The first edition of this guide was published in 1950.Published by: WMO ; 2018 (2018 Edition)
The first edition of this guide was published in 1950.
Notes: Online archive (from 1950 onward) is available for logged-in users. Not registered yet? Click here or contact library(at)wmo.int (please replace at by @). - Other parts in preparation.
Collection(s) and Series: WMO- No. 8
Language(s): English; Other Languages: French, Spanish, Russian, Arabic
Format: Digital (Free)
ISBN (or other code): 978-92-63-10008-5
Tags: Observations ; Meteorological instrument ; Hydrometeorological instrument ; Automated Weather Observing System (AWOS) ; Global Space-based Inter-Calibration System (GSICS) ; WMO Integrated Global Observing System (WIGOS) ; Methodology ; Guide ; Meteorology ; OBS - Personnel installing and maintaining instrumentation ; OBS - Personnel managing observing programmes and networks ; OBS - Personnel performing instrument calibrations ; OBS - Personnel performing meteorological observations ; Instruments and Methods of Observation Programme (IMOP) ; Commission for Instruments and Methods of Observation (CIMO) ; Technical Publications ; CIMO Guide ; guide cimo wmo-8 Add tagThis publication is designed to provide Members of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) with guidance and assistance in developing national activities linked to climate information and services.Published by: WMO ; 2018 (2018 Edition)
This publication is designed to provide Members of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) with guidance and assistance in developing national activities linked to climate information and services.
Notes: Other versions in preparation.
Collection(s) and Series: WMO- No. 100
Language(s): English; Other Languages: Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian, Spanish
Format: Digital (Free)
ISBN (or other code): 978-92-63-10100-6
Archives access: 1960-[...]
Tags: Climate ; Climate services ; Guide ; Methodology ; Competencies for Provision of Climate Services ; Commission for Climatology (CCl) ; World Climate Programme (WCP) ; Technical Publications Add tagLa première édition du Guide des instruments et des methodes d’observation meteorologiques (OMM-N° 8) a été publiée en 1954.Published by: OMM ; 2018 (Edition 2018)
La première édition du Guide des instruments et des methodes d’observation meteorologiques (OMM-N° 8) a été publiée en 1954.
Notes: Autres chapitres en préparation
Collection(s) and Series: OMM- No. 8
Language(s): French; Other Languages: English, Russian, Spanish, Arabic
Format: Digital (Free)
ISBN (or other code): 978-92-63-20008-2
Archives access: 1996-[...]Fog though a rare event has adverse economic implications to both the airline and aviation service providers if it’s occurrence, duration and dissipation periods are not properly predicted. This work assesses the accuracy and skill in forecasting fog events and suggesting possible adjustments to improve forecast accuracy and skill. The forecast used in this study are produced by MeteoGroup using Model Output Statistics (MOS). Forecasts for Heathrow, Northolt and Kenley are considered for analysis. These forecasts are used by British Airports Authority (BAA) in planning airport operations. The ...Published by: University of Reading - Department of meteorology ; 2016
Fog though a rare event has adverse economic implications to both the airline and aviation service providers if it’s occurrence, duration and dissipation periods are not properly predicted. This work assesses the accuracy and skill in forecasting fog events and suggesting possible adjustments to improve forecast accuracy and skill. The forecast used in this study are produced by MeteoGroup using Model Output Statistics (MOS). Forecasts for Heathrow, Northolt and Kenley are considered for analysis. These forecasts are used by British Airports Authority (BAA) in planning airport operations. The forecasts are produced daily at 08:00 UTC with a validity of 24 hours. Hourly Meteorological Aerodrome Reports (METARs) are used to verify the forecast. The forecast accuracy and skill is determined using Hit Rate (HR), False Alarm Ratio (FAR), Frequency Bias (FBI), and Critical Success Index (CSI) evaluated from a 2-category contingency table. Significance of the forecast error is evaluated using a student’s t-test for difference in means at 0.05 significance level. The HR and CSI for the original forecast for all the three stations, Heathrow, Northolt and Kenley was below 20%. Upon adjusting the forecast using regression analysis, the HR and CSI for Heathrow improved to 53.7% and 40.8% respectively. The HR and CSI for Northolt improved to 27.4% and 24.2% respectively. The improvement for Kenley was insignificant since the HR and CSI slightly improved to values below 10%. Although this method is purely statistical hence do not involve physical dynamics that dictate fog formation, maintenance and dissipation, in absence of a dynamical methods that can be applied to improve the accuracy and skill of visibility forecast within fog range then regression methods used in this study is a better option especially for Heathrow airport.
