Published by: WMO ; 2020
System and Performance Audit of Surface Ozone, Carbon Monoxide, Methane, and Carbon Dioxide at the Global GAW Station Mt. Kenya, Kenya
Collection(s) and Series: GAW Report- No. 256/WCC-Empa Report No. 19/4
Format: Digital (Free)Published by: WMO ; 2020
20th WMO/IAEA Meeting on Carbon Dioxide, Other Greenhouse Gases and Related Measurement Techniques (GGMT-2019)
Collection(s) and Series: GAW Report- No. 255
Format: Digital (Free)Published by: WMO ; 2020
Collection(s) and Series: GAW Report- No. 254/WWRP 2020-4
Format: Digital (Free)World Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; International Comparison of Dobson Spectrophotometers, Pretoria, Gauteng Province, South Africa, 7-18 October 2019 - WMO, 2020Published by: WMO ; 2020 (October 2019)
Collection(s) and Series: GAW Report- No. 253/Research Infrastructure Quality Assurance
Format: Digital (Free)Published by: WMO ; 2020 (November 2019)
System and Performance Audit of Surface Ozone, Carbon Monoxide, Methane, and Carbon Dioxide at the Global GAW Station Ushuaia, Argentina, November 2019
Format: Digital (Free)PermalinkMeteorology and hydrology play an important role in the understanding of the basic criteria for the siting of nuclear power plant and in applying protective measures for their operations. In order to provide advice on this matter, the WMO Secretariat, at the request of the Executive Council, arranged for the preparation of a Technical Note aimed at practising meteorologists and hydrologists of countries faced with the task of installing nuclear power plants.PermalinkLa primera edición de la Guía de Instrumentos y Métodos de Observación Meteorológicos (OMM-Nº 8) se publicó en 1954 […].
La presente Guía es un recurso fundamental que describe la mayoría de los instrumentos, los sistemas y las técnicas utilizados regularmente, desde los más sencillos hasta los más complejos y sofisticados, pero no pretende abordar los métodos e instrumentos que se utilizan únicamente con fines de investigación. Tiene por objeto presentar las mejores prácticas, los procedimientos y las capacidades básicas de los instrumentos y sistemas a fin de ayudar a los Servicios Me ...PermalinkThe first edition of this guide was published in 1950.PermalinkLa première édition du Guide des instruments et des methodes d’observation meteorologiques (OMM-N° 8) a été publiée en 1954.PermalinkПервое издание Руководства по метеорологическим приборам и методам наблюдений (ВМО-№ 8) было опубликовано в 1954 г.[…].
Данное Руководство представляет собой ключевой ресурс, в котором содержится описание большинства приборов, систем и методов, используемых на регулярной основе: от простейших до характеризующихся высоким и высочайшим уровнем сложности, при этом не делается попытки описать методы и приборы, которые используются лишь для проведения научных исследований. Задача Руководства состоит в том, чтобы предоставить информацию о передовых методах, процедурах и базовых возможностях п ...Permalink本出版物旨在为世界气象组织(WMO)会 员开展与气候信息与服务相关的国家活动提供 指导和支持。本指南之前已有两个版本：最初 的版本出现在1960年，而第二个版本于1983年 出版。随着时间的推移，虽然很多最基本的气 候科学和气候学惯例仍然保持不变，但是气候 学知识和资料分析技术方面的科学进步，以及 技术、计算机能力以及仪器方面的变化，使得 第二个版本过时了。Permalinkالمنظمة العالمية للأرصاد - المنظمة العالمية للأرصاد, 2018 (طبعة 2018; مجموعة مطبوعات المنظمة-No. 100)صمم هذا المطبوع من أجل توفير التوجيه والمساعدة لأعضاء المنظمة العالمية للأرصاد الجوية في تطوير الأنشطة الوطنية المرتبطة بالمعلومات والخدمات المناخية. وقد صدرت طبعتان سابقتان من هذا الدليل: المطبوع الأصلي، الذي ظهر في 1960 ، والطبعة الثانية، التي نشرت في 1983 . ومع أن الكثير من مبادئ علم المناخ والممارسات المناخية لم تفقد صلاحيتها مع مرور الزمن، فإن أوجه التقدم العلمي في المعارف المناخية وأساليب تحليل البيانات، فضاً عن التغيرات التي حدثت في التكنولوجيا، وفي قدرات الحواسيب والأجهزة، قد جعلت الطبعة الثانية غير مناسبة للعصر.PermalinkLa presente publicación tiene por objeto proporcionar orientación y asistencia a los Miembros de la Organización Meteorológica Mundial (OMM) para llevar a cabo actividades nacionales vinculadas con la información y los servicios climáticos.PermalinkНастоящая публикация предназначена для предоставления руководства и оказания содействия странам — членам Всемирной Метеорологической Организации (ВМО) в развитии национальной деятельности, связанной с климатической информацией и обслуживанием.PermalinkPermalinkThis publication is designed to provide Members of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) with guidance and assistance in developing national activities linked to climate information and services.PermalinkБюллетень, Том 64(2). BMO, 2016Криосфера является основным индикатором глобального изменения климата и играет существенную роль в клима- тической системе. Несмотря на успехи в области числен- ного моделирования, надежность долгосрочных прогнозов изменения климата в Арктике и Антарктике существенно ограничена недостатком систематических наблюдений in situ за морским льдом и подледной областью. По этой причине Всемирная программа исследований климата (ВПИК)1 и Фонд Принца Монако Альберта II спонсируют конкурс «Полярный вызов (Polar Challenge)»2, победителем которого станет группа, первой выполнившая программу измерений с испо ...PermalinkBulletin, Vol. 64(1). OMM, 2016La population mondiale devrait augmenter de trois milliards de personnes d’ici 2050, et 90 % de cette croissance s’observera dans les pays en développement. Or, les habitants de ces pays dépendent actuellement, pour leurs besoins en eau potable et pour la production d’aliments, des ressources en eau traditionnelles et des précipitations. La croissance démographique projetée poussera vraisemblablement les systèmes mondiaux d’approvisionnement en eau au bord de la crise.PermalinkFog though a rare event has adverse economic implications to both the airline and aviation service providers if it’s occurrence, duration and dissipation periods are not properly predicted. This work assesses the accuracy and skill in forecasting fog events and suggesting possible adjustments to improve forecast accuracy and skill. The forecast used in this study are produced by MeteoGroup using Model Output Statistics (MOS). Forecasts for Heathrow, Northolt and Kenley are considered for analysis. These forecasts are used by British Airports Authority (BAA) in planning airport operations. The ...PermalinkThis study attempted to investigate the variability of extreme rainfall and temperature over Rwanda and the associated circulation anomalies