Droughts pose a major risk in most African countries including Ghana where agricultural activities are heavily dependent on rainfall. Efforts at assessing droughts and providing decision support tools to farmers are hampered by a lack of rainfall and other meteorological data over many parts of Africa. Satellite based rainfall measurements have been suggested to fill the rainfall data gaps over Africa to enable effective assessment of droughts. Traditional methods of assessing droughts have been based on statistical formulations that relied mostly on precipitation. This approach to assessing d ...Published by: University of Reading ; 2015
Droughts pose a major risk in most African countries including Ghana where agricultural activities are heavily dependent on rainfall. Efforts at assessing droughts and providing decision support tools to farmers are hampered by a lack of rainfall and other meteorological data over many parts of Africa. Satellite based rainfall measurements have been suggested to fill the rainfall data gaps over Africa to enable effective assessment of droughts. Traditional methods of assessing droughts have been based on statistical formulations that relied mostly on precipitation. This approach to assessing droughts ignores important soil water balance processes such as evapotranspiration and antecedent soil moisture which limits its applicability to agricultural drought assessment. We use in-situ observation data (OBS), satellite estimated rainfall data (TAMSAT) and the Joint UK Land and Environment Simulator model to study soil moisture and how it impacts on crop production. The response of soil moisture to changes in vegetation and soil type is tested through a series of experiments in which the soil and vegetation parameters in JULES are changed. TAMSAT was found to persistently underestimate the intensity and amount of rainfall and as a result soil moisture content over northern Ghana but showed good skill replicating the inter-annual variations and the occurrence of rainfall during the rainy season. Soils with greater clay contents showed more tendencies to have drought than those with lesser clay content. Land surfaces with C3 grass were found to be less prone to droughts than those with C4 grass. Meteorological wet and dry years were found not to correspond to agricultural wet and dry years highlighting the importance of using soil moisture for assessment agricultural drought as was done in this study.
Notes: A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Science in Applied Meteorology and Climate with Management. - If you wish to download the full text, please contact library(at)wmo.int (Please replace (at) by @).
Format: Digital (Available online for logged-in users)Published by: The Lancet ; 2015
Format: Digital (Free)Published by: UNDP ; 2015
Language(s): English; Other Languages: Spanish
Format: Digital (Free)
Tags: Disaster Risk Management (DRM) ; Cyclone ; Drought ; Flood ; Volcanic Eruption ; Wildfire ; British Caribbean Territories ; Cuba ; Dominican Republic ; Guyana ; Jamaica ; Trinidad and Tobago Add tagThis report emphasizes that governments at all levels must provide their agencies with the authority and resources required to fulfill their disaster preparedness responsibilities and provincial and federal governments must provide further funding assistance to help empower local authorities. It explains that organizations outside of government as well as the public have preparedness responsibilities which they must come to understand, accept and fulfil. In addition, the report touches upon several recommendations which can be used by governments to successfully work towards better preparednes ...Published by: AIDMI ; 2015
This report emphasizes that governments at all levels must provide their agencies with the authority and resources required to fulfill their disaster preparedness responsibilities and provincial and federal governments must provide further funding assistance to help empower local authorities. It explains that organizations outside of government as well as the public have preparedness responsibilities which they must come to understand, accept and fulfil. In addition, the report touches upon several recommendations which can be used by governments to successfully work towards better preparedness.
Format: Digital (Free)United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO); UN Water - United Nations, 2015The report elaborates upon the future of water towards 2050 by describing how water supports healthy and prosperous human communities, including through measures that reduce vulnerability and improve resilience to water-related disasters such as flood and drought management approaches, maintains well-functioning ecosystems and ecological services, and provides a cornerstone for short and long-term economic development.
It provides an overview of the challenges, issues and trends in terms of water resources, their use and water-related services like water supply and sanitation, a ...Published by: United Nations ; 2015
The report elaborates upon the future of water towards 2050 by describing how water supports healthy and prosperous human communities, including through measures that reduce vulnerability and improve resilience to water-related disasters such as flood and drought management approaches, maintains well-functioning ecosystems and ecological services, and provides a cornerstone for short and long-term economic development.
It provides an overview of the challenges, issues and trends in terms of water resources, their use and water-related services like water supply and sanitation, and it explains how some governments have been working towards better integrating disaster risk reduction into development strategies through their development plans.
The report also offers, in a rigorous yet accessible manner, guidance about how to address these challenges and to seize the opportunities that sound water management provides in order to achieve and maintain economic, social and environmental sustainability.
