This study attempted to investigate the variability of extreme rainfall and temperature over Rwanda and the associated circulation anomalies forecasting on wet and dry rainfall events between 1961 and 2010. The datasets used to achieve the objectives includes Temperature, the rainfall dataset, wind vector, pressure vertical velocity (omega) and the Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST). The methods used include correlation analysis, Standardized anomaly, composite analysis, and Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) analysis. The results show that the mean annual cycle depict two rainy Seas ...Published by: Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology ; 2016
This study attempted to investigate the variability of extreme rainfall and temperature over Rwanda and the associated circulation anomalies forecasting on wet and dry rainfall events between 1961 and 2010. The datasets used to achieve the objectives includes Temperature, the rainfall dataset, wind vector, pressure vertical velocity (omega) and the Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST). The methods used include correlation analysis, Standardized anomaly, composite analysis, and Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) analysis. The results show that the mean annual cycle depict two rainy Season in the courses of the year. The first rainy season runs from March – May (MAM) with the highest precipitation in April and second rainy season from September to November (SON), which has recorded the highest precipitation in November. The spatial distribution of monthly precipitation from January to December similarly show that the rainy season runs from March- May (MAM) received the highest precipitation in the region compared to September-November (SON). Results further show that the years with standardized deviation of +1 or more (wet years) including ,MAM and SON respectively, 1961,1963,1970,1981,1994,1998,2001,2004,2006 and 2009 whereas floods years. And for standardized deviation of -1 or less (dry years) includes 1979, 1984, 1993,2000,2001,2007 and 2010 considered as droughts years. The circulation anomalies associated with wet and dry years studied over these identified years revealed that in Rwanda, the equatorial wind climatology is deeply modified by the relief at a varied altitude.
Forecasters would make Rwanda climate more predictable. Strategies that integrate land and water management, and disaster risk reduction, within a framework of emerging climate change risks would bolster resilient development in the face of impacts of the new set of climate in Rwanda.
Notes: If you wish to download the full text, please contact the author (ujacquie(at)yahoo.fr) or library(at)wmo.int (Please replace (at) by @).
Format: Digital (Available online for logged-in users)During the past two decades, the collection and utilization of large amounts of satellite radar imagery over vast polar regions has become an outstanding example of international cooperation among space agencies and the polar science community. Building on the successful cooperation and coordination during the International Polar Year (2007/08), the Polar Space Task Group (PSTG) has recently re-enacted the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Coordination Working Group (CWG). The Group provides coordination among space agencies operating SAR satellites to facilitate collection of fundamental SAR dat ...
During the past two decades, the collection and utilization of large amounts of satellite radar imagery over vast polar regions has become an outstanding example of international cooperation among space agencies and the polar science community. Building on the successful cooperation and coordination during the International Polar Year (2007/08), the Polar Space Task Group (PSTG) has recently re-enacted the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Coordination Working Group (CWG). The Group provides coordination among space agencies operating SAR satellites to facilitate collection of fundamental SAR datasets and contributes to the development of science products in support of cryospheric research and applications.
Format: Digital (Free)This paper examines the aerosol extinction coefficient profiles measured by Rayleigh-Raman-Mie-Lidar (RRML) system in Nanjing, China. I introduced two lidars methods (Raman and Fernald) and detection principle, and two lidars data Using Raman analysis method and Fernald analysis method to obtained aerosol extinction coefficient. Aerosol profiles at 607 nm and 532 nm over ranges from 6 km to 10 km were obtained using respectively Raman lidar and Rayleigh lidar in Nanjing.Published by: Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology ; 2016
This paper examines the aerosol extinction coefficient profiles measured by Rayleigh-Raman-Mie-Lidar (RRML) system in Nanjing, China. I introduced two lidars methods (Raman and Fernald) and detection principle, and two lidars data Using Raman analysis method and Fernald analysis method to obtained aerosol extinction coefficient. Aerosol profiles at 607 nm and 532 nm over ranges from 6 km to 10 km were obtained using respectively Raman lidar and Rayleigh lidar in Nanjing.
Notes: If you wish to download the full text, please contact the author (dadjataro(at)gmail.com) or library(at)wmo.int (Please replace (at) by @).