forecasting on wet and dry rainfall events between 1961 and 2010. The datasets used to achieve the objectives includes Temperature, the rainfall dataset, wind vector, pressure vertical velocity (omega) and the Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST). The methods used include correlation analysis, Standardized anomaly, composite analysis, and Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) analysis. The results show that the mean annual cycle depict two rainy Seas ...PermalinkGlobal climate change is remarkably changing the climatic patterns of the Pearl River basin and are significantly impacting the hydrological processes. Projection of future climate change impacts on steamflow variation is potential to provide scientific guidelines for sustainable water resources management and effective prevention and control for flood and drought disasters. In this study, a hydrological modeling system for assessing climate change impacts on runoffin the Pearl River basin was established and were used to simulate historical hydrological process and to project future streamflo ...PermalinkThis research investigates the dynamical and thermodynamical process of mesoscale convective system that intensifies squall lines wind speed propagation. The generation of African Easterly Waves (AEWs) and its lifecycle. The characteristics of squall lines (SLs) over West Africa (WA) which occurred In Guinea for two cases periods June 01-02 and June 13-14, 2015. In all six (6) AEWs have been tracked using reanalysis data from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). European Meteorological Satellite images (EUMETSAT) and Earth Networks WeatherBug StreamerRT were also used to ...PermalinkAerosols are small, micrometer-sized particles, whose optical effects coupled with their impact on cloud properties is a source of large uncertainty in climate models. Aerosols when inhaled are believed to have significant and detrimental effects on human health. Their presence also affects photosynthesis and agricultural production. Aerosol measurements are urgently required for the complete understanding and modeling their role in the climate system. This study builds on the analysis of Aerosol Optical depth (AOD) using Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) and sun photometer measurements then ...PermalinkThis paper examines the aerosol extinction coefficient profiles measured by Rayleigh-Raman-Mie-Lidar (RRML) system in Nanjing, China. I introduced two lidars methods (Raman and Fernald) and detection principle, and two lidars data Using Raman analysis method and Fernald analysis method to obtained aerosol extinction coefficient. Aerosol profiles at 607 nm and 532 nm over ranges from 6 km to 10 km were obtained using respectively Raman lidar and Rayleigh lidar in Nanjing.PermalinkPrecipitations vary consistently in Benin from 1981 to 2010. The present study reveals that the variation of Benin JJAS precipitation is positively correlated to MAM Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in Atlantic Ocean with correlation coefficient more than 0.7. When the SST is higher (lower) in the Atlantic Ocean, precipitation over Benin tends to be above (below) normal. The years 1988, 1989, 2003, 2007 and 2008, were wet with 1988, 2003, 2008 high SST over Tropical Southern Atlantic Ocean (STAO) while the years 1982, 1983, 1992 and 1997 formed the dry years with low SST over Tropical Southern At ...PermalinkThe southern coastal region of West Africa (SCWA) is located between 40N-80N latitudes and 100W -50E longitudes near the equator in the northern Hemisphere, the south and west are respectively equatorial and West Atlantic Ocean, and it is consisted to seven countries (Sierra Leon, Liberia, Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, Benin and Nigeria). The rainy season starts from spring to the summer, mainly from May to October. The rainfall is very important for southern coastal of West Africa region which their economy and food supply are highly dependent on agricultural production. Understanding of previo ...PermalinkThe variability and predictability of summer rainfall over Zimbabwe at inter-annual time scale is studied. Dry and wet seasons are identified using Zimbabwe Standardized Rainfall Index (ZRI). Seasonal rainfall and circulation patterns are investigated at inter annual time scale. The study focuses on the temporal and spatial variation of summer rainfall over Zimbabwe and tries to explain the circulation mechanisms associated with such phenomenon.PermalinkFor Zimbabwe, where rain fed agriculture is the backbone of the economy, the importance of accurate rainfall seasonal forecasts cannot be overemphasized (Makarau and Jury, 1997). In fact, extremes in interseasonal variability of rainfall can significantly complicate human livelihoods. In addition, there have been predictions of increased precipitation variability and hydro-meteorological hazards such as floods, droughts, and erratic rainfall due to global warming (Field et al., 2014; Mushore, 2013a). Thus, detailed understanding of the major contributors to the rainfall variability over Zimbab ...PermalinkBulletin, Vol. 64(2). WMO, 2015The cryosphere is a major indicator of global climate change and plays a fundamental role in the climate system. Despite advances in numerical modelling, the reliability of long-term climate change predictions in the Arctic and Antarctic are severely limited by the lack of systematic in situ observations of and beneath the sea ice. For this reason, the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP)1 and the Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation are sponsoring a Polar Challenge2 that will reward the first team to complete a 2 000 km mission with an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) under the Arctic ...PermalinkBulletin, Vol. 64(1). WMO, 2015The world’s population is expected to increase by a further three billion by 2050 – and 90% of that growth will be in developing countries that currently rely on existing water supplies and rainfall for food and water. The projected population growth will most likely bring global water supply to a crisis point.PermalinkIn urban climate research, spatial and temporal variability of precipitation is always a critical element for numerical modelling. However, the effects of temporal resolution of precipitation forcing data has received little attention. Moreover, there has always been a difference practically and theoretically in the availability of precipitation data. This study was carried out to assess the impact of temporal resolution of precipitation forcing data on the modelled surface energy and water balance using available data from a site at the Strand campus of Kings College London. Analysis has been ...PermalinkPermalink《WMO 气象仪器和观测方法指南》（WMO-No.8）第一版于1954 年出版，共十二章。此后，标准化仍然是仪器和观测方法委员会（CIMO）活动的一个关键问题。委员会不断审议指南的 内容，并确保在定期更新时纳入了反映技术的快速发展及其在气象仪器和观测方法领域的 实施的现代指导材料。
