Report of the 2017 Global Atmosphere Watch Symposium and Fourth Session of the CAS Environmental Pollution and Atmospheric Chemistry Scientific Steering Committee (EPAC SSC)
Event: 2017 Global Atmosphere Watch Symposium and 4th Session of the CAS Environmental Pollution and Atmospheric Chemistry Scientific Steering Committee (EPAC SSC) (10-13 April 2017; Geneva, Switzerland)Published by: WMO ; 2019
Collection(s) and Series: GAW Report- No. 244
Format: Digital (Free)SF6 is a substance which originates only from anthropogenic sources used primarily in the electricity and electronics supply industries, e.g. the semiconductor industry, where it is used as an electronic insulator due to its inertness. SF6 is a trace gas that exists in small quantities at the level of ppt (parts-per-trillion, 1/1012) in the atmosphere, but its global warming potential is 23,500 times greater than that of CO2 when compared over a 100-year period. In particular, SF6 has an atmospheric lifetime of 3,200 years upon emission, and will eventually exacerbate the man-made greenhous ...Published by: WMO ; 2018
SF6 is a substance which originates only from anthropogenic sources used primarily in the electricity and electronics supply industries, e.g. the semiconductor industry, where it is used as an electronic insulator due to its inertness. SF6 is a trace gas that exists in small quantities at the level of ppt (parts-per-trillion, 1/1012) in the atmosphere, but its global warming potential is 23,500 times greater than that of CO2 when compared over a 100-year period. In particular, SF6 has an atmospheric lifetime of 3,200 years upon emission, and will eventually exacerbate the man-made greenhouse effect in the long term due to its higher radiative forcing, with greater significance in the future rather than in the present. Therefore, the measurement data of SF6 will carry significant importance as basic materials for future discussions on climate change. Since SF6 is a greenhouse gas that exists in trace quantities at 5-15 ppt in the atmosphere, measurement of the gas requires a very precise procedure. This document provides guidelines on how to produce more accurate and precise values in continuous atmospheric SF6 measurements, as well as the discrete sample analysis after collecting the air, preparation of standard gases for laboratory applications, and intercomparison experiments. These guidelines are also helpful to prepare the working standards, which have traceability to laboratory standards considering the scale propagation errors. In this guideline document, WMO scale (NOAA-X2014) is used for the calibrations. The instrument setup and analysis methods refer to WMO (2015).
Collection(s) and Series: GAW Report- No. 239
Format: Digital (Free)World Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; IBBI ; The Global Fire Monitoring Center (GFMC) - WMO, 2018This concept note contains the expert recommendations resulting from discussions at the international workshop on Forecasting Emissions from Vegetation Fires and their Impacts on Human Health and Security in South-East Asia, which was hosted by the Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG), Jakarta, from 29 August to 1 September 2016. The workshop was organized by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the Interdisciplinary Biomass Burning Initiative (IBBI) in collaboration with the United Nations Office for Disaster Reduction/International Wildfire Prepared ...Published by: WMO ; 2018
Vegetation Fire and Smoke Pollution Warning and Advisory System (VFSP-WAS): Concept Note and Expert Recommendations
This concept note contains the expert recommendations resulting from discussions at the international workshop on Forecasting Emissions from Vegetation Fires and their Impacts on Human Health and Security in South-East Asia, which was hosted by the Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG), Jakarta, from 29 August to 1 September 2016. The workshop was organized by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the Interdisciplinary Biomass Burning Initiative (IBBI) in collaboration with the United Nations Office for Disaster Reduction/International Wildfire Preparedness Mechanism (UNISDR/IWPM), United Nations University (UNU), Global Wildland Fire Network (GWFN) through the Global Fire Monitoring Center (GFMC), Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, and the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Project. Arising from the keen interest of WMO Members in several impacted regions, the note provides guidance for addressing the issues of vegetation fire and smoke pollution. It also proposes the establishment of a Vegetation Fire and Smoke Pollution Warning and Advisory System (VFSP-WAS) and to support the potential foundation of regional centers on the topic. Although most of the examples described here focus on the South-East Asian region, the concepts remain applicable to other regions (e.g. for Africa, Latin America, Northern Asia). “South-East Asia” as referred to in this note includes WMO Members from both Regional Associations II and V (Asia and South-West Pacific).