Format: Digital (Available online for logged-in users)Precipitations vary consistently in Benin from 1981 to 2010. The present study reveals that the variation of Benin JJAS precipitation is positively correlated to MAM Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in Atlantic Ocean with correlation coefficient more than 0.7. When the SST is higher (lower) in the Atlantic Ocean, precipitation over Benin tends to be above (below) normal. The years 1988, 1989, 2003, 2007 and 2008, were wet with 1988, 2003, 2008 high SST over Tropical Southern Atlantic Ocean (STAO) while the years 1982, 1983, 1992 and 1997 formed the dry years with low SST over Tropical Southern At ...Published by: Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology ; 2016
Precipitations vary consistently in Benin from 1981 to 2010. The present study reveals that the variation of Benin JJAS precipitation is positively correlated to MAM Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in Atlantic Ocean with correlation coefficient more than 0.7. When the SST is higher (lower) in the Atlantic Ocean, precipitation over Benin tends to be above (below) normal. The years 1988, 1989, 2003, 2007 and 2008, were wet with 1988, 2003, 2008 high SST over Tropical Southern Atlantic Ocean (STAO) while the years 1982, 1983, 1992 and 1997 formed the dry years with low SST over Tropical Southern Atlantic Ocean. This study investigates the contribution of Atlantic Ocean to JJAS seasonal rainfall of 2010’s flooding year in Benin. 2010’s year has got the highest SST over Tropical Southern Atlantic Ocean.
Notes: If you wish to download the full text, please contact the author (fulzekp1(at)yahoo.fr) or library(at)wmo.int (Please replace (at) by @).
Format: Digital (Available online for logged-in users)The southern coastal region of West Africa (SCWA) is located between 40N-80N latitudes and 100W -50E longitudes near the equator in the northern Hemisphere, the south and west are respectively equatorial and West Atlantic Ocean, and it is consisted to seven countries (Sierra Leon, Liberia, Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, Benin and Nigeria). The rainy season starts from spring to the summer, mainly from May to October. The rainfall is very important for southern coastal of West Africa region which their economy and food supply are highly dependent on agricultural production. Understanding of previo ...Published by: Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology ; 2016
Interannual variation monthly rainfall from May to August associated with large-scale circulation anomalies over south coast of West Africa
The southern coastal region of West Africa (SCWA) is located between 40N-80N latitudes and 100W -50E longitudes near the equator in the northern Hemisphere, the south and west are respectively equatorial and West Atlantic Ocean, and it is consisted to seven countries (Sierra Leon, Liberia, Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, Benin and Nigeria). The rainy season starts from spring to the summer, mainly from May to October. The rainfall is very important for southern coastal of West Africa region which their economy and food supply are highly dependent on agricultural production. Understanding of previous climatic events of rainfall and their associated impacts can help to project future events in good time. So that is necessary precautions which can be put in place. The objective of this study was to investigate the interannual variation monthly rainfall events from May to August over SCWA and associated to large –scale circulation anomalies.
Notes: If you wish to download the full text, please contact the author (fulnguessan(at)yahoo.fr) or library(at)wmo.int (Please replace (at) by @).
