The Report was written by the Scientific Assessment Panel to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. CFC-11 (CCl3F) was reportedly fully controlled under the Montreal Protocol since 2010. However, a 2018 scientific paper revealed that instead of decreasing, CFC-11 emissions were increasing. In reaction, the Protocol parties agreed to Decision XXX/3: Unexpected emissions of trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11). This Report addresses: current and past observations of CFC-11 atmospheric abundances; information on the CFC-11 global and regional emission increase and subsequent ...
Published by: WMO ; 2021
The Report was written by the Scientific Assessment Panel to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. CFC-11 (CCl3F) was reportedly fully controlled under the Montreal Protocol since 2010. However, a 2018 scientific paper revealed that instead of decreasing, CFC-11 emissions were increasing. In reaction, the Protocol parties agreed to Decision XXX/3: Unexpected emissions of trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11). This Report addresses: current and past observations of CFC-11 atmospheric abundances; information on the CFC-11 global and regional emission increase and subsequent decrease; changes derived for emissions of dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12, CCl2F2) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4); estimates of CFC-11 banks (CFC-11 that has been produced but has not yet been emitted); scenarios of future emissions and atmospheric concentrations; and the impact on the stratospheric ozone layer of the anomalous enhancement in CFC-11 emissions.
Format: Digital (Free)
ISBN (or other code): 978-92-63-11268-2
Published by: WMO ; 2021
Research Infrastructure Quality Assurance – System and Performance audit of Surface Ozone, Carbon Monoxide, Methane, and Carbon Dioxide at the Global GAW Station Sonnblick, Austria, July 2020
Collection(s) and Series: GAW Report- No. 262/WCC-Empa Report No. 20/2
Format: Digital (Free)
Published by: WMO ; 2020
System and Performance Audit of Surface Ozone, Carbon Monoxide, Methane, Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous Oxide at the Global GAW Station Mace Head, Ireland
Collection(s) and Series: GAW Report- No. 258/WCC-Empa Report No. 18/2
Format: Digital (Free)Workplace changes occurring each day and more rapidly call for significant innovations in the way we educate and train people for their professional careers. The new global and digital economies call for fluidity, resilience, and readiness for rapid reskilling to meet changing demands. The many papers collected in this publication reveal just a small sample of the innovations being explored in education and training around the world. Many of these originated as goals to increase access for learners, to make learning more efficient, or to increase the impacts of training initiatives to ensure t ...
Published by: WMO ; 2020 (2020 edition)
Workplace changes occurring each day and more rapidly call for significant innovations in the way we educate and train people for their professional careers. The new global and digital economies call for fluidity, resilience, and readiness for rapid reskilling to meet changing demands. The many papers collected in this publication reveal just a small sample of the innovations being explored in education and training around the world. Many of these originated as goals to increase access for learners, to make learning more efficient, or to increase the impacts of training initiatives to ensure the investments of learners and teachers are well rewarded.
The papers represent innovations within the community that includes educators and trainers preparing people to work in meteorology, hydrology, climate services and related fields, as well as the communities that these professionals serve. It is just a snapshot of what is possible, but an eye-opening picture nonetheless.
Collection(s) and Series: ETR- No. 27
Format: Digital (Free)
Tags: Education ; Methodology ; Guide ; Education and Training Providers ; Basic Instructional Package for Meteorologists ; Basic Instructional Package for Meteorological Technicians ; Education and Training Programme (ETRP) ; ETR, Global Campus, Innovations Add tag
Published by: WMO ; 2020
System and Performance Audit of Surface Ozone, Carbon Monoxide, Methane, and Carbon Dioxide at the Global GAW Station Mt. Kenya, Kenya
Collection(s) and Series: GAW Report- No. 256/WCC-Empa Report No. 19/4
Format: Digital (Free)
PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; International Comparison of Dobson Spectrophotometers, Pretoria, Gauteng Province, South Africa, 7-18 October 2019 - WMO, 2020
PermalinkMeteorology and hydrology play an important role in the understanding of the basic criteria for the siting of nuclear power plant and in applying protective measures for their operations. In order to provide advice on this matter, the WMO Secretariat, at the request of the Executive Council, arranged for the preparation of a Technical Note aimed at practising meteorologists and hydrologists of countries faced with the task of installing nuclear power plants.