Format: Digital (Free)
ISBN (or other code): 978-92-3-100071-3PermalinkThis lesson explores the primary influences, or drivers, on water temperature of inland streams and rivers. We use a simulated flight, or flyover, where we look down at the features of the South Boise River in Idaho. An unregulated as well as a regulated reach of the river are explored (above and below the Anderson Ranch Reservoir), with a look at cross sections of the river and its environment at key locations during the flyover. We explore how environmental factors (climate, geography, stream morphology) impact water temperatures. Then, after defining the factors that affect water temperatur ...PermalinkThis lesson presents 13 recorded presentations from the 29 July–2 August, 2013 offering of the Climate Variability and Change Virtual Course (CVCVC). This five-day live facilitated online course provided an extensive background on a range of climate variability and change topics with an emphasis on developing communication skills for challenging climate topics. The topics covered in this course, while aimed primarily at NOAA operational climate services delivery staff will also be helpful for others who already possess a basic level of understanding of climate science. Presentations include: W ...PermalinkThis brochure is part of a series highlighting the World Bank's achievements in disaster risk management initiatives. The brochure offers lessons learned on managing disaster risk and promoting urban resilience and it presents Bangladesh's path-breaking Urban Resilience Project, the product of a collaborative effort among the government, the World Bank, and GFDRR, which equips key government agencies with state-of-the art emergency management facilities and improves construction permitting processes.PermalinkCARE International (CI), 2014This document is a joint research report that was presented on the 5th of December during COP20 and on the 9th of December at the People's Summit in Lima, Peru. It argues that, for the construction of new governance under difficult conditions due to the drought and the impacts of climate change in Central America, it is urgent not only to allocate financial resources for adaptation, but also to take synergic actions that will implicate the civil society and the governments.
Based on the expected impacts of climate change for Central America, presented through various forecast s ...PermalinkThe implementation of a drought policy based on the philosophy of risk reduction can alter a nation’s approach to drought management by reducing the associated impacts (risk). This was the idea that motivated the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the Secretariat of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), in collaboration with a number of UN agencies, international and regional organizations, and key national agencies, to organize the Highlevel Meeting on National Drought Policy (HMNDP), which ...PermalinkThis report focuses on the risks of climate change to development in Latin America and the Caribbean, the Middle East and North Africa, and parts of Europe and Central Asia. For each region, the report addresses the regional patterns of climate change, such as heat extremes, extreme precipitation, droughts, tropical cyclones/hurricanes, and sea-level rise.
Building on earlier Turn Down the Heat reports, this new scientific analysis examines the likely impacts of present day (0.8°C), 2°C and 4°C warming above pre-industrial temperatures on agricultural production, water resource ...PermalinkSuni Yulius P.K.; Lassa Jonatan A.; Institute of Resource Governance and Social Change (IRGSC) - IRGSC, 2014This paper addresses the reduction of carbon emission as a global climate mitigation imperative and considers the negative impacts of climate change on food production. It argues that, in order to ensure that climate adaptation, food security and climate mitigation objectives are mutually achieved, local level intervention is necessary.
The case study shows local level action where efforts achieving food security through mutual adoption of climate adaptation (e.g. drought and soil erosion management through land and water conservation measures) and carbon mitigation. The resear ...Permalink2014This paper presents a review and analysis of the available literature and information on droughts to build a perspective on geospatial and temporal variation of droughts in Africa. The study is based on the review and analysis of droughts occurred during 1900–2013 as well as evidence available from past centuries based on studies on the lake sediment analysis, tree-ring chronologies and written and oral histories and future predictions from the global climate change models. The paper argues that the available evidence from the past shows that the African continent is likely to face extreme and ...PermalinkThis booklet is based on outcomes from a two-year Indo-Norwegian research and capacity development project titled, ‘Extreme Risks, Vulnerabilities and Community-Based Adaptation in India (EVA)’. The findings draw upon empirical data from rural communities in Jalna District in the dryland region of Marathwada of Maharashtra.PermalinkOrganisation météorologique mondiale (OMM); Global Water Partnership (GWP) - OMM, 2014 (OMM-No. 1164)La mise en oeuvre d’une politique nationale de gestion de la sécheresse fondée sur le principe de la réduction des risques peut exiger de revoir les dispositions prises jusqu’alors en vue