Format: Digital (Available online for logged-in users)The variability and predictability of summer rainfall over Zimbabwe at inter-annual time scale is studied. Dry and wet seasons are identified using Zimbabwe Standardized Rainfall Index (ZRI). Seasonal rainfall and circulation patterns are investigated at inter annual time scale. The study focuses on the temporal and spatial variation of summer rainfall over Zimbabwe and tries to explain the circulation mechanisms associated with such phenomenon.PermalinkFor Zimbabwe, where rain fed agriculture is the backbone of the economy, the importance of accurate rainfall seasonal forecasts cannot be overemphasized (Makarau and Jury, 1997). In fact, extremes in interseasonal variability of rainfall can significantly complicate human livelihoods. In addition, there have been predictions of increased precipitation variability and hydro-meteorological hazards such as floods, droughts, and erratic rainfall due to global warming (Field et al., 2014; Mushore, 2013a). Thus, detailed understanding of the major contributors to the rainfall variability over Zimbab ...Permalinkتوضح التحلیلات الأخیرة للرصدات التي أجراھا برنامج المراقبة العالمیة للغلاف الجوي ( GAW ) أن المتوسط العالمي الذي حسبتھ ھذه الشبكة الموقعیة للكسور الجزیئیة( 3) السطحیة لثاني أكسید الكربون والمیثان وأكسید النیتروز قد بلغت أرقاماً عالیة جدیدة في 2015 ، إذ بلغ ثاني أكسید الكربون 400.0±0.1 جزء في الملیون، والمیثان 2± 1845 جزءاً في البلیون( 4)، وأكسید النیتروز 0.1 ± 328.0 جزءاً في البلیون. وتشكل ھذه القیم على التوالي 144 في المائة و 256 في المائة و 121 في المائة من مستویات ما قبل العصر الصناعي (قبل عام 1750 ). ویتوقع أن یكون 2016 ھو أول عام یظل فیھ مستوى تركیز ثاني أكسید الكربون في مرصد مونا لوا فوق ...Permalink"- Location name, latitude and longitude (map entry tool available) Teide National Park, Tenerife Canary islands Spain Latitude 28°16'32.97" longitude 16°43'46.11"W
-Climate Classification (Koppen scheme ; map entry available) BSh
- Type of location (land/sea or air) lans /sea
- Camera pointing direction NE
- Meteor type (e.g. clouds, lithometers, etc.) clouds
- Cloud Genera (e.g. Cirrocumulus, unknown, etc.) altocumulus lenticularis -cap clouds
metadata: nikon d5300 wide angle (18mm) seconds 0-16 and zoomed seconds 17-36. "PermalinkVideo timelapse de las nubes de tipo Mammatus que tuvimos sobre nuestras cabezas tinerfeñas el dia 12 de septiembre 2016. las nubes llegan del sureste y avanzan en direccion noreste, pasando sobre el roque del conde en adeje, para al atrdecer, desaparecer. grabado con Nikon d5300 y Nikon d90 y con Nikor fish eye 10,5 f:2,8 y Tokina 11-16 mm f:2,8. lrtimelapse, y lightroom ccPermalink“Neither snow nor rain nor heat nor gloom of night stays these couriers from the swift completion of their appointed rounds.” This phrase, engraved on the side of the James A. Farley Post Office Building in New York City, has become the unofficial motto for the reliability of postal services. Yet, by virtue of their extensive networks and reliance on critical infrastructure, postal services can be profoundly affected by disasters, especially those related to natural meteorological hazards and extremesPermalinkis an issue of Atmosphere-ocean. Canadian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society, 2015PermalinkThe world’s population is expected to increase by a further three billion by 2050 – and 90% of that growth will be in developing countries that currently rely on existing water supplies and rainfall for food and water. The projected population growth will most likely bring global water supply to a crisis point.PermalinkSome 842 million people worldwide cannot afford to eat adequately and are chronically hungry. The links between food insecurity and poverty are clear. Factoring weather and climate information into agricultural decision-making has optimized agricultural production in many countries. However, in developing countries – where most smallholder farms are rain-fed – access to weather and climate information to guide decision-making is limited. Governments should view such information, crucial to farmers, as a means of alleviating poverty and hunger.PermalinkThe 2014 Ozone Assessment provides the latest update of the current state of the ozone layer and makes predictions on when the ozone layer will return to 1980 values. In the northern middle latitudes (35-60°N), total ozone is now about 3.5% less than it was in the period from 1964-1980. At southern middle latitudes (35-60°S), it is about 6% less. The larger depletion in the Southern Hemisphere is linked to the Antarctic ozone hole. Following the decline in total ozone during the 1980s and 1990s, the situation has stabilized since 2000. Hidden under the inter-annual variability, there are indic ...PermalinkFresh water is important for human life, economic activity, ecosystem health and geophysical processes. Over the first decade of the twenty-first century, Australia weathered marked extremes, experiencing its warmest period, with 2013 marked as its warmest year since national records began in 1910. Hydrological conditions in Australia are among the most variable on Earth. Its streamflow regime can go through prolonged periods of droughts such as the “Millennium drought” that occurred between 1997 and 2000 across most parts of eastern Australia. This variability has a profound impact on the man ...PermalinkThe WMO and the National Weather Service (NWS) of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) once again organized an International Session in the margins of the 95th annual meeting of the American Meteorological Society (AMS) in January. This event explored the unique and important role of National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) in assisting society to improve environmental decision-making in the face of growing vulnerability to extreme weather