PermalinkLa primera edición de la Guía de Instrumentos y Métodos de Observación Meteorológicos (OMM-Nº 8) se publicó en 1954 […].
La presente Guía es un recurso fundamental que describe la mayoría de los instrumentos, los sistemas y las técnicas utilizados regularmente, desde los más sencillos hasta los más complejos y sofisticados, pero no pretende abordar los métodos e instrumentos que se utilizan únicamente con fines de investigación. Tiene por objeto presentar las mejores prácticas, los procedimientos y las capacidades básicas de los instrumentos y sistemas a fin de ayudar a los Servicios Me ...
PermalinkThe first edition of this guide was published in 1950.
PermalinkLa première édition du Guide des instruments et des methodes d’observation meteorologiques (OMM-N° 8) a été publiée en 1954.
PermalinkПервое издание Руководства по метеорологическим приборам и методам наблюдений (ВМО-№ 8) было опубликовано в 1954 г.[…].
Данное Руководство представляет собой ключевой ресурс, в котором содержится описание большинства приборов, систем и методов, используемых на регулярной основе: от простейших до характеризующихся высоким и высочайшим уровнем сложности, при этом не делается попытки описать методы и приборы, которые используются лишь для проведения научных исследований. Задача Руководства состоит в том, чтобы предоставить информацию о передовых методах, процедурах и базовых возможностях п ...
Permalink本出版物旨在为世界气象组织(WMO)会 员开展与气候信息与服务相关的国家活动提供 指导和支持。本指南之前已有两个版本：最初 的版本出现在1960年，而第二个版本于1983年 出版。随着时间的推移，虽然很多最基本的气 候科学和气候学惯例仍然保持不变，但是气候 学知识和资料分析技术方面的科学进步，以及 技术、计算机能力以及仪器方面的变化，使得 第二个版本过时了。
Permalinkالمنظمة العالمية للأرصاد - المنظمة العالمية للأرصاد, 2018 (طبعة 2018; مجموعة مطبوعات المنظمة-No. 100)صمم هذا المطبوع من أجل توفير التوجيه والمساعدة لأعضاء المنظمة العالمية للأرصاد الجوية في تطوير الأنشطة الوطنية المرتبطة بالمعلومات والخدمات المناخية. وقد صدرت طبعتان سابقتان من هذا الدليل: المطبوع الأصلي، الذي ظهر في 1960 ، والطبعة الثانية، التي نشرت في 1983 . ومع أن الكثير من مبادئ علم المناخ والممارسات المناخية لم تفقد صلاحيتها مع مرور الزمن، فإن أوجه التقدم العلمي في المعارف المناخية وأساليب تحليل البيانات، فضاً عن التغيرات التي حدثت في التكنولوجيا، وفي قدرات الحواسيب والأجهزة، قد جعلت الطبعة الثانية غير مناسبة للعصر.
PermalinkLa presente publicación tiene por objeto proporcionar orientación y asistencia a los Miembros de la Organización Meteorológica Mundial (OMM) para llevar a cabo actividades nacionales vinculadas con la información y los servicios climáticos.
PermalinkНастоящая публикация предназначена для предоставления руководства и оказания содействия странам — членам Всемирной Метеорологической Организации (ВМО) в развитии национальной деятельности, связанной с климатической информацией и обслуживанием.
PermalinkThis publication is designed to provide Members of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) with guidance and assistance in developing national activities linked to climate information and services.
PermalinkБюллетень, Том 64(2). BMO, 2016Криосфера является основным индикатором глобального изменения климата и играет существенную роль в клима- тической системе. Несмотря на успехи в области числен- ного моделирования, надежность долгосрочных прогнозов изменения климата в Арктике и Антарктике существенно ограничена недостатком систематических наблюдений in situ за морским льдом и подледной областью. По этой причине Всемирная программа исследований климата (ВПИК)1 и Фонд Принца Монако Альберта II спонсируют конкурс «Полярный вызов (Polar Challenge)»2, победителем которого станет группа, первой выполнившая программу измерений с испо ...
