ADB, 2012On 12 July 2012, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Plus Three intergovernmental agreement establishing the ASEAN Plus Three Emergency Rice Reserve (APTERR) entered into force. In this paper, lead author Roehlano Briones, a senior research fellow at the Philippine Institute for Development Studies, assesses the effectiveness of APTERR as a mechanism for addressing food security in light of the rising challenges of climate change and price volatility. Using Riceflow, a model of the global rice economy, he studies the possible impacts of APTERR releases on the rice market by simu ...Published by: ADB ; 2012
On 12 July 2012, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Plus Three intergovernmental agreement establishing the ASEAN Plus Three Emergency Rice Reserve (APTERR) entered into force. In this paper, lead author Roehlano Briones, a senior research fellow at the Philippine Institute for Development Studies, assesses the effectiveness of APTERR as a mechanism for addressing food security in light of the rising challenges of climate change and price volatility. Using Riceflow, a model of the global rice economy, he studies the possible impacts of APTERR releases on the rice market by simulating calamity scenarios for the largest rice producer in the world (the People’s Republic of China) and in the ASEAN region (Indonesia). He posits that APTERR would need to increase its regional reserves to offset the impacts of severe natural disasters. He takes up as well other market-based options that can complement APTERR as a calamity response mechanism.
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Tags: Climate ; Climate change ; Agroclimatology ; Extreme weather event ; Food Safety ; Brunei Darussalam ; Cambodia ; China ; Indonesia ; Japan ; Republic of Korea ; Lao People’s Democratic Republic ; Malaysia ; Philippines ; Singapore ; Thailand ; Viet Nam Add tagWinpenny James; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - UNESCO, 2012 (UNESCO Side publications series-No. 02)Water makes a critical contribution to all aspects of personal welfare and economic life. However, global water resources are coming under increasing pressure. It is widely recognized that over the next few decades global drivers such as climate change, population growth and improving living standards will increase pressure on the availability, quality and distribution of water resources. Managing the impacts of these drivers to maximize social and economic welfare will require intelligent policy and management responses at all levels of collection, production and distribution of water. The go ...Published by: UNESCO ; 2012
Water makes a critical contribution to all aspects of personal welfare and economic life. However, global water resources are coming under increasing pressure. It is widely recognized that over the next few decades global drivers such as climate change, population growth and improving living standards will increase pressure on the availability, quality and distribution of water resources. Managing the impacts of these drivers to maximize social and economic welfare will require intelligent policy and management responses at all levels of collection, production and distribution of water. The goal is to improve water allocation systems in order to balance multiple uses – including social, economic and environmental beneﬁts – of water resources.
Collection(s) and Series: UNESCO Side publications series- No. 02
Format: Digital (Free)Steduto Pasquale; Hsiao Theodore C.; Fereres Elias; et al. - FAO, 2012 (FAO irrigation and drainage paper-No. 66)Food production and water use are inextricably linked. Water has always been the main factor limiting crop production in much of the world where rainfall is insufficient to meet crop demand. With the ever-increasing competition for finite water resources worldwide and the steadily rising demand for agricultural commodities, the call to improve the efficiency and productivity of water use for crop production, to ensure future food security and address the uncertainties associated with climate change, has never been more urgent.Published by: FAO ; 2012
Food production and water use are inextricably linked. Water has always been the main factor limiting crop production in much of the world where rainfall is insufficient to meet crop demand. With the ever-increasing competition for finite water resources worldwide and the steadily rising demand for agricultural commodities, the call to improve the efficiency and productivity of water use for crop production, to ensure future food security and address the uncertainties associated with climate change, has never been more urgent.