Notes: If you wish to download the full text, please contact the author (kizitoamua(at)gmail.com) or library(at)wmo.int (Please replace (at) by @).
Format: DigitalThis study attempted to investigate the variability of extreme rainfall and temperature over Rwanda and the associated circulation anomalies forecasting on wet and dry rainfall events between 1961 and 2010. The datasets used to achieve the objectives includes Temperature, the rainfall dataset, wind vector, pressure vertical velocity (omega) and the Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST). The methods used include correlation analysis, Standardized anomaly, composite analysis, and Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) analysis. The results show that the mean annual cycle depict two rainy Seas ...Published by: Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology ; 2016
This study attempted to investigate the variability of extreme rainfall and temperature over Rwanda and the associated circulation anomalies forecasting on wet and dry rainfall events between 1961 and 2010. The datasets used to achieve the objectives includes Temperature, the rainfall dataset, wind vector, pressure vertical velocity (omega) and the Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST). The methods used include correlation analysis, Standardized anomaly, composite analysis, and Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) analysis. The results show that the mean annual cycle depict two rainy Season in the courses of the year. The first rainy season runs from March – May (MAM) with the highest precipitation in April and second rainy season from September to November (SON), which has recorded the highest precipitation in November. The spatial distribution of monthly precipitation from January to December similarly show that the rainy season runs from March- May (MAM) received the highest precipitation in the region compared to September-November (SON). Results further show that the years with standardized deviation of +1 or more (wet years) including ,MAM and SON respectively, 1961,1963,1970,1981,1994,1998,2001,2004,2006 and 2009 whereas floods years. And for standardized deviation of -1 or less (dry years) includes 1979, 1984, 1993,2000,2001,2007 and 2010 considered as droughts years. The circulation anomalies associated with wet and dry years studied over these identified years revealed that in Rwanda, the equatorial wind climatology is deeply modified by the relief at a varied altitude.
Forecasters would make Rwanda climate more predictable. Strategies that integrate land and water management, and disaster risk reduction, within a framework of emerging climate change risks would bolster resilient development in the face of impacts of the new set of climate in Rwanda.
Notes: If you wish to download the full text, please contact the author (ujacquie(at)yahoo.fr) or library(at)wmo.int (Please replace (at) by @).