对于常规用途的大多数仪器、系统和技术，本指南是一项关键资源，提供了从最简单到最复 杂精细的描述，但不会涉及仅用于研究的方法和工具。指南的目的是给出最佳做法和程序，以及仪器和系统的基本能力，协助国家气象和水文部门或者其他感兴趣的运行观测系统的用 户编制他们的手册和程序，满足各自对测量和观察结果的特定需要。指南有意将标准化限制 在基本要求上，并将建议局限至给定仪器或测量系统不同配置最常见的一般特征，从而给 进一步发展留下广泛余地。对于有关与WIGOS 相关的仪器和观测方法的所有问题，本指南 都是权威参考。Permalinkوصدرت الطبعة الأولى من دلیل أدوات وطرق رصد الأحوال الجویة (مطبوع المنظمة رقم 8) في عام 1954 وكانت تتألف من اثني عشر فصلاً. ومنذ ذلك الحین، ظلت مسألة التوحید القیاسي مصدر قلق ومن ھنا تواصل اللجنة استعراض محتویات .(CIMO) رئیسیاً بالنسبة لأنشطة لجنة أدوات وطرق الرصد الدلیل وتتأكد من أن عملیات التحدیث المنتظمة تشمل المواد الإرشادیة الحدیثة التي تعكس التطور السریع للتكنولوجیا وتنفیذھا في مجال أدوات وطرق رصد الأحوال الجویةPermalinkDespite substantial advances in both forecasting capability and emergency preparedness, recent years have seen a large number of natural disasters that have cost many lives, displaced large numbers of people, and caused widespread damage to property and infrastructure. Many of these disasters result from severe weather interacting with society. At the same time, less severe weather events place a continuing strain on society through more frequent impacts of smaller magnitude. This is especially evident in less developed countries with more fragile economies and infrastructure. In addition, wea ...PermalinkBulletin, Vol. 62(1). WMO, 2013Technology first used to listen for secret H-bomb tests could help forecasters tell us what the weather is going to be like up to a month in advance. That is one of the aims of an exciting new international research project, Atmosphere dynamics Research InfraStructure in Europe (ARISE), which kicked-off in January 2012. Following studies that showed that the upper layers of the Earth’s atmosphere could provide crucial information for more accurate longer-term weather forecasts, on timescales up to four weeks ahead, twelve partners from eight European member states and one associated country ha ...PermalinkThis WMO information note is the first in a series that will aim to make the science underlying the weather, climate and water issues addressed by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) more easily accessible to the general public. The science of climate change continues to advance through the accumulation of additional data and observations and new studies and analyses. The peer-reviewed scientific literature that draws on these data and studies are assessed by the WMO/UNEP Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which will issue "The Physical Science Basis" volume of its Fifth ...Permalink2013A regional-scale sensitivity study has been carried out to investigate the climatic effects of forest cover change in Europe. Applying REMO (regional climate model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology), the projected temperature and precipitation tendencies have been analysed for summer, based on the results of the A2 IPCC-SRES emission scenario simulation. For the end of the 21st century it has been studied, whether the assumed forest cover increase could reduce the effects of the greenhouse gas concentration change.PermalinkNtamack S. - 2012This paper addresses some methodological biases present in the mode of understanding climate change through scientific research. These overlapping biases are referred to as glocality. The paper argues that as a device of the cognitive globalisation around environmental issues, glocality operates in science as a cognitive form of ubiquity deriving from an attempt to compress the spatiotemporal dimension of the changing weather within the time and space of the mind. In the case of climate change, it refers to three focal points summarised as problems of climate change’s phenomena problem of the ...PermalinkFollowing the advice of the XV Session of the Association, the TT-SPAP developed the regional Operating Plan by compiling the tasks in the Work Programmes of the Working Groups. Thus, the Operating Plan contains concrete tasks and deliverables aimed at assisting RA VI Members to implement their national plans for further development of their NMHSs and improvement of the provision of meteorological, hydrological and climatological services for supporting their national economies and the society. The RA VI Operating Plan is intended to be a living document regularly monitored and adjusted as nec ...PermalinkWhile agreeing on the choice of an optimal investment decision is already difficult for any diverse group of actors, priorities, and world views, the presence of deep uncertainties further challenges the decision-making framework by questioning the robustness of all purportedly optimal solutions. This paper summarizes the additional uncertainty that is created by climate change, and reviews the tools that are available to project climate change (including downscaling techniques) and to assess and quantify the corresponding uncertainty. Assuming that climate change and other deep uncertainties ...PermalinkEmissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from agriculture are substantial. This paper looks into how can agricultural greenhouse gas emissions be reduced or sequestration enhanced while maintaining and even increasing food supply. The paper relies on a research undertaken in nine chosen African countries.