Collection(s) and Series: FAO irrigation and drainage paper- No. 66
Format: Digital (Free)This report provides input into the discussions at the 2012 World Water Week in Stockholm and its special focus on water and food security. This report presents the latest thinking and new approaches to emerging and persistent challenges to achieve food security in the 21st century, including the use of early warning systems to bolster food security by reducing damages caused to agriculture by water scarcity and drought. It focuses on critical issues that have received less attention in the literature to date, such as: food waste, land acquisitions, gender aspects of agriculture, and early war ...Published by: SIWI ; 2012
This report provides input into the discussions at the 2012 World Water Week in Stockholm and its special focus on water and food security. This report presents the latest thinking and new approaches to emerging and persistent challenges to achieve food security in the 21st century, including the use of early warning systems to bolster food security by reducing damages caused to agriculture by water scarcity and drought. It focuses on critical issues that have received less attention in the literature to date, such as: food waste, land acquisitions, gender aspects of agriculture, and early warning systems for agricultural emergencies. It also offers perspectives on how to better manage water and food linkages.
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ISBN (or other code): 978-91-978846-5-5AIDMI, 2012This document evaluates the design of the eight missions of India's National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC), which were created to advance India's development and define its approach to climate mitigation and adaptation: (i) National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture; (ii) National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency; (iii) National Mission for a Green India; (iv) National Mission on Sustainable Habitat; (v) National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem; (vi) National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change; (vii) National Solar Mission; and (viii) National Wate ...Published by: AIDMI ; 2012
Community managed disaster risk reduction in high altitude regions: In Southasiadisasters.net issue no. 85, June 2012
This document evaluates the design of the eight missions of India's National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC), which were created to advance India's development and define its approach to climate mitigation and adaptation: (i) National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture; (ii) National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency; (iii) National Mission for a Green India; (iv) National Mission on Sustainable Habitat; (v) National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem; (vi) National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change; (vii) National Solar Mission; and (viii) National Water Mission.
The study is based on interviews of experts in particular domains who also understand climate change. The broad cross-cutting issues relating to these missions as well as individual strengths, challenges and weaknesses of the missions, as evaluated by the experts, are presented in this report. More detailed qualitative assessment cards have been developed separately for the individual missions.
The study aims to provide policy makers, academics and researchers, civil society groups and others a snapshot of the climate missions as perceived by the experts in the country at this time. It is hoped that the outputs will inform the government so that appropriate mid-stream corrections may be made. The results of the study will also be useful to hone the country’s strategic thinking on long-term economic development in the context of climate change.
Format: Digital (Free)UN/ISDR, 2012This paper discusses a project in the Arab region aimed at enabling national and regional institutions to develop system wide capacities to monitor, archive and disseminate data on key hazards and vulnerabilities, and periodically assess emerging risk such as national poverty trends. It shows that systematically recording data on disaster loss represents a low cost, high impact strategy for visualizing risk patterns and trends over space and time. This paper focuses on the findings of national disaster loss databases in three of the project's pilot countries: Jordan, Syria, and Yemen.
PermalinkSelby David; Kagawa Fumiyo; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO); et al. - UNESCO, 2012This publication captures key national experiences in the integration of disaster risk reduction (DRR) in the curriculum, identifying good practice, noting issues addressed or still lacking, and reviewing learning outcomes. The study researched DRR related curriculum development and integration, pedagogy, student assessment, teacher professional development and guidance, learning outcomes and policy development, planning and implementation aspects covering thirty countries.PermalinkThe Management for Adaptation to Climate Change (MACC) project in Malawi is implemented by Total Land Care (TLC) with funding from the Royal Norwegian Embassy in Malawi and a 5 years time frame from 2008 to mid 2013. The key objectives of the project are to reduce deforestation, to improve household food security and incomes, and to develop rural-based enterprises. The review team found the project in line with Malawian as well as Norwegian development policy. TLC also has an extensive and good cooperation with Malawian NGOs as well as with international organisations, both in Malawi and abroa ...PermalinkThis study explores how far social justice is considered in local adaptations to climate change impacts across the UK. It was undertaken just as the UK Government increased its commitment to the adaptation agenda – at the same time as public-sector funding cuts reduced the scope and scale of climate change activities at the local level. Its findings are relevant for all bodies operating at this level whose climate change adaptation activities impact on vulnerable communities. The study provides a wealth of insights into how social justice can be incorporated into adaptation planning. It was in ...PermalinkThis report demonstrates that shortage of food is only part of the severe and life-threatening crisis facing children in the Sahel region of west Africa in 2012. It focuses in particular on the experience of children, and makes detailed recommendations around disaster risk reduction, nutrition, and