Collection(s) and Series: GAW Report- No. 235
Format: Digital (Free)Published by: WMO ; 2018
Report of the Third Session of the CAS Environmental Pollution and Atmospheric Chemistry Scientific Steering Committee (EPAC SSC)
Collection(s) and Series: GAW Report- No. 233
Format: Digital (Free)This updated one-hour lesson explores the types of atmospheric and surface features that can be observed at night. It describes recent technical improvements in nighttime visible imaging with the VIIRS Day/Night Band on board the Suomi NPP and JPSS satellites, and the lunar phases and other conditions necessary for effective nighttime visible imaging. This lays the foundation for the rest of the lesson, which explores operational uses of nighttime visible observations. These include the detection and monitoring of city lights, tropical cyclones, fog and stratus, polar nights, auroras, fires an ...Published by: The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research ; 2017
This updated one-hour lesson explores the types of atmospheric and surface features that can be observed at night. It describes recent technical improvements in nighttime visible imaging with the VIIRS Day/Night Band on board the Suomi NPP and JPSS satellites, and the lunar phases and other conditions necessary for effective nighttime visible imaging. This lays the foundation for the rest of the lesson, which explores operational uses of nighttime visible observations. These include the detection and monitoring of city lights, tropical cyclones, fog and stratus, polar nights, auroras, fires and smoke, volcanic eruptions, dust storms, air pollution, moon glint, lightning, gas flares, ships and boats, and population/economic geography. The lesson is intended for weather forecasters and other environmental scientists who use nighttime environmental data. Other users, such as those in the transportation industry and economists, may benefit from it as well.
Disclaimer regarding 3rd party resources: WMO endeavours to ensure, but cannot and does not guarantee the accuracy, accessibility, integrity and timeliness of the information available on its website. WMO may make changes to the content of this website at any time without notice.
The responsibility for opinions expressed in articles, publications, studies and other contributions rests solely with their authors, and their posting on this website does not constitute an endorsement by WMO of the opinion expressed therein.
WMO shall not be liable for any damages incurred as a result of the use of its website. Please do not misuse our website.
Format: Digital (Standard Copyright)Permalink
PermalinkIt is the goal of the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) programme to ensure long - term measurements in order to detect trends in global distributions of chemical constituents in air and the reasons for them (WMO, 2001a). With respect to aerosols, the objective of GAW is to determine the spatio - temporal distribution of aerosol properties related to climate forcing and air quality on multi - decadal time scales and on regional, hemispheric and global spatial scales. The objective of GAW Report No. 153, published in 2003, was to provide a synthesis of methodologies and procedures for measuring the ...PermalinkThis lesson introduces you to three of the four near-infrared imager bands (at 1.37, 1.6, and 2.2 micrometers) on the GOES R-U ABI (Advanced Baseline Imager), focusing on their spectral characteristics and how they affect what each band observes. For information on the 0.86 micrometer near-IR "veggie" band which is not included here, refer to the Visible and Near-IR Bands lesson. This lesson is a part of the NWS Satellite Foundation GOES-R Course.PermalinkThis lesson introduces seven of the ten infrared imager bands on the GOES R-U ABI (Advanced Baseline Imager). It examines the spectral characteristics of each band to facilitate a better understanding of band selection and what each band observes, and to shed light on some of the many potential applications. This lesson is a part of the NWS Satellite Foundation GOES-R Course.PermalinkThis lesson introduces you to the two visible and one of the near-infrared imager bands on the GOES R-U ABI (Advanced Baseline Imager), focusing on their spectral characteristics and how they affect what each band observes. Also included is a brief discussion of the customization of visible enhancements as an important consideration for improving the depiction of various features of interest. This lesson is a part of the NWS Satellite Foundation GOES-R Course.PermalinkPermalinkAerosols are small, micrometer-sized particles, whose optical effects coupled with their impact on cloud properties is a source of large uncertainty in climate models. Aerosols when inhaled are believed to have significant and detrimental effects on human health. Their presence also affects photosynthesis and agricultural production. Aerosol measurements are urgently required for the complete understanding and modeling their role in the climate system. This study builds on the analysis of Aerosol Optical depth (AOD) using Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) and sun photometer measurements then ...PermalinkThis paper examines the aerosol extinction coefficient profiles measured by Rayleigh-Raman-Mie-Lidar (RRML) system in Nanjing, China. I introduced two lidars methods (Raman and Fernald) and detection principle, and two lidars data Using Raman analysis method and Fernald analysis method to obtained aerosol extinction coefficient. Aerosol profiles at 607 nm and 532 nm over ranges from 6 km to 10 km were obtained using respectively Raman lidar and Rayleigh lidar in Nanjing.PermalinkOnline coupled meteorology atmospheric chemistry models have undergone a rapid evolution in recent years. Although mainly developed by the air quality modelling community, these models are also of interest for numerical weather prediction and climate modelling as they can consider not only the effects of meteorology on air quality, but also the potentially important effects of atmospheric composition on weather. This report provides the main conclusions from the Symposium on “Coupled Chemistry-Meteorology/Climate Modelling: Status and Relevance for Numerical Weather Prediction, Air Quality and ...Permalink
