The first edition of this guide was published in 1950.Published by: WMO ; 2018 (2018 Edition)
The first edition of this guide was published in 1950.
Notes: Online archive (from 1950 onward) is available for logged-in users. Not registered yet? Click here or contact library(at)wmo.int (please replace at by @). - Other parts in preparation.
Collection(s) and Series: WMO- No. 8
Language(s): English; Other Languages: French, Spanish, Russian, Arabic
Format: Digital (Free)
ISBN (or other code): 978-92-63-10008-5
Tags: Observations ; Meteorological instrument ; Hydrometeorological instrument ; Automated Weather Observing System (AWOS) ; Global Space-based Inter-Calibration System (GSICS) ; WMO Integrated Global Observing System (WIGOS) ; Methodology ; Guide ; Meteorology ; OBS - Personnel installing and maintaining instrumentation ; OBS - Personnel managing observing programmes and networks ; OBS - Personnel performing instrument calibrations ; OBS - Personnel performing meteorological observations ; Instruments and Methods of Observation Programme (IMOP) ; Commission for Instruments and Methods of Observation (CIMO) ; Technical Publications ; CIMO Guide ; guide cimo wmo-8 Add tagThis publication is designed to provide Members of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) with guidance and assistance in developing national activities linked to climate information and services.Published by: WMO ; 2018 (2018 Edition)
This publication is designed to provide Members of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) with guidance and assistance in developing national activities linked to climate information and services.
Notes: Other versions in preparation.
Collection(s) and Series: WMO- No. 100
Language(s): English; Other Languages: Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian, Spanish
Format: Digital (Free)
ISBN (or other code): 978-92-63-10100-6
Archives access: 1960-[...]
Tags: Climate ; Climate services ; Guide ; Methodology ; Competencies for Provision of Climate Services ; Commission for Climatology (CCl) ; World Climate Programme (WCP) ; Technical Publications Add tagLa première édition du Guide des instruments et des methodes d’observation meteorologiques (OMM-N° 8) a été publiée en 1954.Published by: OMM ; 2018 (Edition 2018)
La première édition du Guide des instruments et des methodes d’observation meteorologiques (OMM-N° 8) a été publiée en 1954.
Notes: Autres chapitres en préparation
Collection(s) and Series: OMM- No. 8
Language(s): French; Other Languages: English, Russian, Spanish, Arabic
Format: Digital (Free)
ISBN (or other code): 978-92-63-20008-2
Archives access: 1996-[...]Fog though a rare event has adverse economic implications to both the airline and aviation service providers if it’s occurrence, duration and dissipation periods are not properly predicted. This work assesses the accuracy and skill in forecasting fog events and suggesting possible adjustments to improve forecast accuracy and skill. The forecast used in this study are produced by MeteoGroup using Model Output Statistics (MOS). Forecasts for Heathrow, Northolt and Kenley are considered for analysis. These forecasts are used by British Airports Authority (BAA) in planning airport operations. The ...Published by: University of Reading - Department of meteorology ; 2016
Fog though a rare event has adverse economic implications to both the airline and aviation service providers if it’s occurrence, duration and dissipation periods are not properly predicted. This work assesses the accuracy and skill in forecasting fog events and suggesting possible adjustments to improve forecast accuracy and skill. The forecast used in this study are produced by MeteoGroup using Model Output Statistics (MOS). Forecasts for Heathrow, Northolt and Kenley are considered for analysis. These forecasts are used by British Airports Authority (BAA) in planning airport operations. The forecasts are produced daily at 08:00 UTC with a validity of 24 hours. Hourly Meteorological Aerodrome Reports (METARs) are used to verify the forecast. The forecast accuracy and skill is determined using Hit Rate (HR), False Alarm Ratio (FAR), Frequency Bias (FBI), and Critical Success Index (CSI) evaluated from a 2-category contingency table. Significance of the forecast error is evaluated using a student’s t-test for difference in means at 0.05 significance level. The HR and CSI for the original forecast for all the three stations, Heathrow, Northolt and Kenley was below 20%. Upon adjusting the forecast using regression analysis, the HR and CSI for Heathrow improved to 53.7% and 40.8% respectively. The HR and CSI for Northolt improved to 27.4% and 24.2% respectively. The improvement for Kenley was insignificant since the HR and CSI slightly improved to values below 10%. Although this method is purely statistical hence do not involve physical dynamics that dictate fog formation, maintenance and dissipation, in absence of a dynamical methods that can be applied to improve the accuracy and skill of visibility forecast within fog range then regression methods used in this study is a better option especially for Heathrow airport.