The authors reveal that croplands and grazing lands cover more than half of the East African countries’ lands and about 40% of the West African countries’ lands. In the nine African countries, the largest amount of GHG emissions is from the livestock sector, followed by emissions f ...PermalinkPermalinkBulletin, Vol. 60 (1). WMO, 2011PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Korhonen H.; Sihto S.-L.; Kerminen V.-M.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Several mathematical tools have been developed in recent years to analyze new particle formation rates and to estimate nucleation rates and mechanisms at sub-3 nm sizes from atmospheric aerosol data. Here we evaluate these analysis tools using 1239 numerical nucleation events for which the nucleation mechanism and formation rates were known exactly. The accuracy of the estimates of particle formation rate at 3 nm (J3) showed significant sensitivity to the details of the analysis, i.e. form of equations used and assumptions made about the initial size of nucleating clusters, with the fraction o ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Donahue N.M.; Epstein S.A.; Pandis S.N.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011We develop the thermodynamic underpinnings of a two-dimensional volatility basis set (2D-VBS) employing saturation mass concentration (Co) and the oxygen content (O:C) to describe volatility, mixing thermodynamics, and chemical evolution of organic aerosol. The work addresses a simple question: "Can we reasonably constrain organic-aerosol composition in the atmosphere based on only two measurable organic properties, volatility and the extent of oxygenation?" This is an extension of our earlier one-dimensional approach employing volatility only (C* = γ Co, where γ is an activity coefficient). U ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Held A.; Brooks I.M.; Leck C.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011We present direct eddy covariance measurements of aerosol number fluxes, dominated by sub-50 nm particles, at the edge of an ice floe drifting in the central Arctic Ocean. The measurements were made during the ice-breaker borne ASCOS (Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study) expedition in August 2008 between 2°–10° W longitude and 87°–87.5° N latitude. The median aerosol transfer velocities over different surface types (open water leads, ice ridges, snow and ice surfaces) ranged from 0.27 to 0.68 mm s−1 during deposition-dominated episodes. Emission periods were observed more frequently over the open ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Jaeglé L.; Quinn P.K.; Bates T.S.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011We combine in situ measurements of sea salt aerosols (SS) from open ocean cruises and ground-based stations together with aerosol optical depth (AOD) observations from MODIS and AERONET, and the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model to provide new constraints on SS emissions over the world's oceans. We find that the GEOS-Chem model using the Gong (2003) source function overestimates cruise observations of coarse mode SS mass concentrations by factors of 2–3 at high wind speeds over the cold waters of the Southern, North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans. Furthermore, the model systematical ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Huang M.; Carmichael Gregory R.; Spak S.N.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Chronic high surface ozone (O3) levels and the increasing sulfur oxides (SOx = SO2+SO4) ambient concentrations over South Coast (SC) and other areas of California (CA) are affected by both local emissions and long-range transport. In this paper, multi-scale tracer, full-chemistry and adjoint simulations using the STEM atmospheric chemistry model are conducted to assess the contribution of local emission sourcesto SC O3 and to evaluate the impacts of transported sulfur and local emissions on the SC sulfur budgetduring the ARCTAS-CARB experiment period in 2008. Sensitivity simulations quantify c ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Markovic M.Z.; Hayden K.L.; Murphy J.G.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011The Border Air Quality and Meteorology Study (BAQS-Met) was an intensive, collaborative field campaign during the summer of 2007 that investigated the effects of transboundary pollution, local pollution, and local meteorology on air quality in southwestern Ontario. This analysis focuses on the measurements of the inorganic constituents of particulate matter with diameter of less than 1 μm (PM1), with a specific emphasis on nitrate. We evaluate the ability of AURAMS, Environment Canada's chemical transport model, to represent regional air pollution in SW Ontario by comparing modelled aerosol in ...PermalinkApparent evidence for a strong signature of solar activity in ground-based insolation data was recently reported. In particular, a strong increase of the irradiance of the direct solar beam with sunspot number as well as a decline of the brightness of the solar aureole and the measured precipitable water content of the atmosphere with solar activity were presented. The latter effect was interpreted as evidence for cosmic-ray-induced aerosol formation. Here I show that these spurious results are due to a failure to correct for seasonal variations and the effects of volcanic eruptions and local ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Tapia A.; Villanueva F.; Salgado M.S.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011A study of the kinetics and products obtained from the reactions of 3-methylfuran with the main atmospheric oxidants has been performed. The rate coefficients for the gas-phase reaction of 3-methylfuran with OH and NO3 radicals have been determined at room temperature and atmospheric pressure (air and N2 as bath gases), using a relative method with different experimental techniques. The rate coefficients obtained for these reactions were (in units cm3 molecule−1 s−1) kOH = (1.13 ± 0.22) × 10−10 and kNO3 = (1.26 ± 0.18) × 10−11. Products from the reaction of 3-methylfuran with OH, NO3 and Cl at ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Xu J.; Li C.; Shi H.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011This study investigated the decadal variation of the direct surface solar radiation (DiSR) and the diffuse surface solar radiation (DfSR) during 1961–2008 in the Shanghai megacity as well as their relationships to Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) under clear-sky conditions. Three successive periods with unique features of long term variation of DiSR were identified for both clear-sky and all-sky conditions: a "dimming" period from the late 1960s to the mid 1980s, a "stabilization"/"slight brightening" period from the mid 1980s to the mid 1990s, and a "renewed dimming" period thereafter. During the ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Stroud C.A.; Makar P.A.; Moran M.D.