PermalinkAerosols in the atmosphere serve as condensation nuclei for the cloud formation. This brings an important influence on the microphysical properties of cloud water that in turn affect the processes in the formation of precipitation. Aerosol-cloud-precipitation interaction which simultaneously change cloud albedo interest many studies to find out aerosol impact on precipitation formation. The studies were done by observation measurement and simulation. UK Met Office Unified Model (UM) is one model that includes aerosol direct and indirect effect in the NWP configuration which leads to study aero ...PermalinkPermalinkThe meeting reviewed current WMO data quality objectives and observation scales, covering such topics as carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, stable isotopes, radiocarbon in greenhouse gas measurements, calibration, quality control, data management and archiving. The workshop also discussed new and emerging technologies, including measurements of greenhouse gases with high-precision spectroscopic methods. The group made several recommendations on the WMO data quality objectives, as well as on the development of the GAW Programme infrastructure. These recommendations are summarized in the ...PermalinkThe meeting reviewed current WMO data quality objectives and observation scales, covering such topics as carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, stable isotopes, radiocarbon in greenhouse gas measurements, calibration, quality control, data management and archiving. The workshop also discussed new and emerging technologies, including measurements of greenhouse gases with high-precision spectroscopic methods. The group made several recommendations on the WMO data quality objectives, as well as on the development of the GAW Programme infrastructure. These recommendations are summarized in the ...PermalinkThis document outlines such operating procedures for spectral UV measurements and is intended for use by station operators. As it does not present the details of instrument characterization and calibration, the guide should be used in conjunction with GAW Reports No. 125 [WMO, 2001], No. 126 [WMO, 1998], No. 146 [WMO, 2003], and No. 191 [WMO, 2010] providing more detail and background information.PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) - WMO, 2014The document reports on current knowledge and experience within the specific field of light and lighting described and is intended to be used by the CIE membership and other interested parties. It should be noted, however, that the status of this document is advisory and not mandatory.PermalinkThis paper argues that policies that discourage the demand for non-renewable energy can be used to cut down CO2 emission as it would help to discourage consumption patterns away non-renewable energy sources. The transmission mechanism can be deduced from the high price that the withdrawal of fuel subsidy would bring and the resultant downward adjustment in non-renewable energy use in consumption and production (such as emission from vehicles) which would bring about reduction in total emission. The study focused on Nigeria as a significant oil producing country in Sub Saharan Africa and employ ...PermalinkPermalinkThis extension of the COMET lesson “GOES-R: Benefits of Next Generation Environmental Monitoring” focuses on the ABI instrument, the satellite's 16-channel imager. With increased spectral coverage, greater spatial resolution, more frequent imaging, and improved image pixel geolocation and radiometric performance, the ABI will bring significant advancements to forecasting, numerical weather prediction, and climate and environmental monitoring. The first part of the lesson introduces the ABI's key features and improvements over earlier GOES imagers. The second section lets users interactively ex ...PermalinkUNEP, 2013UNEP Risoe, with the support of the UNFCCC Secretariat and the ACP-MEA Programme (www.acp-cd4cdm.org), has decided to assess the emissions reduction potential in 15 diverse countries. 