PermalinkBulletin, Vol. 64(1). OMM, 2016La population mondiale devrait augmenter de trois milliards de personnes d’ici 2050, et 90 % de cette croissance s’observera dans les pays en développement. Or, les habitants de ces pays dépendent actuellement, pour leurs besoins en eau potable et pour la production d’aliments, des ressources en eau traditionnelles et des précipitations. La croissance démographique projetée poussera vraisemblablement les systèmes mondiaux d’approvisionnement en eau au bord de la crise.
PermalinkFog though a rare event has adverse economic implications to both the airline and aviation service providers if it’s occurrence, duration and dissipation periods are not properly predicted. This work assesses the accuracy and skill in forecasting fog events and suggesting possible adjustments to improve forecast accuracy and skill. The forecast used in this study are produced by MeteoGroup using Model Output Statistics (MOS). Forecasts for Heathrow, Northolt and Kenley are considered for analysis. These forecasts are used by British Airports Authority (BAA) in planning airport operations. The ...
PermalinkThis study attempted to investigate the variability of extreme rainfall and temperature over Rwanda and the associated circulation anomalies forecasting on wet and dry rainfall events between 1961 and 2010. The datasets used to achieve the objectives includes Temperature, the rainfall dataset, wind vector, pressure vertical velocity (omega) and the Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST). The methods used include correlation analysis, Standardized anomaly, composite analysis, and Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) analysis. The results show that the mean annual cycle depict two rainy Seas ...
PermalinkGlobal climate change is remarkably changing the climatic patterns of the Pearl River basin and are significantly impacting the hydrological processes. Projection of future climate change impacts on steamflow variation is potential to provide scientific guidelines for sustainable water resources management and effective prevention and control for flood and drought disasters. In this study, a hydrological modeling system for assessing climate change impacts on runoffin the Pearl River basin was established and were used to simulate historical hydrological process and to project future streamflo ...
PermalinkThis research investigates the dynamical and thermodynamical process of mesoscale convective system that intensifies squall lines wind speed propagation. The generation of African Easterly Waves (AEWs) and its lifecycle. The characteristics of squall lines (SLs) over West Africa (WA) which occurred In Guinea for two cases periods June 01-02 and June 13-14, 2015. In all six (6) AEWs have been tracked using reanalysis data from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). European Meteorological Satellite images (EUMETSAT) and Earth Networks WeatherBug StreamerRT were also used to ...
PermalinkAerosols are small, micrometer-sized particles, whose optical effects coupled with their impact on cloud properties is a source of large uncertainty in climate models. Aerosols when inhaled are believed to have significant and detrimental effects on human health. Their presence also affects photosynthesis and agricultural production. Aerosol measurements are urgently required for the complete understanding and modeling their role in the climate system. This study builds on the analysis of Aerosol Optical depth (AOD) using Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) and sun photometer measurements then ...
PermalinkThis paper examines the aerosol extinction coefficient profiles measured by Rayleigh-Raman-Mie-Lidar (RRML) system in Nanjing, China. I introduced two lidars methods (Raman and Fernald) and detection principle, and two lidars data Using Raman analysis method and Fernald analysis method to obtained aerosol extinction coefficient. Aerosol profiles at 607 nm and 532 nm over ranges from 6 km to 10 km were obtained using respectively Raman lidar and Rayleigh lidar in Nanjing.
PermalinkPrecipitations vary consistently in Benin from 1981 to 2010. The present study reveals that the variation of Benin JJAS precipitation is positively correlated to MAM Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in Atlantic Ocean with correlation coefficient more than 0.7. When the SST is higher (lower) in the Atlantic Ocean, precipitation over Benin tends to be above (below) normal. The years 1988, 1989, 2003, 2007 and 2008, were wet with 1988, 2003, 2008 high SST over Tropical Southern Atlantic Ocean (STAO) while the years 1982, 1983, 1992 and 1997 formed the dry years with low SST over Tropical Southern At ...
PermalinkThe southern coastal region of West Africa (SCWA) is located between 40N-80N latitudes and 100W -50E longitudes near the equator in the northern Hemisphere, the south and west are respectively equatorial and West Atlantic Ocean, and it is consisted to seven countries (Sierra Leon, Liberia, Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, Benin and Nigeria). The rainy season starts from spring to the summer, mainly from May to October. The rainfall is very important for southern coastal of West Africa region which their economy and food supply are highly dependent on agricultural production. Understanding of previo ...