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Regional-scale chemical transport model predictions of urban organic aerosol to date tend to be biased low relative to observations, a limitation with important implications for applying such models to human exposure health studies. We used a nested version of Environment Canada's AURAMS model (42- to- 15- to- 2.5-km nested grid spacing) to predict organic aerosol concentrations for a temporal and spatial domain corresponding to the Border Air Quality and Meteorology Study (BAQS-Met), an air-quality field study that took place in the southern Great Lakes region in the summer of 2007. The use o ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Wojtal P.; Halla J.D.; McLaren R. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011A complete understanding of the formation mechanism of nitrous acid (HONO) in the ambient atmosphere is complicated by a lack of understanding of processes occurring when aqueous water is present. We report nocturnal measurements of HONO, SO2 and NO2 by differential optical absorption spectroscopy over the ocean surface in a polluted marine environment. In this aqueous environment, we observed reproducible pseudo steady states (PSS) of HONO every night, that are fully formed shortly after sunset, much faster than seen in urban environments. During the PSS period, HONO is constant with time, in ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Vakkari V.; Laakso H.; Kulmala M.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011This study is based on 18 months (20 July 2006–5 February 2008) of continuous measurements of aerosol particle size distributions, air ion size distributions, trace gas concentrations and basic meteorology in a semi-clean savannah environment in Republic of South Africa. New particle formation and growth was observed on 69% of the days and bursts of non-growing ions/sub-10 nm particles on additional 14% of the days. This new particle formation frequency is the highest reported from boundary layer so far. Also the new particle formation and growth rates were among the highest reported in the li ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Brock C.A.; Cozic J.; Bahreini R.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011We present an overview of the background, scientific goals, and execution of the Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC) project of April 2008. We then summarize airborne measurements, made in the troposphere of the Alaskan Arctic, of aerosol particle size distributions, composition, and optical properties and discuss the sources and transport of the aerosols. The aerosol data were grouped into four categories based on gas-phase composition. First, the background troposphere contained a relatively diffuse, sulfate-rich aerosol extending from the top of the sea ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Aschmann J.; Sinnhuber B.-M.; Chipperfield M.P.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Stratospheric bromine loading due to very short-lived substances is investigated with a three-dimensional chemical transport model over a period of 21 years using meteorological input data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts ERA-Interim reanalysis from 1989 to the end of 2009. Within this framework we analyze the impact of dehydration and deep convection on the amount of stratospheric bromine using an idealized and a detailed full chemistry approach. We model the two most important brominated short-lived substances, bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), assumin ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Dearden C.; Connolly P.J.; Choularton T.W.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011The effect of microphysical and environmental factors on the development of precipitation in warm idealised cloud is explored using a kinematic modelling framework. A simple one-dimensional column model is used to drive a suite of microphysics schemes including a flexible multi-moment bulk scheme (including both single and dual moment cloud liquid water) and a state-of-the-art bin-resolved scheme with explicit treatments of liquid and aerosol. The Factorial Method is employed to quantify and compare the sensitivities of each scheme under a set of controlled conditions, in order to isolate the ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. de la Torre Juárez M.; Davis A.B.; Fetzer E.J. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Means, standard deviations, homogeneity parameters used in models based on their ratio, and the probability distribution functions (PDFs) of cloud properties from the MODerate resolution Infrared Spectrometer (MODIS) are estimated globally as function of averaging scale varying from 5 to 500 km. The properties – cloud fraction, droplet effective radius, and liquid water path – all matter for cloud-climate uncertainty quantification and reduction efforts. Global means and standard deviations are confirmed to change with scale. For the range of scales considered, global means vary only within 3% ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Feng L.; Palmer P.I.; Yang Y.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011We evaluate the GEOS-Chem atmospheric transport model (v8-02-01) of CO2 over 2003–2006, driven by GEOS-4 and GEOS-5 meteorology from the NASA Goddard Global Modeling and Assimilation Office, using surface, aircraft and space-borne concentration measurements of CO2. We use an established ensemble Kalman Filter to estimate a posteriori biospheric+biomass burning (BS + BB) and oceanic (OC) CO2 fluxes from 22 geographical regions, following the TransCom-3 protocol, using boundary layer CO2 data from a subset of GLOBALVIEW surface sites. Global annual net BS + BB + OC CO2 fluxes over 2004–2006 for ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Flagg D.D.; Taylor P.A. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Mesoscale modeling of the urban boundary layer requires careful parameterization of the surface due to its heterogeneous morphology. Model estimated meteorological quantities, including the surface energy budget and canopy layer variables, will respond accordingly to the scale of representation. This study examines the sensitivity of the surface energy balance, canopy layer and boundary layer meteorology to the scale of urban surface representation in a real urban area (Detroit-Windsor (USA-Canada)) during several dry, cloud-free summer periods. The model used is the Weather Research and Forec ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Wu D.L.; Chae J.H.; Lambert A.