15 country reports have been developed, from which this synthesis report gathers the main messages. The definition of sectors and technologies used in these country reports takes its point of departure from UNEP Risoe’s CDM Methodology and Technology Selection Tool (www.cdm-meth.org). This tool has been specifically developed for the identification of technologies and related CDM methodologies for exploitation o ...PermalinkThis report offers an overview of climate change policy issues across the world. It focuses on: 1) Brazil, China, India, Europe and the United States, which represent the majority of global greenhouse gas emissions but vary widely in terms of economic development, natural resource endowment, political system and climate policy; 2) The economic sectors that represent the greatest potential for greenhouse gas mitigation; and 3) A defined set of policy issues within these regions and key sectors that most affect climate change. For each of the sectors covered, the report provides facts and data a ...PermalinkEEA, 2013Highlights from the EU Air Implementation Pilot project: This brochure, produced by the EEA, summarises findings on local scale emission inventories from the EU Air Implementation Pilot project. It also highlights sources of information and guidance for those compiling city inventories.PermalinkPermalinkADB, 2013South Asia is considered vulnerable to the impacts and consequences of climate change, including sea level rise, melting Himalayan glaciers, and increased frequency of typhoons. Notwithstanding these challenges, sustained and rapid economic growth is necessary for the region to achieve significant poverty reduction, uplift the economic well-being of its people, and increase its resilience to environmental shocks and natural disasters, including those associated with climate change.
Economics of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in South Asia
Against a backdrop, co ...Permalink
PermalinkUNEP, 2012The 2012 report provides the following information: An update of global greenhouse gas emission estimates, based on a number of different authoritative scientific sources; An overview of national emission levels, both current (2010) and projected (2020) consistent with current pledges and other commitments;
An estimate of the level of global emissions consistent with the two degree target in 2020, 2030 and 2050; An update of the assessment of the "emissions gap" for 2020; A review of selected examples of the rapid progress being made in different parts of the world to implement policies ...PermalinkPermalinkSuspended particulate matter in the atmosphere, commonly known as aerosol by the technical and scientific community, plays a role in climate change, air quality/human health, ozone depletion and the long-range transport and deposition of toxics and nutrients. Aerosols have many sources ranging from sea spray and mineral dust that are mechanically generated by wind at the Earth’s surface to sulphates, nitrates and organics produced primarily by chemical reaction of gases in the atmosphere producing non-volatile products that condense to form particles. In addition, semi-volatile substances such ...PermalinkPermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; Weiß Elisabeth; World Calibration Centre for Volatile Organic Compounds (WCC-VOCs); et al. - WMO, 2012This document gives guidance for sampling of atmospheric volatile non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) in whole air using electro-polished stainless steel canisters in the WMO GAW network. The described procedures are appropriate for alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, and aromatic compounds with two to six carbon atoms (C2 to C6). NMHCs with more than six carbon atoms tend to be adsorbed on the canister surfaces and may only be partially recovered. The procedures are valid for analyzing volatile alkane, alkyl and isoprene mole fractions in continental background air with mole fractio ...PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; International Global Atmospheric Chemistry project (IGAC) - WMO, 2012The World Meteorological Organization and the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) project have released a study of how megacities affect the climate and pollute the atmosphere. The report concludes that rapid urbanization will pose serious health risks to city dwellers unless stronger efforts are made to reduce pollution.PermalinkEPA, 2012This report synthesizes and assesses available scientific information on the current and future impacts of black carbon, and evaluates the effectiveness of available black carbon mitigation approaches and technologies for protecting climate, public health, and the environment. US Environmental Protection Agency, 2012.PermalinkEPA, 2012This report is intended to help achieve near-term climate and other benefits by providing information and examples of a variety of low-cost, high-impact and high feasibility opportunities to reduce black carbon emissions in South Asia. The report states this region is especially vulnerable to the multiplicity of impacts attributable to black carbon.PermalinkPermalinkAs early as 2006, Parties to the Kyoto Protocol recognized the importance of a balanced regional distribution of CDM projects and welcomed the establishment of the Nairobi Framework, which brings together UN and regional organizations to support equitable access to the mechanism. In light of the benefits that the CDM can bring to lesser developed regions, the Nairobi Framework partners and others began funding technical support and capacity-building programmes for the CDM, particularly in Africa. The following pages provide a short description of the most important financing and support opport ...PermalinkThis study assesses the claims made by project participants in the project design documents submitted for registration. The relative reliability of these claims, as verified by a follow-up survey, suggests that the CDM is making a contribution to sustainable development in host countries in addition to the mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Almost all CDM projects claim multiple sustainable development benefits, but the mix of benefits claimed varies considerably by project type.PermalinkThe World’s