Notes: If you wish to download the full text, please contact the author (kizitoamua(at)gmail.com) or library(at)wmo.int (Please replace (at) by @).
Format: DigitalThis study attempted to investigate the variability of extreme rainfall and temperature over Rwanda and the associated circulation anomalies forecasting on wet and dry rainfall events between 1961 and 2010. The datasets used to achieve the objectives includes Temperature, the rainfall dataset, wind vector, pressure vertical velocity (omega) and the Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST). The methods used include correlation analysis, Standardized anomaly, composite analysis, and Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) analysis. The results show that the mean annual cycle depict two rainy Seas ...Published by: Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology ; 2016
This study attempted to investigate the variability of extreme rainfall and temperature over Rwanda and the associated circulation anomalies forecasting on wet and dry rainfall events between 1961 and 2010. The datasets used to achieve the objectives includes Temperature, the rainfall dataset, wind vector, pressure vertical velocity (omega) and the Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST). The methods used include correlation analysis, Standardized anomaly, composite analysis, and Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) analysis. The results show that the mean annual cycle depict two rainy Season in the courses of the year. The first rainy season runs from March – May (MAM) with the highest precipitation in April and second rainy season from September to November (SON), which has recorded the highest precipitation in November. The spatial distribution of monthly precipitation from January to December similarly show that the rainy season runs from March- May (MAM) received the highest precipitation in the region compared to September-November (SON). Results further show that the years with standardized deviation of +1 or more (wet years) including ,MAM and SON respectively, 1961,1963,1970,1981,1994,1998,2001,2004,2006 and 2009 whereas floods years. And for standardized deviation of -1 or less (dry years) includes 1979, 1984, 1993,2000,2001,2007 and 2010 considered as droughts years. The circulation anomalies associated with wet and dry years studied over these identified years revealed that in Rwanda, the equatorial wind climatology is deeply modified by the relief at a varied altitude.
Forecasters would make Rwanda climate more predictable. Strategies that integrate land and water management, and disaster risk reduction, within a framework of emerging climate change risks would bolster resilient development in the face of impacts of the new set of climate in Rwanda.
Notes: If you wish to download the full text, please contact the author (ujacquie(at)yahoo.fr) or library(at)wmo.int (Please replace (at) by @).
Format: DigitalGlobal climate change is remarkably changing the climatic patterns of the Pearl River basin and are significantly impacting the hydrological processes. Projection of future climate change impacts on steamflow variation is potential to provide scientific guidelines for sustainable water resources management and effective prevention and control for flood and drought disasters. In this study, a hydrological modeling system for assessing climate change impacts on runoffin the Pearl River basin was established and were used to simulate historical hydrological process and to project future streamflo ...PermalinkThis research investigates the dynamical and thermodynamical process of mesoscale convective system that intensifies squall lines wind speed propagation. The generation of African Easterly Waves (AEWs) and its lifecycle. The characteristics of squall lines (SLs) over West Africa (WA) which occurred In Guinea for two cases periods June 01-02 and June 13-14, 2015. In all six (6) AEWs have been tracked using reanalysis data from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). European Meteorological Satellite images (EUMETSAT) and Earth Networks WeatherBug StreamerRT were also used to ...PermalinkAerosols are small, micrometer-sized particles, whose optical effects coupled with their impact on cloud properties is a source of large uncertainty in climate models. Aerosols when inhaled are believed to have significant and detrimental effects on human health. Their presence also affects photosynthesis and agricultural production. Aerosol measurements are urgently required for the complete understanding and modeling their role in the climate system. This study builds on the analysis of Aerosol Optical depth (AOD) using Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) and sun photometer measurements then ...PermalinkThis paper examines the aerosol extinction coefficient profiles measured by Rayleigh-Raman-Mie-Lidar (RRML) system in Nanjing, China. I introduced two lidars methods (Raman and Fernald) and detection principle, and two lidars data Using Raman analysis method and Fernald analysis method to obtained aerosol extinction coefficient. Aerosol profiles at 607 nm and 532 nm over ranges from 6 km to 10 km were obtained using respectively Raman lidar and Rayleigh lidar in Nanjing.PermalinkPrecipitations vary consistently in Benin from 1981 to 2010. The present study reveals that the variation of Benin JJAS precipitation is positively correlated to MAM Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in Atlantic Ocean with correlation coefficient more than 0.7. When the SST is higher (lower) in the Atlantic Ocean, precipitation over Benin tends to be above (below) normal. The years 1988, 1989, 2003, 2007 and 2008, were wet with 1988, 2003, 2008 high SST over Tropical Southern Atlantic Ocean (STAO) while the years 1982, 1983, 1992 and 1997 formed the dry years with low SST over Tropical Southern At ...PermalinkThe southern coastal region of West Africa (SCWA) is located between 40N-80N latitudes and 100W -50E longitudes near the equator in the northern Hemisphere, the south and west are respectively equatorial and West Atlantic Ocean, and it is consisted to seven countries (Sierra Leon, Liberia, Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, Benin and Nigeria). The rainy season starts from spring to the summer, mainly from May to October. The rainfall is very important for southern coastal of West Africa region which their economy and food supply are highly dependent on agricultural production. Understanding of previo ...PermalinkThe variability and predictability of summer rainfall over Zimbabwe at inter-annual time scale is studied. Dry and wet seasons are identified using Zimbabwe Standardized Rainfall Index (ZRI). Seasonal rainfall and circulation patterns are investigated at inter annual time scale. The study focuses on the temporal and spatial variation of summer rainfall over Zimbabwe and tries to explain the circulation mechanisms associated with such phenomenon.PermalinkFor Zimbabwe, where rain fed agriculture is the backbone of the economy, the importance of accurate rainfall seasonal forecasts cannot be overemphasized (Makarau and Jury, 1997). In fact, extremes in interseasonal variability of rainfall can significantly complicate human livelihoods. In addition, there have been predictions of increased precipitation variability and hydro-meteorological hazards such as floods, droughts, and erratic rainfall due to global warming (Field et al., 2014; Mushore, 2013a). Thus, detailed understanding of the major contributors to the rainfall variability over Zimbab ...PermalinkIn urban climate research, spatial and temporal variability of precipitation is always a critical element for numerical modelling. However, the effects of temporal resolution of precipitation forcing data has received little attention. Moreover, there has always been a difference practically and theoretically in the availability of precipitation data. This study was carried out to assess the impact of temporal resolution of precipitation forcing data on the modelled surface energy and water balance using available data from a site at the Strand campus of Kings College London. Analysis has been ...PermalinkPermalinkDespite substantial advances in both forecasting capability and emergency preparedness, recent years have seen a large number of natural disasters that have cost many lives, displaced large numbers of people, and caused widespread damage to property and infrastructure. Many of these disasters result from severe weather interacting with society. At the same time, less severe weather events place a continuing strain on society through more frequent impacts of smaller magnitude. This is especially evident in less developed countries with more fragile economies and infrastructure. In addition, wea ...PermalinkLa primera edición de la Guía de Instrumentos y Métodos de Observación Meteorológicos (OMM-Nº 8) se publicó en 1954 […].
La presente Guía es un recurso fundamental que describe la mayoría de los instrumentos, los sistemas y las técnicas utilizados regularmente, desde los más sencillos hasta los más complejos y sofisticados, pero no pretende abordar los métodos e instrumentos que se utilizan únicamente con fines de investigación. Tiene por objeto presentar las mejores prácticas, los procedimientos y las capacidades básicas de los instrumentos y sistemas a fin de ayudar a los Servicios Me ...PermalinkПервое издание Руководства по метеорологическим приборам и методам наблюдений (ВМО-№ 8) было опубликовано в 1954 г.[…].