Format: DigitalGlobal climate change is remarkably changing the climatic patterns of the Pearl River basin and are significantly impacting the hydrological processes. Projection of future climate change impacts on steamflow variation is potential to provide scientific guidelines for sustainable water resources management and effective prevention and control for flood and drought disasters. In this study, a hydrological modeling system for assessing climate change impacts on runoffin the Pearl River basin was established and were used to simulate historical hydrological process and to project future streamflo ...PermalinkThis research investigates the dynamical and thermodynamical process of mesoscale convective system that intensifies squall lines wind speed propagation. The generation of African Easterly Waves (AEWs) and its lifecycle. The characteristics of squall lines (SLs) over West Africa (WA) which occurred In Guinea for two cases periods June 01-02 and June 13-14, 2015. In all six (6) AEWs have been tracked using reanalysis data from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). European Meteorological Satellite images (EUMETSAT) and Earth Networks WeatherBug StreamerRT were also used to ...PermalinkAerosols are small, micrometer-sized particles, whose optical effects coupled with their impact on cloud properties is a source of large uncertainty in climate models. Aerosols when inhaled are believed to have significant and detrimental effects on human health. Their presence also affects photosynthesis and agricultural production. Aerosol measurements are urgently required for the complete understanding and modeling their role in the climate system. This study builds on the analysis of Aerosol Optical depth (AOD) using Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) and sun photometer measurements then ...PermalinkThis paper examines the aerosol extinction coefficient profiles measured by Rayleigh-Raman-Mie-Lidar (RRML) system in Nanjing, China. I introduced two lidars methods (Raman and Fernald) and detection principle, and two lidars data Using Raman analysis method and Fernald analysis method to obtained aerosol extinction coefficient. Aerosol profiles at 607 nm and 532 nm over ranges from 6 km to 10 km were obtained using respectively Raman lidar and Rayleigh lidar in Nanjing.PermalinkPrecipitations vary consistently in Benin from 1981 to 2010. The present study reveals that the variation of Benin JJAS precipitation is positively correlated to MAM Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in Atlantic Ocean with correlation coefficient more than 0.7. When the SST is higher (lower) in the Atlantic Ocean, precipitation over Benin tends to be above (below) normal. The years 1988, 1989, 2003, 2007 and 2008, were wet with 1988, 2003, 2008 high SST over Tropical Southern Atlantic Ocean (STAO) while the years 1982, 1983, 1992 and 1997 formed the dry years with low SST over Tropical Southern At ...PermalinkThe southern coastal region of West Africa (SCWA) is located between 40N-80N latitudes and 100W -50E longitudes near the equator in the northern Hemisphere, the south and west are respectively equatorial and West Atlantic Ocean, and it is consisted to seven countries (Sierra Leon, Liberia, Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, Benin and Nigeria). The rainy season starts from spring to the summer, mainly from May to October. The rainfall is very important for southern coastal of West Africa region which their economy and food supply are highly dependent on agricultural production. Understanding of previo ...PermalinkThe variability and predictability of summer rainfall over Zimbabwe at inter-annual time scale is studied. Dry and wet seasons are identified using Zimbabwe Standardized Rainfall Index (ZRI). Seasonal rainfall and circulation patterns are investigated at inter annual time scale. The study focuses on the temporal and spatial variation of summer rainfall over Zimbabwe and tries to explain the circulation mechanisms associated with such phenomenon.PermalinkFor Zimbabwe, where rain fed agriculture is the backbone of the economy, the importance of accurate rainfall seasonal forecasts cannot be overemphasized (Makarau and Jury, 1997). In fact, extremes in interseasonal variability of rainfall can significantly complicate human livelihoods. In addition, there have been predictions of increased precipitation variability and hydro-meteorological hazards such as floods, droughts, and erratic rainfall due to global warming (Field et al., 2014; Mushore, 2013a). Thus, detailed understanding of the major contributors to the rainfall variability over Zimbab ...PermalinkIn urban climate research, spatial and temporal variability of precipitation is always a critical element for numerical modelling. However, the effects of temporal resolution of precipitation forcing data has received little attention. Moreover, there has always been a difference practically and theoretically in the availability of precipitation data. This study was carried out to assess the impact of temporal resolution of precipitation forcing data on the modelled surface energy and water balance using available data from a site at the Strand campus of Kings College London. Analysis has been ...PermalinkPermalinkDespite substantial advances in both forecasting capability and emergency preparedness, recent years have seen a large number of natural disasters that have cost many lives, displaced large numbers of people, and caused widespread damage to property and infrastructure. Many of these disasters result from severe weather interacting with society. At the same time, less severe weather events place a continuing strain on society through more frequent impacts of smaller magnitude. This is especially evident in less developed countries with more fragile economies and infrastructure. In addition, wea ...PermalinkLa primera edición de la Guía de Instrumentos y Métodos de Observación Meteorológicos (OMM-Nº 8) se publicó en 1954 […].