Worst Pollution Problems: Assessing Health Risks at Hazardous Waste Sites report reveals that close to 125 million people are at risk from toxic pollution across 49 low to middle-income countries. Also, the report, for the first time estimates the total global burden of disease attributed to toxic pollution from industrial sites in these countries. It establishes the global burden of disease from toxic pollution as on par with better-known public health problems such as malaria and tuberculosis.PermalinkThis paper reviews dynamic general equilibrium models in order to collect insights on the interaction between economic growth and environmental issues. The authors discuss the Ramsey model and extend it for natural resource inputs and pollution, as well as for endogenous technical change. Green growth becomes within reach if there is good substitution, a clean backstop technology, a small share of natural resources in gross domestic product, and/or green directed technical change.PermalinkEEA, 2012Member States provide an annual assessment of air quality in comparison to EU air quality thresholds.PermalinkEuropean Commission, 2012This is a collection of conversations with some of the ‘fathers’ of air pollution and climate change science. Through careful observation and a mix of intuition and critical thought, they have uncovered some of the workings of our planet: its atmosphere and climate. They were generally driven by curiosity and gradually by a concern that mankind might indeed have a devastating impact on Earth and the life it hosts. Their findings were so important that they could not stay in the ivory tower of scientific research. They personally reached out to decision makers and the public at large because in ...PermalinkAgriculture accounts for 30 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions. How agriculture is practised, therefore, has significant potential for mitigating climate change, providing food security and improving the livelihoods of food producers worldwide. There is growing interest in the use of market governance mechanisms for tackling climate change by giving the financial incentives to make the required changes. The key messages emerging from this study are that economic measures have a vital part to play, but to be effective, emissions from food production and consumption must be addressed to ...PermalinkUNFCCC, 2012The Consultative Group of Experts on National Communications from Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention (CGE), in collaboration with the Technical Support Unit for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Task Force on National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, organized a hands-on training workshop for the Africa region on national greenhouse gas inventories, held in Swakopmund, Namibia, from 23 to 27 April 2012. This report outlines the proceedings of the workshop; it summarizes the feedback and recommendations from the participants of the workshop, the updated CGE training ...PermalinkThe Coalition's initial focus is on methane, black carbon, and HFCs. At the same time, Partners recognize that action on Short lived climate pollutants must complement and supplement, not replace, global action to reduce carbon dioxide, in particular efforts under the UNFCCC.
The Coalition's objectives are to address short lived climate pollutants by: Raising awareness of short lived climate pollutant impacts and mitigation strategies; Enhancing and developing new national and regional actions, including by identifying and overcoming barriers, enhancing capacity, and mobilizing ...PermalinkWHO, 2012This report presents the results of a systematic review of evidence of the health effects of black carbon (BC). The Task Force on Health agreed that a reduction in exposure to PM2.5 containing BC and other combustion-related PM material for which BC is an indirect indicator should lead to a reduction in the health effects associated with PM. The Task Force recommended that PM2.5 should continue to be used as the primary metric in quantifying human exposure to PM and the health effects of such exposure, and for predicting the benefits of exposure reduction measures. The use of BC as an addition ...PermalinkEEA, 2012This document is the annual European Union emission inventory report under the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP). The report and its accompanying data are provided as an official submission to the secretariat for the Executive Body of the LRTAP Convention by the European Commission on behalf of the European Union. The report is compiled by the European Environment Agency (EEA).PermalinkUNDP, 2012This guidebook provides background information on Early Childhood Development (ECD) and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), and sets out processes for assessing the capacity and needs at community levels to further identify future steps to improve ECD in DRR. Furthermore, it addresses the vulnerability faced by children and the efforts to mitigate underlying causes of these vulnerabilities. Beyond national and international, policy and political issues, DRR occurs within communities and at the programme level. DRR processes and activities have the potential to address the special needs of young chi ...PermalinkUNCTAD, 2012he report explores the opportunities that a low carbon green growth path offers to the region. It articulates five tracks on which to drive the economic system change necessary to pursue low carbon green growth as a new economic development path.