PermalinkThe variability and predictability of summer rainfall over Zimbabwe at inter-annual time scale is studied. Dry and wet seasons are identified using Zimbabwe Standardized Rainfall Index (ZRI). Seasonal rainfall and circulation patterns are investigated at inter annual time scale. The study focuses on the temporal and spatial variation of summer rainfall over Zimbabwe and tries to explain the circulation mechanisms associated with such phenomenon.
PermalinkFor Zimbabwe, where rain fed agriculture is the backbone of the economy, the importance of accurate rainfall seasonal forecasts cannot be overemphasized (Makarau and Jury, 1997). In fact, extremes in interseasonal variability of rainfall can significantly complicate human livelihoods. In addition, there have been predictions of increased precipitation variability and hydro-meteorological hazards such as floods, droughts, and erratic rainfall due to global warming (Field et al., 2014; Mushore, 2013a). Thus, detailed understanding of the major contributors to the rainfall variability over Zimbab ...
PermalinkBulletin, Vol. 64(2). WMO, 2015The cryosphere is a major indicator of global climate change and plays a fundamental role in the climate system. Despite advances in numerical modelling, the reliability of long-term climate change predictions in the Arctic and Antarctic are severely limited by the lack of systematic in situ observations of and beneath the sea ice. For this reason, the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP)1 and the Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation are sponsoring a Polar Challenge2 that will reward the first team to complete a 2 000 km mission with an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) under the Arctic ...
PermalinkBulletin, Vol. 64(1). WMO, 2015The world’s population is expected to increase by a further three billion by 2050 – and 90% of that growth will be in developing countries that currently rely on existing water supplies and rainfall for food and water. The projected population growth will most likely bring global water supply to a crisis point.
PermalinkIn urban climate research, spatial and temporal variability of precipitation is always a critical element for numerical modelling. However, the effects of temporal resolution of precipitation forcing data has received little attention. Moreover, there has always been a difference practically and theoretically in the availability of precipitation data. This study was carried out to assess the impact of temporal resolution of precipitation forcing data on the modelled surface energy and water balance using available data from a site at the Strand campus of Kings College London. Analysis has been ...
Permalink《WMO 气象仪器和观测方法指南》（WMO-No.8）第一版于1954 年出版，共十二章。此后，标准化仍然是仪器和观测方法委员会（CIMO）活动的一个关键问题。委员会不断审议指南的 内容，并确保在定期更新时纳入了反映技术的快速发展及其在气象仪器和观测方法领域的 实施的现代指导材料。
对于常规用途的大多数仪器、系统和技术，本指南是一项关键资源，提供了从最简单到最复 杂精细的描述，但不会涉及仅用于研究的方法和工具。指南的目的是给出最佳做法和程序，以及仪器和系统的基本能力，协助国家气象和水文部门或者其他感兴趣的运行观测系统的用 户编制他们的手册和程序，满足各自对测量和观察结果的特定需要。指南有意将标准化限制 在基本要求上，并将建议局限至给定仪器或测量系统不同配置最常见的一般特征，从而给 进一步发展留下广泛余地。对于有关与WIGOS 相关的仪器和观测方法的所有问题，本指南 都是权威参考。
Permalinkوصدرت الطبعة الأولى من دلیل أدوات وطرق رصد الأحوال الجویة (مطبوع المنظمة رقم 8) في عام 1954 وكانت تتألف من اثني عشر فصلاً. ومنذ ذلك الحین، ظلت مسألة التوحید القیاسي مصدر قلق ومن ھنا تواصل اللجنة استعراض محتویات .(CIMO) رئیسیاً بالنسبة لأنشطة لجنة أدوات وطرق الرصد الدلیل وتتأكد من أن عملیات التحدیث المنتظمة تشمل المواد الإرشادیة الحدیثة التي تعكس التطور السریع للتكنولوجیا وتنفیذھا في مجال أدوات وطرق رصد الأحوال الجویة
PermalinkDespite substantial advances in both forecasting capability and emergency preparedness, recent years have seen a large number of natural disasters that have cost many lives, displaced large numbers of people, and caused widespread damage to property and infrastructure. Many of these disasters result from severe weather interacting with society. At the same time, less severe weather events place a continuing strain on society through more frequent impacts of smaller magnitude. This is especially evident in less developed countries with more fragile economies and infrastructure. In addition, wea ...
