS) is a coupled landocean-atmosphere model being developed for a wide variety of applications. One key area of research with ACCESS is the carbon cycle, in particular atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) concentrations resulting from prescribed surface fluxes. ACCESS derives its atmospheric model from the UK Met Office Unified model (UM), which included both a specific atmospheric CO2 tracer (used for climate-carbon feedback studies) as well as other generic atmospheric tracers, developed for stratospheric transpor ...PermalinkUNFCCC, 2011This report covers the in-country review of the 2011 annual submission of Iceland, coordinated by the UNFCCC secretariat, in accordance with decision 22/CMP.1. The review took place from 22 to 28 August 2011 in Reykjavik, Iceland, and was conducted by the following team of nominated experts from the UNFCCC roster of experts: generalist – Mr. Riccardo De Lauretis (Italy); energy – Mr. Norbert Nziramasanga (Zimbabwe); industrial processes – Ms. Valentina Idrissova (Kazakhstan); agriculture – Mr. Etienne Mathias (France); land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) – Mr. Sandro Federici (San ...PermalinkTsunami Strike! Pacific Edition is a scenario-based learning experience for kids from middle school through high school (approximate ages 13-17). The scenario tells the story of four main characters at different locations in the Pacific basin who are each impacted by a major tsunami that originates in Alaska’s Aleutian Islands. Over the course of the story, learners not only view the unfolding events and how each of the characters responds, but also observe how warning scientists analyze and communicate the tsunami threat. Fourteen short lessons provide interactive instruction focused on the s ...Permalink
PermalinkThe World Meteorological Organization is working in developing countries to improve atmospheric observations for climate change research.PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) - WMO, 2011 (WMO-No. 1073)Scientific evidence and new analyses demonstrate that control of black carbon particles and tropospheric ozone through rapid implementation of proven emission reduction measures would have immediate and multiple benefits for human well-being.Black carbon exists as particles in the atmosphere and is a major component of soot, it has significant human health and climate impacts.PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC); World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) ; et al. - WMO, 2011PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; Jakob Christian; Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC); et al. - WMO, 2011PermalinkDevelopment and implementation of blue carbon-based activities now requires strategic policy and incentive mechanisms to achieve coastal conservation, restoration and sustainable use, and provide disincentives to drain or damage coastal systems. A first effort to develop such a strategic program was set out in the first edition of the Blue Carbon Policy Framework. Based on additional information and current progress a revised Blue Carbon Policy Framework 2.0 has now been developed. It updates the previous version and adds a detailed coordinated program of policy objectives and activities. It o ...PermalinkThe increased pressures on the world’s natural resources and ecological systems in the past century, has been accompanied by rapid urban population growth. Urban centres themselves have ecological reputations since they drive unsustainable environmental change, rapidly increasing the use of fossil fuels and carbon dioxide emissions due to increasing per capita consumption levels. They also lead to high levels of resource use and waste generation, causing serious ecological consequences locally, regionally and globally, especially in terms of climate change. However, addressing the issue of urb ...PermalinkMany of the findings of the Charney Report on CO2 induced climate change (1979) are still valid, despite 30 additional years of climate research and observations. This paper considers the reasons why the report was so prescient, and assesses the progress achieved since its publication. We suggest that emphasis on the importance of physical understanding gained through the use of theory and simple models, both in isolation and as an aid in the interpretation of the results of General Circulation Models, provided much of the authors’ insight at the time. Increased emphasis on these aspects of re ...PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; Pierrehumbert Raymond T.; Matthews D.L.; et al. - WMO, 2011The Earth’s atmosphere is changing due to anthropogenic increases of a range of gases and aerosols that influence the planetary energy budget. Policy has long been challenged to ensure that instruments such as the Kyoto Protocol or carbon trading deal with the wide range of lifetimes of these radiative forcing agents. Recent research has sharpened scientific understanding of the differences between various metrics used to compare emissions of different gases; as a result, there has been an improved understanding of how climate system time scales interact with the time scales of the forcing age ...PermalinkEEA, 2011This report presents an overview of the progress achieved so far by the EU, its Member States and other EEA member countries towards their respective targets under the Kyoto Protocol and the EU burden-sharing agreement, as well as 2020 targets set at EU level. The assessment is based on greenhouse gas (GHG) emission data in Europe for the period 2008–2010, including recent EEA estimates of proxy 2010 GHG emissions.PermalinkJFS, 2011Kyoto City passed a proposed ordinance to completely revise the Kyoto City Global Warming Countermeasure Ordinance on September 29, 2010, and promulgated the new ordinance on October 12. The city aims to reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs) by 40 percent compared to 1990 levels by fiscal 2030, and by 25 percent by fiscal 2020.PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; Gilge S.; Plass-Duelmer C.; et al. - WMO, 2011 (WMO/TD-No. 1570)Nitrogen oxides are a component of a group of reactive gases required to be measured in the GAW Programme. The reactive gases group focuses on gases known to be intimately involved in various aspects of the chemistry of the troposphere and includes surface ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and sulphur dioxide (SO2), as well as oxidized nitrogen species. The sum of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) has traditionally been called NOx. The sum of oxidized nitrogen species with an oxidation number >1, both organic and inorganic, is referred to as ...PermalinkThe 15th WMO/IAEA Meeting of Experts on Carbon Dioxide, Other Greenhouse Gases and Related Tracers Measurement Techniques took place from 7 to 10 September 2009 at the MaxPlanck-Institute for Biogeochemistry in Jena, Germany. The meeting reviewed current WMO data quality objectives, covering such topics as carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, stable isotopes, radiocarbon in greenhouse gas measurements, calibration, quality control, data management and archiving. The experts also discussed new and emerging technologies, including measurements of greenhouse gases with high-precision spectr ...PermalinkPermalinkPermalink
PermalinkJFS, 2011Le 29 septembre 2010, la ville de Kyoto a adopté un arrêté amendant la totalité des arrêtés concernant les mesures de lutte contre le réchauffement climatique et l'a promu le 12 octobre. La ville a pour objectif une réduction des émissions de gaz à effet de serre de 25% par rapport à 1990 d'ici 2020 et de 40% par rapport à 1990 d'ici 2030Permalink