social protection to build resilience. The report also addresses the urgent need for political ambition to change the international system and end the everyday emergencies.PermalinkHayden Jacqueline; Cologon Kathy; Asia-Pacific Regional Network for Early Childhood (ARNEC); et al. - ARNEC, 2012This guidebook provides background information on Early Childhood Development (ECD) and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), and sets out processes for assessing the capacity and needs at community levels to further identify future steps to improve ECD in DRR. Furthermore, it addresses the vulnerability faced by children and the efforts to mitigate underlying causes of these vulnerabilities. Beyond national and international, policy and political issues, DRR occurs within communities and at the programme level. DRR processes and activities have the potential to address the special needs of young chi ...PermalinkUNESCO, 2012This report summarizes the key outcomes of a three-day meeting which discussed and reflected on the challenges that climate change poses to education systems in Small Island Developing States (SIDS), and on the role that education must play in adaptation to climate change. Acknowledging that SIDS are already confronted with the effects of climate change, including rising sea levels and changes in weather and climate extremes such as droughts, floods and tropical cyclones/hurricanes, it considers the need for them to reduce their vulnerability to climate change by strengthening their adaptive c ...PermalinkThis document addresses how people in disaster prone areas of Bangladesh are at risk to lose their lives, land, and livelihoods due to floods, cyclones, earthquakes and drought, and how sustainable development and effective risk reduction can help prevent these risks. It also discusses how disasters in Bangladesh hamper the country's long-term ability to effectively tackle poverty. The document acknowledges the growing awareness among citizens that disaster risk reduction (DRR) is necessary to assist vulnerable communities; and that there needs to be a coordinated effort to undertake intensive ...PermalinkFAO, 2012This report analyses the connected problem of food security and climate change. It observes that a social vulnerability lens is essential to understand why certain individuals, households or communities experience differences in food insecurity risks, even when they are in the same geographic region. Examples of strategies for community-based adaptation include improving water management practices, adopting practices to conserving soil moisture, organic matter and nutrients, and setting up community-based seeds and grain banks. The report includes the following recommendations: integrate food ...PermalinkThis paper reviews the role of climate change vulnerability in identifying least developed countries (LDCs). Taking a sustainable development perspective, it argues that climate change should be seen as an aggravating factor of existing handicaps and many indicators used to identify LDCs already capture relevant structural vulnerabilities to climate change. However, the paper proposes some refinements in the LDC criteria to better capture vulnerabilities from natural disasters and in coastal areas. These refinements affected the vulnerability ranking in the recent triennial review, but had no ...PermalinkThis study investigates the choice of occupational focus versus diversification between household members in rural Bangladesh as an autonomous and proactive adaptation strategy against ex ante local rainfall variability risks. The analysis combines nationally representative household level survey data with historical climate variability information at the Upazila level. The authors note that flood prone Upazilas may face reduced risks from local rainfall variability as compared with non-flood prone Upazilas. They find that two members of the same household are less likely to be self-employed i ...PermalinkPermalinkUnited Nations, 2012Three important targets on poverty, slums and water have been met three years ahead of 2015, says this year’s Report on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Meeting the remaining targets, while challenging, is possible ─ but only if Governments do not waiver from their commitments made over a decade ago.PermalinkWorld Bank, 2012PermalinkThis study aims to understand the extent to which refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) have perceived, experienced and responded to climatic variability and long-term negative climatic change in the east and Horn of Africa. The report is based on discussions with 150 IDPs and refugees from Ethiopia and Uganda, many of whom were farmers and pastoralists from Eritrea, Somalia and eastern Sudan. Key findings include: many of the refugees interviewed had perceived discernible shifts in weather in their home countries over the past 10 to 15 years; where movement away from homelands was ...PermalinkThis position paper outlines how, through the Global Framework for Climate Services experts from various disciplines and regions will work together to develop science-based climate and environmental information tailored to end-users’ needs for the purpose of increasing agricultural productivity to improve food security and reduce hunger; Improving and optimizing management of water resources to provide sustainable access to freshwater for drinking, irrigation and household use; Reducing the risk of disasters and other climate hazards, the cost of which often burdens developing and least develo ...PermalinkThis study study examines the inter linkages between climate change, disaster risk, and the urban poor. This study calls on cities to take a lead role in proactively addressing the risks of climate change and natural hazards at the local level, with a focus on populations at highest risk. It suggests a number of actions that cities can take to build resilience, beginning with mainstreaming pro-poor risk reduction policies into urban planning and management.PermalinkAs a follow-up to a first paper A preliminary analysis of flood and storm disaster data in Viet Nam, this Quang Binh case study provides a more in-depth disaster profile of one particular province in Viet Nam, including specific temporal and spatial distribution patterns while using district aggregated data. It also looks deeper into the relationship between disasters and poverty through analysis of various indicators: number of deaths, impact on housing and agricultural produce, poverty rate and the percentage of poor households.