PermalinkBulletin, Vol. 62(1). WMO, 2013Technology first used to listen for secret H-bomb tests could help forecasters tell us what the weather is going to be like up to a month in advance. That is one of the aims of an exciting new international research project, Atmosphere dynamics Research InfraStructure in Europe (ARISE), which kicked-off in January 2012. Following studies that showed that the upper layers of the Earth’s atmosphere could provide crucial information for more accurate longer-term weather forecasts, on timescales up to four weeks ahead, twelve partners from eight European member states and one associated country ha ...
PermalinkThis WMO information note is the first in a series that will aim to make the science underlying the weather, climate and water issues addressed by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) more easily accessible to the general public. The science of climate change continues to advance through the accumulation of additional data and observations and new studies and analyses. The peer-reviewed scientific literature that draws on these data and studies are assessed by the WMO/UNEP Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which will issue "The Physical Science Basis" volume of its Fifth ...
Permalink2013A regional-scale sensitivity study has been carried out to investigate the climatic effects of forest cover change in Europe. Applying REMO (regional climate model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology), the projected temperature and precipitation tendencies have been analysed for summer, based on the results of the A2 IPCC-SRES emission scenario simulation. For the end of the 21st century it has been studied, whether the assumed forest cover increase could reduce the effects of the greenhouse gas concentration change.
PermalinkNtamack S. - 2012This paper addresses some methodological biases present in the mode of understanding climate change through scientific research. These overlapping biases are referred to as glocality. The paper argues that as a device of the cognitive globalisation around environmental issues, glocality operates in science as a cognitive form of ubiquity deriving from an attempt to compress the spatiotemporal dimension of the changing weather within the time and space of the mind. In the case of climate change, it refers to three focal points summarised as problems of climate change’s phenomena problem of the ...
PermalinkFollowing the advice of the XV Session of the Association, the TT-SPAP developed the regional Operating Plan by compiling the tasks in the Work Programmes of the Working Groups. Thus, the Operating Plan contains concrete tasks and deliverables aimed at assisting RA VI Members to implement their national plans for further development of their NMHSs and improvement of the provision of meteorological, hydrological and climatological services for supporting their national economies and the society. The RA VI Operating Plan is intended to be a living document regularly monitored and adjusted as nec ...
PermalinkWhile agreeing on the choice of an optimal investment decision is already difficult for any diverse group of actors, priorities, and world views, the presence of deep uncertainties further challenges the decision-making framework by questioning the robustness of all purportedly optimal solutions. This paper summarizes the additional uncertainty that is created by climate change, and reviews the tools that are available to project climate change (including downscaling techniques) and to assess and quantify the corresponding uncertainty. Assuming that climate change and other deep uncertainties ...
PermalinkEmissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from agriculture are substantial. This paper looks into how can agricultural greenhouse gas emissions be reduced or sequestration enhanced while maintaining and even increasing food supply. The paper relies on a research undertaken in nine chosen African countries.
The authors reveal that croplands and grazing lands cover more than half of the East African countries’ lands and about 40% of the West African countries’ lands. In the nine African countries, the largest amount of GHG emissions is from the livestock sector, followed by emissions f ...
PermalinkPermalinkBulletin, Vol. 60 (1). WMO, 2011
PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Korhonen H.; Sihto S.-L.; Kerminen V.-M.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Several mathematical tools have been developed in recent years to analyze new particle formation rates and to estimate nucleation rates and mechanisms at sub-3 nm sizes from atmospheric aerosol data. Here we evaluate these analysis tools using 1239 numerical nucleation events for which the nucleation mechanism and formation rates were known exactly. The accuracy of the estimates of particle formation rate at 3 nm (J3) showed significant sensitivity to the details of the analysis, i.e. form of equations used and assumptions made about the initial size of nucleating clusters, with the fraction o ...