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011A research algorithm is developed for noise evaluation and feature detection of the CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) Level 1 (L1) backscatter data with an emphasis on cloud/aerosol features in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS). CALIOP measurement noise of the version v2.01 and v2.02 L1 backscatter data aggregated to (5 km) horizontal resolution is analyzed with two approaches in this study. One is to compare the observed and modeled molecular scatter profiles by scaling the modeled profile (with a fitted scaling factor α) to the observed clear-sky ba ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Rose D.; Gunthe S.S.; Su H.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Size-resolved chemical composition, mixing state, and cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) activity of aerosol particles in polluted mega-city air and biomass burning smoke were measured during the PRIDE-PRD2006 campaign near Guangzhou, China, using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), a volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer (VTDMA), and a continuous-flow CCN counter (DMT-CCNC).PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Schneising O.; Buchwitz M.; Reuter M.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases contributing to global climate change. SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT (launch 2002) was the first and is now with TANSO onboard GOSAT (launch 2009) one of only two satellite instruments currently in space whose measurements are sensitive to CO2 and CH4 concentration changes in the lowest atmospheric layers where the variability due to sources and sinks is largest.PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Slowik J.G.; Brook J.; Chang R.Y.-W.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011As part of the BAQS-Met 2007 field campaign, Aerodyne time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometers (ToF-AMS) were deployed at two sites in southwestern Ontario from 17 June to 11 July 2007. One instrument was located at Harrow, ON, a rural, agriculture-dominated area approximately 40 km southeast of the Detroit/Windsor/Windsor urban area and 5 km north of Lake Erie. The second instrument was located at Bear Creek, ON, a rural site approximately 70 km northeast of the Harrow site and 50 km east of Detroit/Windsor. Positive matrix factorization analysis of the combined organic mass spectral dataset ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Russo M.R.; Marécal V.; Hoyle C.R.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Fast convective transport in the tropics can efficiently redistribute water vapour and pollutants up to the upper troposphere. In this study we compare tropical convection characteristics for the year 2005 in a range of atmospheric models, including numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, chemistry transport models (CTMs), and chemistry-climate models (CCMs). The model runs have been performed within the framework of the SCOUT-O3 (Stratospheric-Climate Links with Emphasis on the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere) project. The characteristics of tropical convection, such as seasonal c ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Kurtén T.; Petäjä T.; Smith J.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011The state-of-the art method for measuring atmospheric gas-phase sulfuric acid is chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) based on nitrate reagent ions. We have assessed the possible effect of the sulfuric acid molecules clustering with base molecules on CIMS measurements using computational chemistry. From the computational data, three conclusions can be drawn. First, a significant fraction of the gas-phase sulfuric acid molecules are very likely clustered with amines if the amine concentration is around or above a few ppt. Second, some fraction of these acid-amine clusters may not be cha ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Li J.; Hu Y.; Huang J.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011A method is developed based on Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) level 1 attenuated backscatter profile data for deriving the mean extinction coefficient of water droplets close to cloud top. The method is applicable to low level (cloud topPermalinkis an issue of Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan. Meteorological Society of Japan, 2011Permalinkis an issue of Rivista di Meteorologia. Organo del Servizio Meteorologico dell'Aeronautica, 2011Contiene tali:
- Il caldo anomalo del 2003 in Italia: anomalie climatiche ed
inquinamento da ozono
- HSAF - Hydrology Satellite Application Facilities: un progetto
europeo con finalità di servizio e impiego operativo
- Nuovo approccio alle previsioni stagionali: analisi
- Simulazione del Meteosat Third Generation Lightning Imager
attraverso dati reali rilevati dal satellite NASA TRMM - LIS
- Intensità delle precipitazioni: campagna internazionale di
misura a Vigna di Valle organizzata dal Ser ...Permalinkis an issue of iLEAPS Newsletter. iLEAPS, 2011The latest iLEAPS Newsletter No. 10 deals with "Terrestrial feedbacks and Earth system models".PermalinkGiven the likely pace of change in the electric vehicle market, it is important that the environmental externalities are identified and quantified. In this report we present the results of a modelling study which investigated how ozone pollution in the Greater Metropolitan Region of Sydney NSW, Australia would respond to the replacement of Sydney’s internal combustion engine (ICE) passenger vehicle fleet with a fleet of electric vehicles. A brief description of the modelling methodology is provided in the next section, and a summary of the modelling outcomes is provided in the following sectio ...PermalinkThe International Polar Year (IPY) 2007–2008, co-sponsored by ICSU and WMO, became the largest coordinated research program in the Earth’s polar regions, following in the footsteps of its predecessor, the first and second International Polar Years in 1881-1883 and 1932-1933 and the International Geophysical Year 1957–1958.