d’atténuer les impacts correspondants. Ce constat a conduit l’Organisation météorologique mondiale (OMM), le Secrétariat de la Convention des Nations Unies sur la lutte contre la désertification (CNULCD) et l’Organisation des Nations Unies pour l’alimentation et l’agriculture (FAO) à tenir du 11 au 15 mars 2013, à Genève, la Réunion de haut niveau sur les politiques nationales en matière de sécheresse, en col ...PermalinkВсемирная Метеорологическая Организация (BMO); Global Water Partnership (GWP) - BMO, 2014 (BMO-No. 1164)Осуществление политики в отношении засухи, основанной на философии, заключающейся в уменьшении риска, может изменить национальный подход к борьбе с засухой за счет уменьшения соответствующих последствий (риска). Именно эта идея вдохновила Всемирную Метеорологическую Организацию (ВМО), Секретариат Конвенции Организации Объединенных Наций по борьбе с опустыниванием (КБОООН) и Продовольственную и сельскохозяйственную организацию Объединенных Наций (ФАО) в сотрудничестве с рядом учреждений ООН, международных и региональных организаций и ключевых национальных агентств на организацию и проведение Со ...Permalinkالمنظمة العالمية للأرصاد ; Global Water Partnership (GWP) - المنظمة العالمية للأرصاد, 2014 (مجموعة مطبوعات المنظمة-No. 1164)إن تنفيذ سياسة بشأن الجفاف تستند إلى فلسفة الحد من المخاطر يمكن أن يغيّر النهج الذي تتبعه أي دولة في ما يتعلق بإدارة الجفاف وذلك بتقليل الآثار ذات الصلة )بالمخاطر(. وقد كانت هذه هي الفكرة التي دفعت المنظمة العالمية للأرصاد الجوية WMO( (، وأمانة اتفاقية الأمم المتحدة بشأن مكافحة التصحر ) UNCCD (، ومنظمة الأغذية والزراعة للأمم المتحدة ) FAO ( إلى القيام، بالتعاون مع عدد وكالات الأمم المتحدة والمنظمات الدولية والإقليمية والوكالات الوطنية الرئيسية، بتنظيم الاجتماع الرفيع المستوى المعني بالسياسات الوطنية بشأن الجفاف HMNDP( (، الذي عُقد في جنيف من 11 إلى 15 آذار/ مارس 2013 . وكان موضوع ذلك الاجتماع ...Permalink实施基于降低风险理念的干旱政策能 够通过降低相关影响（风险）而改变国家的 干旱管理方式。正是这一理念促使世界气 象组织（WMO）、联合国防治荒漠化公约 （UNCCD）秘书处以及联合国粮食及农业 组织（FAO）与一些联合国机构、国际和区 域组织以及主要的国家机构合作，于2013 年3月11-15日在日内瓦召开了国家干旱政策 高级别会议（HMNDP）。HMNDP的主题 是‘降低社会脆弱性 – 帮助社会（社区和行 业）’。[...]PermalinkOrganización Meteorológica Mundial (OMM); Asociación Mundial para el Agua (GWP) - OMM, 2014 (OMM-No. 1164)La aplicación de una política sobre la sequía basada en la filosofía de la reducción de los riesgos puede modificar el enfoque de la gestión de la sequía por los países mediante la reducción de los efectos conexos (riesgo). Esta es la idea que motivó a la Organización Meteorológica Mundial (OMM), la secretaría de la Convención de las Naciones Unidas de Lucha contra la Desertificación y la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Alimentación y la Agricultura (FAO), en colaboración con diversos organismos de las Naciones Unidas, organizaciones internacionales y regionales y organismos nacion ...PermalinkEl Marco Mundial para los Servicios Climáticos (MMSC) identifica cuatro áreas de prioridad inicial: el agua, la seguridad alimentaria, la salud y la reducción del riesgo de desastres. La sequía y la desertificación (de ahora en adelante, S+D) son temas importantes en todas estas áreas.PermalinkThis report evaluates the extent to which farms facing higher levels of drought risk are more likely to participate in conservation programs, and finds a strong link between drought risk and program participation. It examines drought risk adaptation, defined as the choices that farmers make in response to drought risk exposure, and addresses the policy uncertainty by examining the role of drought risk within agricultural conservation programs and considering potential changes in conservation program design, such as adjustments in contract ranking criteria or changes in eligibility requirements ...PermalinkIFPRI, 2013This brief summarizes the key lessons that have emerged from a cost-benefit analysis of the African Risk Capacity (ARC) pool, a proposed pan-Africa drought risk pool that would insure against drought risk in Africa south of the Sahara, and discusses how these lessons can be more broadly applied to other cross-country pools.
It proposes 8 key lessons: (i) governments need to make a clear commitment to rules-based disbursement of claim payments; (ii) insurance mechanisms should focus on large infrequent payments, with other systems handling smaller, more frequent events; (iii) th ...Permalink2013This report present CDP, C40 and AECOM latest results from the third consecutive year of climate change reporting for cities. The data presented in the report conveys information about every aspect of climate change measurement and management in cities, including risks such as temperature increase/heatwaves, frequent/intense rainfall, drought, storms/flooding and sea level rise, and adaptation. It is intended to provide city governments with information and insights in order to assist their work in tackling the challenge of climate change.PermalinkODI, 2013This report examines the relationship between disasters and poverty. It concludes that, without concerted action, there could be up to 325 million extremely poor people living in the 49 countries most exposed to the full range of natural hazards and climate extremes in 2030. It maps out where the poorest people are likely to live and develops a range of scenarios to identify potential patterns of vulnerability to extreme weather and earthquakes – who is going to be vulnerable and why. These scenarios are dynamic: they consider how the threats may change, which countries face the greatest risk ...Permalink