La presente Guía es un recurso fundamental que describe la mayoría de los instrumentos, los sistemas y las técnicas utilizados regularmente, desde los más sencillos hasta los más complejos y sofisticados, pero no pretende abordar los métodos e instrumentos que se utilizan únicamente con fines de investigación. Tiene por objeto presentar las mejores prácticas, los procedimientos y las capacidades básicas de los instrumentos y sistemas a fin de ayudar a los Servicios Me ...PermalinkПервое издание Руководства по метеорологическим приборам и методам наблюдений (ВМО-№ 8) было опубликовано в 1954 г.[…].
Данное Руководство представляет собой ключевой ресурс, в котором содержится описание большинства приборов, систем и методов, используемых на регулярной основе: от простейших до характеризующихся высоким и высочайшим уровнем сложности, при этом не делается попытки описать методы и приборы, которые используются лишь для проведения научных исследований. Задача Руководства состоит в том, чтобы предоставить информацию о передовых методах, процедурах и базовых возможностях п ...Permalink《WMO 气象仪器和观测方法指南》（WMO-No.8）第一版于1954 年出版，共十二章。此后，标准化仍然是仪器和观测方法委员会（CIMO）活动的一个关键问题。委员会不断审议指南的 内容，并确保在定期更新时纳入了反映技术的快速发展及其在气象仪器和观测方法领域的 实施的现代指导材料。
对于常规用途的大多数仪器、系统和技术，本指南是一项关键资源，提供了从最简单到最复 杂精细的描述，但不会涉及仅用于研究的方法和工具。指南的目的是给出最佳做法和程序，以及仪器和系统的基本能力，协助国家气象和水文部门或者其他感兴趣的运行观测系统的用 户编制他们的手册和程序，满足各自对测量和观察结果的特定需要。指南有意将标准化限制 在基本要求上，并将建议局限至给定仪器或测量系统不同配置最常见的一般特征，从而给 进一步发展留下广泛余地。对于有关与WIGOS 相关的仪器和观测方法的所有问题，本指南 都是权威参考。Permalinkوصدرت الطبعة الأولى من دلیل أدوات وطرق رصد الأحوال الجویة (مطبوع المنظمة رقم 8) في عام 1954 وكانت تتألف من اثني عشر فصلاً. ومنذ ذلك الحین، ظلت مسألة التوحید القیاسي مصدر قلق ومن ھنا تواصل اللجنة استعراض محتویات .(CIMO) رئیسیاً بالنسبة لأنشطة لجنة أدوات وطرق الرصد الدلیل وتتأكد من أن عملیات التحدیث المنتظمة تشمل المواد الإرشادیة الحدیثة التي تعكس التطور السریع للتكنولوجیا وتنفیذھا في مجال أدوات وطرق رصد الأحوال الجویةPermalinkis an issue of NewScientist. Reed Business Information Ltd, 2013PermalinkThis WMO information note is the first in a series that will aim to make the science underlying the weather, climate and water issues addressed by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) more easily accessible to the general public. The science of climate change continues to advance through the accumulation of additional data and observations and new studies and analyses. The peer-reviewed scientific literature that draws on these data and studies are assessed by the WMO/UNEP Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which will issue "The Physical Science Basis" volume of its Fifth ...Permalink2013A regional-scale sensitivity study has been carried out to investigate the climatic effects of forest cover change in Europe. Applying REMO (regional climate model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology), the projected temperature and precipitation tendencies have been analysed for summer, based on the results of the A2 IPCC-SRES emission scenario simulation. For the end of the 21st century it has been studied, whether the assumed forest cover increase could reduce the effects of the greenhouse gas concentration change.Permalinkis an issue of 気象庁硏究時報. 気象庁, 2012PermalinkScience for Environment Policy, Issue 297. EEA, 2012A new study has concluded that the benefits of carbon capture and storage (CCS) to human health and ecosystems from reduced climate change related impacts considerably outweigh any negative impacts from using the technology in power plants. However, CCS has a large impact on the depletion of natural resources.Permalink