Данное Руководство представляет собой ключевой ресурс, в котором содержится описание большинства приборов, систем и методов, используемых на регулярной основе: от простейших до характеризующихся высоким и высочайшим уровнем сложности, при этом не делается попытки описать методы и приборы, которые используются лишь для проведения научных исследований. Задача Руководства состоит в том, чтобы предоставить информацию о передовых методах, процедурах и базовых возможностях п ...Permalink《WMO 气象仪器和观测方法指南》（WMO-No.8）第一版于1954 年出版，共十二章。此后，标准化仍然是仪器和观测方法委员会（CIMO）活动的一个关键问题。委员会不断审议指南的 内容，并确保在定期更新时纳入了反映技术的快速发展及其在气象仪器和观测方法领域的 实施的现代指导材料。
对于常规用途的大多数仪器、系统和技术，本指南是一项关键资源，提供了从最简单到最复 杂精细的描述，但不会涉及仅用于研究的方法和工具。指南的目的是给出最佳做法和程序，以及仪器和系统的基本能力，协助国家气象和水文部门或者其他感兴趣的运行观测系统的用 户编制他们的手册和程序，满足各自对测量和观察结果的特定需要。指南有意将标准化限制 在基本要求上，并将建议局限至给定仪器或测量系统不同配置最常见的一般特征，从而给 进一步发展留下广泛余地。对于有关与WIGOS 相关的仪器和观测方法的所有问题，本指南 都是权威参考。Permalinkوصدرت الطبعة الأولى من دلیل أدوات وطرق رصد الأحوال الجویة (مطبوع المنظمة رقم 8) في عام 1954 وكانت تتألف من اثني عشر فصلاً. ومنذ ذلك الحین، ظلت مسألة التوحید القیاسي مصدر قلق ومن ھنا تواصل اللجنة استعراض محتویات .(CIMO) رئیسیاً بالنسبة لأنشطة لجنة أدوات وطرق الرصد الدلیل وتتأكد من أن عملیات التحدیث المنتظمة تشمل المواد الإرشادیة الحدیثة التي تعكس التطور السریع للتكنولوجیا وتنفیذھا في مجال أدوات وطرق رصد الأحوال الجویةPermalinkis an issue of NewScientist. Reed Business Information Ltd, 2013PermalinkThis WMO information note is the first in a series that will aim to make the science underlying the weather, climate and water issues addressed by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) more easily accessible to the general public. The science of climate change continues to advance through the accumulation of additional data and observations and new studies and analyses. The peer-reviewed scientific literature that draws on these data and studies are assessed by the WMO/UNEP Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which will issue "The Physical Science Basis" volume of its Fifth ...Permalink2013A regional-scale sensitivity study has been carried out to investigate the climatic effects of forest cover change in Europe. Applying REMO (regional climate model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology), the projected temperature and precipitation tendencies have been analysed for summer, based on the results of the A2 IPCC-SRES emission scenario simulation. For the end of the 21st century it has been studied, whether the assumed forest cover increase could reduce the effects of the greenhouse gas concentration change.Permalinkis an issue of 気象庁硏究時報. 気象庁, 2012PermalinkScience for Environment Policy, Issue 297. EEA, 2012A new study has concluded that the benefits of carbon capture and storage (CCS) to human health and ecosystems from reduced climate change related impacts considerably outweigh any negative impacts from using the technology in power plants. However, CCS has a large impact on the depletion of natural resources.PermalinkScience for Environment Policy, Issue 278. EEA, 2012The Earth is now absorbing more energy from the Sun than it is radiating into space. A recent analysis indicates that most models of this energy imbalance underestimate the impacts of human-made aerosols and overestimate time lags in response to the climate. As such, the energy imbalance and future impacts on climate may be greater than predicted.PermalinkNtamack S. - 2012This paper addresses some methodological biases present in the mode of understanding climate change through scientific research. These overlapping biases are referred to as glocality. The paper argues that as a device of the cognitive globalisation around environmental issues, glocality operates in science as a cognitive form of ubiquity deriving from an attempt to compress the spatiotemporal dimension of the changing weather within the time and space of the mind. In the case of climate change, it refers to three focal points summarised as problems of climate change’s phenomena problem of the ...PermalinkFollowing the advice of the XV Session of the Association, the TT-SPAP developed the regional Operating Plan by compiling the tasks in the Work Programmes of the Working Groups. Thus, the Operating Plan contains concrete tasks and deliverables aimed at assisting RA VI Members to implement their national plans for further development of their NMHSs and improvement of the provision of meteorological, hydrological and climatological services for supporting their national economies and the society. The RA VI Operating Plan is intended to be a living document regularly monitored and adjusted as nec ...PermalinkWhile agreeing on the choice of an optimal investment decision is already difficult for any diverse group of actors, priorities, and world views, the presence of deep uncertainties further challenges the decision-making framework by questioning the robustness of all purportedly optimal solutions. This paper summarizes the additional uncertainty that is created by climate change, and reviews the tools that are available to project climate change (including downscaling techniques) and to assess and quantify the corresponding uncertainty. Assuming that climate change and other deep uncertainties ...PermalinkKunkel Kenneth E.; American Meteorological Society (AMS); National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) - AMS, 2012The state of knowledge regarding trends and an understanding of their causes is presented for a specific subset of extreme weather and climate types. For severe convective storms (tornadoes, hail storms, and severe thunderstorms), differences in time and space of practices of collecting reports of events make the use of the reporting database to detect trends extremely difficult. Overall, changes in the frequency of environments favorable for severe thunderstorms have not been statistically significant. For extreme precipitation, there is strong evidence for a nationally-averaged upward trend ...PermalinkEmissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from agriculture are substantial. This paper looks into how can agricultural greenhouse gas emissions be reduced or sequestration enhanced while maintaining and even increasing food supply. The paper relies on a research undertaken in nine chosen African countries.