and climate events.PermalinkGovernments, private companies and individuals are demanding ever more sophisticated climate services, as manifested by the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS). But parts of the ocean observation network – paramount to the delivery of climate services – are at risk, and the evolution of climate prediction systems is not keeping pace in terms of accuracy and reliabilityPermalinkData repositories and archives play a critical role as the source for the observational data used in the study of weather and climate. After over two centuries of recording observations on paper, observations in the last 20 years have mostly been collected digitally. Repositories around the world now have a mix of data on physical media, such as paper and microfilm, and digital media such as computer disks, magnetic tapes and DVDs. There is risk of data loss regardless of storage media. Repositories must identify, appraise, acquire, archive and migrate data to new technologies to make it avail ...PermalinkFast-growing urbanisation, environmental deterioration and climate change are making individuals, organisations and businesses more vulnerable to meteorological and environmental hazards. Modern life requires detailed knowledge about our immediate personal environment – the climate and weather as well as the air, water and soil quality – at work, home or play, may we be indoors or out.PermalinkAt a time when the impacts of weather and climate are still growing dramatically, it is important to look for strategies to strengthen the science and technology that have resulted in substantial improvements in the skill of weather predictions and services over the past four decades. It was not that long ago – when many baby-boomers were just entering the workforce – that accurate, reliable forecasts did not extend beyond 24 hours. Today, high-quality 5 to 7 day forecasts are the norm. This improvement has resulted in lives being saved and avoidable damage and economic impacts being averted. ...PermalinkPermalinkThis report is that document, as authored by Dr Nash, in all its original detail. Starting with the existing version of the CIMO Guide (2010 update) Dr Nash revised that information, primarily to include the additional understanding gained from the Yangjiang intercomparison. At the same time, though, he added a wealth of further specialist knowledge, gained from his protracted involvement in WMO CIMO activities over more than thirty years, and in particular from his participation in all eight CIMO international radiosonde intercomparisons, commencing with the first, held at Bracknell in 1983.PermalinkA weather forecaster’s knowledge of climatology is important to the success of a forecast, especially where convection is involved. That’s particularly true over Central and West Africa where convection has a strong diurnal cycle and usually develops over particular geographic regions and during specific time intervals. The lesson describes satellite-derived cloud climatology products and several global instability indices, all of which can be integrated with other products to forecast convection. Although the lesson uses examples of climatology products from specific months, it makes the full ...PermalinkThe National Blend of Global Models was developed to utilize the best available science and provide a consistent National Weather Service forecast product across the U.S. This lesson describes the background and motivation for the National Blend and includes comparisons of Blend forecasts with current guidance. The lesson also offers a short summary of future plans and training related to the National Blend.PermalinkThis lesson provides a brief overview of surface and upper-air data and how these data are plotted on meteorological charts. The content introduces various charting and reporting techniques, including station models, contour analyses, streamlines, and upper air maps. Examples cover both the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere and provide learners with opportunities to practice recognizing frequently used weather symbols. Supplemental materials include three Weather Symbol Identification drills. Completing these drills may require approximately 1-1.5 hours above the length of time estim ...PermalinkMarine Weather Services Incident Response and Decision Support provides guidance for forecasters tasked with supporting oil or chemical spills and other marine-focused incidents. The lesson follows an example spill event to help demonstrate marine forecasters' responsibilities for coordinating with emergency managers, other NOAA line offices, and governmental agencies and outlines best practices related to effective communication.PermalinkThis lesson provides information on climatology—what it is, the factors that create an area's climate, and the sources and uses of climate information. Focused specifically on tropical Pacific islands, the content covers the key features influencing climate in that region and includes examples for four locations distributed across the tropical Pacific Ocean, both north and south of the equator. The lesson provides a basic introduction to tropical climatology intended for a wide range of users, from meteorology technicians, forecasters, and scientists, to those in industries or sectors influenc ...PermalinkThis chapter examines vertical transport of heat, moisture, momentum, trace gases, and aerosols, including the role of tropical deep convection and turbulence. Diurnal and seasonal variations in surface fluxes and boundary layer depth are examined. The boundary layer is compared over the ocean, humid, and dry tropics, including its role in dispersing chemicals and aerosols. Boundary layer clouds are examined in terms of their connection to sub-cloud layer properties. Comparisons are made