In particular, the “visible structure” of the economy, comprising such physical infrastructure as transport, buildings and energy systems, together with the “invisible structure”, which encompasses market prices, governance, regulations and lifestyles, have to be re-oriented towards resource efficiency. The Roadmap provides policymakers ...PermalinkWorld Bank, 2012The Little Green Data Book is a pocket-sized ready reference on key environmental data for over 200 economies. Key indicators are organized under the headings of agriculture, forestry, biodiversity, energy, emission and pollution, and water and sanitation.PermalinkCities contribute an estimated 70 percent of the world's energy-related greenhouse gases (GHG). Their locations, often in low-elevation coastal zones, and large populations make them particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. But cities often take steps, even ahead of national governments, to reduce GHG emissions. So it is with China's cities, which are well placed to chart a low-carbon growth path to help reach China's national targets for reducing the energy and carbon intensity of its economy. China's cities will need to act on multiple fronts, in some cases scaling up elemen ...PermalinkEmissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from agriculture are substantial. This paper looks into how can agricultural greenhouse gas emissions be reduced or sequestration enhanced while maintaining and even increasing food supply. The paper relies on a research undertaken in nine chosen African countries.
The authors reveal that croplands and grazing lands cover more than half of the East African countries’ lands and about 40% of the West African countries’ lands. In the nine African countries, the largest amount of GHG emissions is from the livestock sector, followed by emissions f ...PermalinkUN CC:Learn, 2012PermalinkPermalinkAEMA, 2011PermalinkAEE, 2011PermalinkA five-year dataset of spectral aerosol optical thickness was used to analyse the seasonal variability of aerosol optical properties (the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at wavelength λ=500 nm, AOT(500) and the Ångström exponent for the 440-870 nm spectral range, α(440, 870)) over the Baltic Sea and dependence of these optical properties on meteorological factors (wind direction, wind speed and relative humidity). The data from the Gotland station of the global radiometric network AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network, http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov) were taken to be representative of the Baltic Sea ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Korhonen H.; Sihto S.-L.; Kerminen V.-M.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Several mathematical tools have been developed in recent years to analyze new particle formation rates and to estimate nucleation rates and mechanisms at sub-3 nm sizes from atmospheric aerosol data. Here we evaluate these analysis tools using 1239 numerical nucleation events for which the nucleation mechanism and formation rates were known exactly. The accuracy of the estimates of particle formation rate at 3 nm (J3) showed significant sensitivity to the details of the analysis, i.e. form of equations used and assumptions made about the initial size of nucleating clusters, with the fraction o ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Schmeissner T.; Krejci R.; Ström J.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011The first long-term measurements of aerosol number and size distributions in South-American tropical free troposphere (FT) were performed from March 2007 until March 2009. The measurements took place at the high altitude Atmospheric Research Station Alexander von Humboldt. The station is located on top of the Sierra Nevada mountain ridge at 4765 m a.s.l. nearby the city of Mérida, Venezuela. Aerosol size distribution and number concentration data was obtained with a custom-built Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS) system and a Condensational Particle Counter (CPC). The analysis of the ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Ten Hoeve J.E.; Remer L.A.; Jacobson M.Z. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Aerosol, cloud, water vapor, and temperature profile data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are utilized to examine the impact of aerosols on clouds during the Amazonian biomass burning season in Rondônia, Brazil. It is found that increasing background column water vapor (CWV) throughout this transition season between the Amazon dry and wet seasons likely exerts a strong effect on cloud properties. As a result, proper analysis of aerosol-cloud relationships requires that data be stratified by CWV to account better for the influence of background meteorological vari ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Xing J.; Wang S.X.; Chatani S.