The authors reveal that croplands and grazing lands cover more than half of the East African countries’ lands and about 40% of the West African countries’ lands. In the nine African countries, the largest amount of GHG emissions is from the livestock sector, followed by emissions f ...Permalink
PermalinkEuropean Commission, 2012Previous studies have showed that microsensors can successfully measure ozone in ambient air for a limited period of time after on-site calibration by comparison to ultraviolet photometry. This method is generally more successful than the calibration in exposure chambers under controlled conditions because of the difference between laboratory and fields air matrixes. To expand this result, we carried out an experiment at two sampling sites. At the first site, themicrosensors were calibrated during a few days. Subsequently, the calibrated microsensors were taken to another sampling site where t ...PermalinkPermalinkScience for Environment Policy, Issue 263. EEA, 2011Satellite data from the Torres Islands in the southwest Pacific suggest that rising sea-levels in the region widely attributed to climate change is also partly caused by sinking of the islands following earthquakes in the 1990s, according to recent research.Permalink
PermalinkScience for Environment Policy, Issue 253. EEA, 2011The quality of indoor air varies widely across Europe, according to a recent study. Poor indoor air quality is mainly due to household products, outdoor pollution and smoking yielding high levels of organic pollutants harmful to human health. The study indicates higher levels of indoor air pollution in southern Europe than in northern Europe, and with an associated risk of cancer higher than the acceptable unit risk. However the present data must be improved in order to get more precise risk estimates.PermalinkProceedings A, vol. 463 no. 2078. Svensmark Henrik; Pedersen Jens Olaf P.; Marsh Nigel D.; et al. - The Royal Society, 2011Experimental studies of aerosol nucleation in air, containing trace amounts of ozone, sulphur dioxide and water vapour at concentrations relevant for the Earth's atmosphere, are reported. The production of new aerosol particles is found to be proportional to the negative ion density and yields nucleation rates of the order of 0.1–1 cm−3 s−1. This suggests that the ions are active in generating an atmospheric reservoir of small thermodynamically stable clusters, which are important for nucleation processes in the atmosphere and ultimately for cloud formation.PermalinkUCAR Magazine. The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, 2011NCAR and the University of Paris recently teamed up to produce the most intricate model of organic atmospheric chemistry to date. With this formidable tool in hand, they’ve now produced the first explicit simulation of a vital process: the chemistry by which primary organic aerosols (POA, which are directly emitted) work with other atmospheric components to produce secondary organic aerosols (SOA).Permalinkis an issue of Nature. Nature Publishing Group, 2011Notably contains:
- Storm warning: US policy on climate research should not be derailed by political infighting: 1p.
- 2°C or not 2°C? That is the climate question: 1p.
- Tracking the route of the 2004 tsunami: 1p.
- Carbon dioxide footprints quantified: 1p.
- China unveils 2020 vision for orbiting space station: 1p.
- A grey whale in the wrong ocean could be a harbinger of climate change: 1p.