An estimated 50,000 researchers, local observers, educators, students, and support personnel from more than 60 nations were involved in the 228 international IPY projects (170 in science, 1 in data management, and 57 in education and outreach) and related national eff ...PermalinkThe aims of the meeting are to: 1) understand the role of atmospheric chemistry and composition in global atmospheric change as expressed in the Australasian region and internationally; and 2) to provide a forum for atmospheric composition researchers from different disciplines (in-situ observations, remote sensing observations, modelling) to share ideas, enhance collaboration and develop a coordinated regional approach to characterising atmospheric processes in Australasia.PermalinkPermalinkThe WMO Strategic Plan is the result of an organization-wide strategic, operational and budgeting process to provide a blueprint for the 188 Member States and Territories to meet the changing needs of their communities for weather, climate, water and related environmental information.PermalinkThis white paper is a synthesis of several recent workshops, reports and published literature: (Smith et al., 2011; Anderson et al. 2011; Weller et al. 2010; Meehl et al. 2009; Hurrell et al. 2009; Shukla et al. 2010 and Brunet et al. 2010). The intent is to document: (i) the scientific basis for prediction from weeks to decades; (ii) current capabilities; and (iii) outstanding challenges. We focus on time--‐scales from beyond the time scale of deterministic weather (i.e., sub--‐seasonal) to decadal.PermalinkGiven the widely noted increase in the warming effects of rising greenhouse gas concentrations, it has been unclear why global surface temperatures did not rise between 1998 and 2008. We find that this hiatus in warming coincides with a period of little increase in the sum of anthropogenic and natural forcings. Declining solar insolation as part of a normal eleven-year cycle, and a cyclical change from an El Nino to a La Nina dominate our measure of anthropogenic effects because rapid growth in short-lived sulfur emissions partially offsets rising greenhouse gas concentrations. As such, we fin ...PermalinkPermalinkPermalinkPermalinkPermalinkPermalinkAntarctic Record, Vol. 54, No. 2. Ushio Shuki - Scholarly and Academic Information Navigator (CiNii), 2010The wintering party of the 49th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-49), consisting of 29 members, was conducted as the second year of the 7th four-year plan of JARE and the second half of the International Polar Year 2007-2008 (IPY2007-2008) at Syowa Station and its surrounding areas. JARE-49 took over management of the station facilities and functions from JARE-48 on February 1, 2008, and performed scientific observations and logistic duties. Though it was a little smaller in terms of number of wintering personnel than previous teams, it was well prepared to perform station manageme ...PermalinkThe performance of a 1-D soil model in a semiarid area of North China was investigated using observational data from a cropland station at the Tongyu reference site of the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) during the non-growing period, when the ground surface was covered with bare soil. Comparisons between simulated and observed soil surface energy balance components as well as soil temperatures and water contents were conducted to validate the soil model. Results show that the soil model could produce good simulations of soil surface temperature, net radiation flux and sensible he ...PermalinkOn the basis of two ensemble experiments conducted by a general atmospheric circulation model (Institute of Atmospheric Physics nine-level atmospheric general circulation model coupled with land surface model, hereinafter referred to as IAP9L_CoLM), the impacts of realistic Eurasian snow conditions on summer climate predictability were investigated. The predictive skill of sea level pressures (SLP) and middle and upper tropospheric geopotential heights at mid-high latitudes of Eurasia was enhanced when improved Eurasian snow conditions were introduced into the model. Furthermore, the model ski ...PermalinkAtmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters, Volume 3 Number 6. Liu Hui-Zhi; Sang Jian-Guo - Science Press, 2010The present study solves a two-layer atmospheric wave equation model with a lower atmosphere concave wind profile and cold-air outbreak over sea, while simultaneously proving that such a wind shear may cause neutral boundary layer roll vortices in the presence of disturbing sources upstream. Without thermal effects, the wind shear-induced waves have band structures at the top of the boundary layer that are similar to cloud street patterns observed over sea. This study proves that dynamic and thermal effects can act independently to initiate the roll vortices in the lower atmosphere. At the sam ...PermalinkAtmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters, Volume 3 Number 6. Yu En-Tao; Wang Hui-Jun; Sun Jian-Qi - Science Press, 2010This paper describes a dynamical downscaling simulation over China using the nested model system, which consists of the modified Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) nested with the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). Results show that dynamical downscaling is of great value in improving the model simulation of regional climatic characteristics. WRF simulates regional detailed temperature features better than CAM. With the spatial correlation coefficient between the observation and the simulation increasing from 0.54 for CAM to 0.79 for WRF, the improvement in precipitation