The first part of this paper examines the disas ...PermalinkAligning with the priorities outlined in the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015: Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters, this plan responds to the need to develop a longer-term strategic approach that helps articulate funding and program priorities to allow for comprehensive disaster programming that reduces future humanitarian needs in the Southern Africa region. It presents the disaster risk reduction DRR activities selected for implementation in coordination with other USG agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), U.N. agencies, other donors, higher educati ...PermalinkThis paper addresses the crisis in the Horn of Africa in 2011 and the need to enable communities to withstand droughts and move forward by building resilience and fostering sustainable growth. It presents USAID's vision for change through: (i) key principles, such as early action in response to early warning, connecting humanitarian and development programmes, fostering women's empowerment, ensuring evidence-based decision making and supporting and strengthening local, national, and regional capacities; and (ii) a new way of doing business, which includes joint planning, joint focus on resilie ...PermalinkTogether, both women and men play a significant role in safeguarding food security. It is important to understand their respective roles and responsibilities to ensure that they benefit equally from climate-smart agriculture practices. However, insufficient research has been undertaken to understand how they are adapting to climate change, mitigating emissions and maintaining food security. To address the gap, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security have jointly come up with this training guide. Its ...PermalinkFAO, 2012Starting with an overview of the concept of climate change, the course then looks at its impact on food security. After examining strategies for mitigating or adapting to the effects of climate change, it suggests concrete ways to make sure agriculture is “climate smart”.
The course is aimed at policy makers and people working in development agencies, who need to better understand how climate change affects agriculture and food systems, and what concrete actions can be taken.
The course also includes face to face training materials, such as exercises, trainer’s no ...PermalinkUNFCCC, 2012At the sixteenth session of the Conference of the Parties in Cancun, Mexico, in December 2010, governments further recognized that adaptation must be addressed with the same priority as mitigation, and adopted the Cancun Adaptation Framework (CAF) to enhance action on adaptation. The CAF includes a process to enable LDC Parties, building upon their experience with the NAPAs, to formulate and implement national adaptation plans and an invitation to other developing country Parties to employ the modalities formulated to support those plans. It is in this context that other Parties have shown inc ...PermalinkНастоящий позиционный документ содержит информацию о том, как при помощи Глобальная рамочная основа для климатического обслуживания основы экс-перты в различных областях и из различных регионов смогут сотрудничать для подготовки научно обосно-ванной информации о климате и окружающей среде,ориентированной на потребности конечных поль-зователей, с целью: увеличения продуктивности сельского хозяй-ства для повышения продовольственной безо-пасности и искоренения голода; улучшения и оптимизации водохозяйственной деятельности для обеспечения устойчивого доступа к пресной воде, годной для питья, ирри- ...Permalink[Ce document] montre comment, par le biais du Cadre mondial, des experts de diverses disciplines et de différentes régions vont oeuvrer de concert afin de produire des informations scientifiques sur le climat et l’environnement adaptées aux besoins des utilisateurs finals, pour: Accroître la productivité agricole en vue d’améliorer la sécurité alimentaire et de réduire la faim dans le monde; Optimiser la gestion des ressources en eau afin d’offrir un accès durable à l’eau douce destinée à la consommation, à l’irrigation et aux ménages; Réduire les risques de catastrophes et d’autres périls cli ...PermalinkEn este documento se describe la forma en que los expertos en diversas disciplinas de distin¬tas regiones colaborarán, por medio del Marco Mundial para los Servicios Climáticos, para desarrollar información climática y ambiental basada en conocimientos científicos y adaptada a las necesi¬dades de los usuarios, con el fin de: aumentar la