- The Storet effect and isotopic fractionation in high-temperature silicate melts: 1p.PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Korhonen H.; Sihto S.-L.; Kerminen V.-M.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Several mathematical tools have been developed in recent years to analyze new particle formation rates and to estimate nucleation rates and mechanisms at sub-3 nm sizes from atmospheric aerosol data. Here we evaluate these analysis tools using 1239 numerical nucleation events for which the nucleation mechanism and formation rates were known exactly. The accuracy of the estimates of particle formation rate at 3 nm (J3) showed significant sensitivity to the details of the analysis, i.e. form of equations used and assumptions made about the initial size of nucleating clusters, with the fraction o ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Donahue N. M.; Epstein S. A.; Pandis S. N.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011We develop the thermodynamic underpinnings of a two-dimensional volatility basis set (2D-VBS) employing saturation mass concentration (Co) and the oxygen content (O:C) to describe volatility, mixing thermodynamics, and chemical evolution of organic aerosol. The work addresses a simple question: "Can we reasonably constrain organic-aerosol composition in the atmosphere based on only two measurable organic properties, volatility and the extent of oxygenation?" This is an extension of our earlier one-dimensional approach employing volatility only (C* = γ Co, where γ is an activity coefficient). U ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Held A.; Brooks I. M.; Leck C.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011We present direct eddy covariance measurements of aerosol number fluxes, dominated by sub-50 nm particles, at the edge of an ice floe drifting in the central Arctic Ocean. The measurements were made during the ice-breaker borne ASCOS (Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study) expedition in August 2008 between 2°–10° W longitude and 87°–87.5° N latitude. The median aerosol transfer velocities over different surface types (open water leads, ice ridges, snow and ice surfaces) ranged from 0.27 to 0.68 mm s−1 during deposition-dominated episodes. Emission periods were observed more frequently over the open ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Huang M.; Carmichael Gregory R.; Spak S. N.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Chronic high surface ozone (O3) levels and the increasing sulfur oxides (SOx = SO2+SO4) ambient concentrations over South Coast (SC) and other areas of California (CA) are affected by both local emissions and long-range transport. In this paper, multi-scale tracer, full-chemistry and adjoint simulations using the STEM atmospheric chemistry model are conducted to assess the contribution of local emission sourcesto SC O3 and to evaluate the impacts of transported sulfur and local emissions on the SC sulfur budgetduring the ARCTAS-CARB experiment period in 2008. Sensitivity simulations quantify c ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Jaeglé L.; Quinn P. K.; Bates T. S.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011We combine in situ measurements of sea salt aerosols (SS) from open ocean cruises and ground-based stations together with aerosol optical depth (AOD) observations from MODIS and AERONET, and the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model to provide new constraints on SS emissions over the world's oceans. We find that the GEOS-Chem model using the Gong (2003) source function overestimates cruise observations of coarse mode SS mass concentrations by factors of 2–3 at high wind speeds over the cold waters of the Southern, North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans. Furthermore, the model systematical ...PermalinkApparent evidence for a strong signature of solar activity in ground-based insolation data was recently reported. In particular, a strong increase of the irradiance of the direct solar beam with sunspot number as well as a decline of the brightness of the solar aureole and the measured precipitable water content of the atmosphere with solar activity were presented. The latter effect was interpreted as evidence for cosmic-ray-induced aerosol formation. Here I show that these spurious results are due to a failure to correct for seasonal variations and the effects of volcanic eruptions and local ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Markovic M. Z.; Hayden K. L.; Murphy J. G.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011The Border Air Quality and Meteorology Study (BAQS-Met) was an intensive, collaborative field campaign during the summer of 2007 that investigated the effects of transboundary pollution, local pollution, and local meteorology on air quality in southwestern Ontario. This analysis focuses on the measurements of the inorganic constituents of particulate matter with diameter of less than 1 μm (PM1), with a specific emphasis on nitrate. We evaluate the ability of AURAMS, Environment Canada's chemical transport model, to represent regional air pollution in SW Ontario by comparing modelled aerosol in ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Tapia A.; Villanueva F.; Salgado M. S.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011A study of the kinetics and products obtained from the reactions of 3-methylfuran with the main atmospheric oxidants has been performed. The rate coefficients for the gas-phase reaction of 3-methylfuran with OH and NO3 radicals have been determined at room temperature and atmospheric pressure (air and N2 as bath gases), using a relative method with different experimental techniques. The rate coefficients obtained for these reactions were (in units cm3 molecule−1 s−1) kOH = (1.13 ± 0.22) × 10−10 and kNO3 = (1.26 ± 0.18) × 10−11. Products from the reaction of 3-methylfuran with OH, NO3 and Cl at ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Wojtal P.; Halla J. D.; McLaren R. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011A complete understanding of the formation mechanism of nitrous acid (HONO) in the ambient atmosphere is complicated by a lack of understanding of processes occurring when aqueous water is present. We report nocturnal measurements of HONO, SO2 and NO2 by differential optical absorption spectroscopy over the ocean surface in a polluted marine environment. In this aqueous environment, we observed reproducible pseudo steady states (PSS) of HONO every night, that are fully formed shortly after sunset, much faster than seen in urban environments. During the PSS period, HONO is constant with time, in ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Xu J.; Li C.; Shi H.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011This study investigated the decadal variation of the direct surface solar radiation (DiSR) and the diffuse surface solar radiation (DfSR) during 1961–2008 in the Shanghai megacity as well as their relationships to Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) under clear-sky conditions. Three successive periods with unique features of long term variation of DiSR were identified for both clear-sky and all-sky conditions: a "dimming" period from the late 1960s to the mid 1980s, a "stabilization"/"slight brightening" period from the mid 1980s to the mid 1990s, and a "renewed dimming" period thereafter. During the ...Permalink