simulati ...Permalinkis an issue of 気象研究所技術報告. Tsujino Hiroyuki; Motoi Tatsuo; Ishikawa Ichiro - Meteorological Research Institute, 2010This technical report is a manual of the Meteorological Research Institute Community Ocean Model (MRI.COM). MRI.COM is an ocean general circulation model developed and maintained at the Meteorological Research Institute (MRI) of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). As the name suggests, it has been used for studying large scale oceanic phenomena and as the oceanic part of the coupled climate models developed at MRIPermalinkAutoclaved natural seawater collected in the North Pacific Ocean was used as a reference material for nutrients in seawater (RMNS) during an inter-laboratory comparison (I/C) study conducted in 2008. This study was a follow-up to previous studies conducted in 2003 and 2006. A set of six samples was distributed to each of 58 laboratories in 15 countries around the globe, and results were returned by 54 of those laboratories (15 countries). The homogeneities of samples used in the 2008 I/C study, based on analyses for three determinants, were improved compared to those of samples used in the 200 ...Permalinkis an issue of Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan. Meteorological Society of Japan, 2010Contains:
- Mechanisms of Temporary Improvement and Rapid Changes in Visibility in Fogs
- Changes in Potential Intensity of Tropical Cyclones Approaching Japan due to Anthropogenic Warming in Sea Surface and Upper-Air Temperatures
- Convective Boundary Layer above a Subtropical Island Observed by C-band Radar and Interpretation using a Cloud Resolving Model
- Role of Large-Scale Circulation in Triggering Foehns in the Hokuriku District of Japan during Midsummer
- Diurnal Variations in Lower-Tropospheric Wind over Japan ...PermalinkJournal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, Vol.88 No.5. Ma Lei-Ming; Tan Zhe-Min - Meteorological Society of Japan, 2010A new scheme, termed Vortex Initialization with the Assimilation of Retrieved Variables (VIRV), is presented to improve the initialization of regional numerical model for Tropical Cyclone (TC) prediction. In this scheme, the horizontal winds in Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) and the sea level pressure (SLP), retrieved from Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT) data obtained using a modified University of Washington Planetary Boundary Layer (UWPBL) model, are assimilated with a cycled three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) technique to produce the initialized analysis. The procedures of retrieval are i ...PermalinkAtmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters, Volume 3 Number 5. Zhang Zi-Yin; Gong Zhong-Shi; Yan Qing; et al. - Science Press, 2010The Drake Passage is the seaway between South America and Antarctica. It is widely believed that the thermal isolation effects caused by the opening of the Drake Passage played an important role in the abrupt cooling that occurred at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary in the Cenozoic. These effects are also thought to be independent of the geometry of the passage. Here, the authors demonstrate that the climate impacts of the Drake Passage depend on the passage geometry by comparing the climate’s sensitivity to the opening of the Drake Passage under the present and the Early Eocene land-sea configur ...PermalinkAtmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters, Volume 3 Number 5. Zhang Zi-Yin; Gong Dao-Yi; He Xue-Zhao; et al. - Science Press, 2010Based on multiple proxies from the Southern Hemisphere, an austral summer (December-January-February: DJF) Antarctic Oscillation Index (AAO) since 1500 A.D. was reconstructed with a focus on interannual to interdecadal variability (PermalinkAtmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters, Volume 3 Number 5. Zhang Dong-Bin; Jin Fei-Fei; Li Jian-Ping; et al. - Science Press, 2010A numerical ensemble-mean approach was employed to solve a nonlinear barotropic model with stochastic basic flows to analyze the nonlinear effects in the formation of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The nonlinear response to external forcing was more similar to the NAO mode than the linear response was, indicating the importance of nonlinearity. With increasing external forcing and enhanced low-frequency anomalies, the effect of nonlinearity increased. Therefore, for strong NAO events, nonlinearity should be considered.PermalinkAtmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters, Volume 3 Number 4. Mahmood Rashed; Yao Jin-Feng - Science Press, 2010South Asian monsoons were analyzed within the context of increasing emissions of black carbon (BC) aerosols using a global atmospheric general circulation model. The BC aerosols were allowed to increase only over the south Asian domain to analyze the impacts of regional black carbon over the climatological patterns of monsoons. The black carbon significantly absorbed the incoming short wave radiation in the atmosphere, a result that is consistent with previous studies. Pre-monsoon (March-April-May) rainfall showed positive anomalies, particularly for some coastal regions of India. The summer ( ...PermalinkUNDP, 2010This updated handbook provides hands-on guidance for identifying the most effective technology options for poverty reduction and climate change mitigation and adaptation. By drawing on decades of experience and inputs from leading experts and practitioners, it brings novel insights for carrying out needs assessments and creating actionable plans as part of national climate change strategies.PermalinkPermalink