between heat and moisture transport under a variety of convective modes such as mesoscale convective system ...PermalinkBoth the processes of convection and of rainfall formation are typically subgrid scale, and require parameterisation. This lesson examines two types of precipitation parameterisation used by models: Convective parameterisation Microphysics The lesson also discusses how to identify when these parameterisations are not performing well and steps to address the issues that arise.PermalinkThis lesson provides an overview of the primary influences of watershed and channel sedimentation. In a short narrated portion of the lesson, we explore a section of the Rio Grande watershed and channel in New Mexico using Google Earth imagery, river profiles, and graphic animations. We highlight features of the upland catchments, the river channel, and the Elephant Butte Reservoir. We then demonstrate how environmental factors (climate, geography, land use changes, reservoirs) impact the supply and movement of sediments for the Rio Grande and other rivers. The focus is on the three primary pr ...PermalinkThe latest analysis of observations from the WMO Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme shows that the globally averaged mole fractions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) reached new highs in 2014, with CO2 at 397.7±0.1 ppm, CH4 at 1833±1 ppb and N2O at 327.1±0.1 ppb. These values constitute, respectively, 143%, 254% and 121% of pre-industrial (1750) levels. The atmospheric increase of CO2 from 2013 to 2014 was close to that averaged over the past 10 years. For both CH4 and N2O the increases from 2013 to 2014 were larger than that observed from 2012 to 2013 and ...PermalinkDroughts pose a major risk in most African countries including Ghana where agricultural activities are heavily dependent on rainfall. Efforts at assessing droughts and providing decision support tools to farmers are hampered by a lack of rainfall and other meteorological data over many parts of Africa. Satellite based rainfall measurements have been suggested to fill the rainfall data gaps over Africa to enable effective assessment of droughts. Traditional methods of assessing droughts have been based on statistical formulations that relied mostly on precipitation. This approach to assessing d ...PermalinkIn urban climate research, spatial and temporal variability of precipitation is always a critical element for numerical modelling. However, the effects of temporal resolution of precipitation forcing data has received little attention. Moreover, there has always been a difference practically and theoretically in the availability of precipitation data. This study was carried out to assess the impact of temporal resolution of precipitation forcing data on the modelled surface energy and water balance using available data from a site at the Strand campus of Kings College London. Analysis has been ...PermalinkForecasting heavy rainfall associated with in-situ convective cloud development over small island states is a challenge in operational forecasting as not all numerical models are able to resolve convection at such small scales. Forecasting of such phenomena is mainly based on prevailing local conditions and the use of a plethora of thermodynamic indices derived from the local sounding. This study is an effort to assess the suitability of the different available indices, hereafter referred as traditional indices, to forecast heavy rainfall from local convection, commonly known as pure sea breez ...PermalinkAerosols in the atmosphere serve as condensation nuclei for the cloud formation. This brings an important influence on the microphysical properties of cloud water that in turn affect the processes in the formation of precipitation. Aerosol-cloud-precipitation interaction which simultaneously change cloud albedo interest many studies to find out aerosol impact on precipitation formation. The studies were done by observation measurement and simulation. UK Met Office Unified Model (UM) is one model that includes aerosol direct and indirect effect in the NWP configuration which leads to study aero ...PermalinkThis study attempts to reveal features of rainfall over Togo, in relationship to the
prevailing atmospheric circulation. The study employed correlation analysis and composite analysis in
the analysis of rainfall, sea surface temperature, wind, and humidity. Empirical orthogonal functions
(EOF) analysis was employed in this study. The years: 1989, 1991, 1995, 2003 and 2007 were
identified to be anomalously wet years while 1982, 1983, 1990, 1992, 2001 and 2006 fall in the
anomalously dry years’ category. The dominant mode of variability exhibits a dipole patter ...PermalinkThe Arctic is changing. Melting sea ice, thawing perma¬frost and a greening tundra are some of the consequences of Arctic temperatures that have been higher in the past few decades than at any other time over the past 2000 years. Unanticipated alterations in weather patterns and ocean currents are driving changes both on land and in the oceans.PermalinkPermalinkThis report reviews the impact of AMDAR observations on operational NWP forecasts at both regional and global scales that support national and local weather forecast offices across the globe.PermalinkThis issue of Southasiadisasters.net focuses on the theme of the 'Risk of Heat Waves and Climate Change in India'. It tries to highlight the phenomena of heat waves from the perspectives of various stakeholders ranging from the local authorities to the vulnerable communities such as street vendors, construction workers, children and the elderly. The Ahmedabad Heat Action Plan has been highlighted as a policy level intervention worth emulating in other Indian cities. Similarly, an anthropological perspective to heat wave planning is also posited.