productividad agrícola para mejorar la seguridad alimentaria y luchar contra el hambre; mejorar y optimizar la gestión de los recursos hídricos para facilitar un acceso sostenible al agua dulce para su uso como agua potable, de riego y de uso doméstico; reducir ...PermalinkCCNUCC, 2012Lors de la seizième session de la Conférence des Parties à Cancْn, Mexique, en décembre 2010, les gouvernements ont reconnu en outre qu’il faut accorder la même priorité à l’adaptation qu’à l’atténuation, et adopté à cet effet le Cadre de Cancْn pour l’adaptation en vue de renforcer les actions dans ce domaine. Ce cadre comprend un mécanisme permettant d’aider les PMA parties, grâce à l’expérience acquise avec les PANA, à élaborer et mettre en oeuvre des plans d’adaptation nationaux, et invite d’autres pays en développement parties à appliquer les modalités proposées pour appuyer ces plans. C’ ...PermalinkNations Unies, 2012Le rapport de 2011 souligne des avancées réelles dans la réalisation des Objectifs du Millénaire pour le développement notamment un déclin de la pauvreté dans le monde, reflété par un accès à l’éducation plus poussé et un recul de la mortalité infantile. Qui plus est, l’accès à l’eau potable s’est généralisé malgré l’isolement de certaines régions comme en Afrique subsaharienne, où les populations les plus pauvres en milieu rural – les plus vulnérables - sont souvent les plus dures à atteindre.
Face aux disparités demeurantes, ce rapport n’est pas sans rappeler l’engagement réitéré en s ...PermalinkFernandez Rogelio; Sanahuj Haris; United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT); et al. - UN/ISDR, 2012Permalinkis an issue of Options. IIASA, 2011One of the three global problem areas IIASA will focus on this decade.PermalinkEl doctor Salinger, ex presidente de la Comisión de Meteorología Agrícola de la OMM (2006-2010), esboza los retos de la Comisión por lo que respecta a contribuir a la seguridad alimentaria, desarrollando así el papel que ha desempeñado durante los últimos 60 años.PermalinkBulletin, Vol. 60 (1). WMO, 2011PermalinkEsporo, N° 151. CTA, 2011“A luta contra a fome não será conseguida sem eles”, afirmou o Director-Geral da FAO, na apresentação da política desta organização para o reforço da cooperação e do diálogo com as populações indígenas e tribais em todo o mundo. Esta nova política visa garantir a integração, em todas as acções da FAO, dos interesses e património de conhecimento destes povos, que constituem cerca de 5 por cento da população mundial, mas também 15 por cento dos pobres do planeta.PermalinkSpore: the magazine for agricultural and rural development in ACP countries, N° 151. CTA, 2011“The fight against hunger will not be achieved without them”, said FAO’s Director-General, presenting the organisation’s policy to strengthen cooperation and dialogue with indigenous and tribal people worldwide. The new policy seeks to take account of the interests of indigenous people in all FAO activities, and make good use of the wealth of knowledge they have to offer. Indigenous people make up 5% of the world’s population, but they account for 15% of the world’s poor.PermalinkSpore: le magazine du développement agricole et rural des pays ACP, N°151. CTA, 2011“La lutte contre la faim n’aboutira pas sans eux”, a affirmé le directeur général de la FAO lors de la présentation de la politique de l’organisation pour le renfort de la coopération et du dialogue avec les peuples autochtones et tribaux dans le monde. Cette nouvelle politique vise à garantir, dans toute action de la FAO, l’intégration des intérêts et du patrimoine de connaissances de ces peuples qui constituent près de 5 % de la population mondiale et 15 % des pauvres de la planète.PermalinkPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 369. N° 1934. Thornton Philip K.; Jones Peter G.; Ericksen Polly J.; et al. - The Royal Society, 2011Agricultural development in sub-Saharan Africa faces daunting challenges, which climate change and increasing climate variability will compound in vulnerable areas. The impacts of a changing climate on agricultural production in a world that warms by 4°C or more are likely to be severe in places. The livelihoods of many croppers and livestock keepers in Africa are associated with diversity of options. The changes in crop and livestock production that are likely to result in a 4°C+ world will diminish the options available to most smallholders. In such a world, current crop and livestock variet ...PermalinkAlam M.; Asian Institute of Technology ; International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) - Adaptation Knowledge