This issue's contents includes: ( ...PermalinkPermalinkImproving the understanding of the potential impacts of severe hydrometeorological events poses a challenge to NMHSs and their partner agencies, particularly disaster reduction and civil protection agencies (DRCPAs). These Guidelines establish a road map that identifies the various milestones from weather forecasts and warnings to multi-hazard impact-based forecast and warning services.
For completeness, these Guidelines also describe the ultimate step of forecasting actual impacts, although it is recognized that this is a highly sophisticated exercise, requiring strong collaboration w ...PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; World Bank the; United States Agency for International Development (USAID); et al. - WMO, 2015 (WMO-No. 1153)The review of all past and current SEB analysis performed for this publication indicates that properly planned investments in hydrometeorological services provide significant benefits relative to their costs. While the publication attempts to capture the currently available wealth of experience and expertise across different contexts, it is not the end point for developing global knowledge on SEB analysis of hydrometeorological studies. Indeed, as we move to implement new global commitments on sustainable development goals, climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction, interest in kno ...PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA); United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP); et al. - WMO, 2015To help maintain a broad understanding of the relationship between ozone depletion, ODSs, and the Montreal Protocol, this component of the Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2014 presents 20 questions and answers about the often-complex science of ozone depletion. Most questions and answers are updates of those presented in previous Ozone Assessments, and a few have been expanded to address newly emerging issues. The questions address the nature of atmospheric ozone, the chemicals that cause ozone deple tion, how global and polar ozone depletion occur, the extent of ozone depletion, the ...PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; World Health Organization (WHO) - WMO, 2015 (WMO-No. 1142)This Guidance has been developed jointly by WMO and WHO to outline for practitioners in both NMHSs and National Health Services (NHSs) the issues surrounding the general heat–health problem and present how an understanding of the biometeorology, epidemiology, public-health and risk-communication aspects of heat as a hazard can be used to inform the development of an HHWS as part of a wider HHAP. The Guidance places emphasis on the practical aspects of HHWSs at a generic level and is not intended to be prescriptive. The Guidance has been produced to have global applicability. It has drawn on ex ...PermalinkThis report emphasizes that governments at all levels must provide their agencies with the authority and resources required to fulfill their disaster preparedness responsibilities and provincial and federal governments must provide further funding assistance to help empower local authorities. It explains that organizations outside of government as well as the public have preparedness responsibilities which they must come to understand, accept and fulfil. In addition, the report touches upon several recommendations which can be used by governments to successfully work towards better preparednes ...PermalinkThe Conference on the Gender Dimensions of Weather and Climate Services was a landmark international forum addressing how to equally empower women and men to build safer, stronger and more resilient societies through the provision and use of gender-sensitive weather and climate services. The Conference represented the contribution of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and its partners to the review of implementation of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action 20 years after its adoption. It also provided recommendations to enrich the development of the post-2015 disaster risk r ...Permalink
PermalinkЦелью данной публикации является содействовать единообразному пониманию основных требований к квалификации лиц, которым в соответствии с определением ВМО может быть присвоена квалификация метеоролога или техника-метеоролога, и при этом оказать помощь национальным метеорологическим и гидрологическим службам (НМГС) в создании их соответствующих систем классификации персонала и разработке учебных программ, которые бы в полной мере соответствовали международным стандартам.Permalink