Platform, 2011This report presents the findings of desktop research that examined the extent to which Southeast Asian countries are prepared for anticipated climate change impacts. It is divided into separate country profiles and includes analysis of the following countries: Lao PDR, Viet Nam, the Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, Cambodia, Union of Myanmar and Malaysia. Each profile describes an individual country’s attributes, anticipated climate change impacts, vulnerability, necessary adaptation measures and cross-sectoral institutional settings. Each profile concludes with a summary of key gaps, constr ...PermalinkUnited Nations, 2011The EMG’s Issue Management Group on Green Economy was tasked to prepare a report to assess how the United Nations system could coherently support countries in transitioning to a green economy. The report is expected to facilitate a common understanding of the green economy approach and the measures required for the transition. The report is also envisioned to contribute to the preparatory process for the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD or Rio+20) where “the green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication” is one of the two themes ...PermalinkSEI, 2011This paper for the Bonn2011 Nexus Conference presents initial evidence for how a nexus approach can enhance water, energy and food security in a green economy by increasing efficiency, reducing trade-offs, and building synergies across sectors. It also underpins the policy recommendations, which are detailed in a separate paper.PermalinkThe authors use regression analysis to assess the potential welfare impact of rainfall shocks in rural Indonesia. In particular, they consider two shocks: (i) a delay in the onset of monsoon and (ii) a significant shortfall in the amount of rain in the 90 day post-onset period. Focusing on households with family farm businesses, the analysis finds that a delay in the monsoon onset does not have a significant impact on the welfare of rice farmers. However, rice farm households located in areas exposed to low rainfall following the monsoon are negatively affected. Rice farm households appear to ...PermalinkPermalinkThis report summarises current knowledge of the anticipated impacts of climate change on water availability for agriculture. It examines the implications for local and national food security and the methods and approaches for assessing climate change impacts on water and agriculture. It emphasises the need for a closer alignment between water and agricultural policies and makes the case for immediate implementation of ‘no-regrets’ strategies which have both positive development outcomes and make agricultural systems resilient to future impacts.PermalinkThe study objective of evaluating and costing the most suitable climate change adaptation measures responding to the Rwandan Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy, 2008-2012, in which climate change and its adverse impacts were recently identified as a high priority. The EDPRS highlights the establishment of criteria for secure settlements in the areas that are exposed to meteorological hazards, as well as the development and implementation of early warning systems to improve drought and food security. This study has particularly focused on coffee and banana farming systems and a ...PermalinkFAO, 2011FAO-Adapt serves a double purpose. First, it systemises the adaptation activities currently underway across the organisation, which serves to ensure that all efforts can move ahead toward a clear and unified goal. This, in turn, enables FAO to present a comprehensive body of work to the outside world. The document consists of five main sections: Chapter 1 introduces the background and context of FAO-Adapt; Chapter 2 discusses climate change impacts on the agriculture sectors and food security; Chapter 3 defines adaptation in the context of the agriculture sectors and describes means and measur ...PermalinkThe objective of this report is to catalyse thinking about the ways in which agriculture – which has a vital role in global food security, development and natural resources use – can and must be fully integrated into national strategies and a consensus-based multilateral framework to address the challenges of climate change. The report brings forth questions that will occupy the world community over the next decade or more regarding the role of agriculture in climate change adaptation and mitigation. The report offers some answers and concrete proposals – while recognizing that much more needs ...Permalink