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants in China influence not only local and regional environments but also the global atmospheric environment; therefore, it is important to understand how China's air pollutant emissions will change and how they will affect regional air quality in the future. Emission scenarios in 2020 were projected using forecasts of energy consumption and emission control strategies based on emissions in 2005, and on recent development plans for key industries in China. We developed four emission scenarios: REF (current control legislations and implementation status), ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Donahue N.M.; Epstein S.A.; Pandis S.N.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011We develop the thermodynamic underpinnings of a two-dimensional volatility basis set (2D-VBS) employing saturation mass concentration (Co) and the oxygen content (O:C) to describe volatility, mixing thermodynamics, and chemical evolution of organic aerosol. The work addresses a simple question: "Can we reasonably constrain organic-aerosol composition in the atmosphere based on only two measurable organic properties, volatility and the extent of oxygenation?" This is an extension of our earlier one-dimensional approach employing volatility only (C* = γ Co, where γ is an activity coefficient). U ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Held A.; Brooks I.M.; Leck C.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011We present direct eddy covariance measurements of aerosol number fluxes, dominated by sub-50 nm particles, at the edge of an ice floe drifting in the central Arctic Ocean. The measurements were made during the ice-breaker borne ASCOS (Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study) expedition in August 2008 between 2°–10° W longitude and 87°–87.5° N latitude. The median aerosol transfer velocities over different surface types (open water leads, ice ridges, snow and ice surfaces) ranged from 0.27 to 0.68 mm s−1 during deposition-dominated episodes. Emission periods were observed more frequently over the open ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Jaeglé L.; Quinn P.K.; Bates T.S.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011We combine in situ measurements of sea salt aerosols (SS) from open ocean cruises and ground-based stations together with aerosol optical depth (AOD) observations from MODIS and AERONET, and the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model to provide new constraints on SS emissions over the world's oceans. We find that the GEOS-Chem model using the Gong (2003) source function overestimates cruise observations of coarse mode SS mass concentrations by factors of 2–3 at high wind speeds over the cold waters of the Southern, North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans. Furthermore, the model systematical ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Markovic M.Z.; Hayden K.L.; Murphy J.G.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011The Border Air Quality and Meteorology Study (BAQS-Met) was an intensive, collaborative field campaign during the summer of 2007 that investigated the effects of transboundary pollution, local pollution, and local meteorology on air quality in southwestern Ontario. This analysis focuses on the measurements of the inorganic constituents of particulate matter with diameter of less than 1 μm (PM1), with a specific emphasis on nitrate. We evaluate the ability of AURAMS, Environment Canada's chemical transport model, to represent regional air pollution in SW Ontario by comparing modelled aerosol in ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Miyazaki Y.; Kawamura K.; Jung J.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Marine aerosol samples were collected over the western North Pacific along the latitudinal transect from 44° N to 10° N in late summer 2008 for measurements of organic nitrogen (ON) and organic carbon (OC) as well as isotopic ratios of total nitrogen (TN) and total carbon (TC). Increased concentrations of methanesulfonic acid (MSA) and diethylammonium (DEA+) at 40–44° N and subtropical regions (10–20° N) together with averaged satellite chlorophyll-a data and 5-day back trajectories suggest a significant influence of marine biological activities on aerosols in these regions. ON exhibited incre ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Tapia A.; Villanueva F.; Salgado M.S.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011A study of the kinetics and products obtained from the reactions of 3-methylfuran with the main atmospheric oxidants has been performed. The rate coefficients for the gas-phase reaction of 3-methylfuran with OH and NO3 radicals have been determined at room temperature and atmospheric pressure (air and N2 as bath gases), using a relative method with different experimental techniques. The rate coefficients obtained for these reactions were (in units cm3 molecule−1 s−1) kOH = (1.13 ± 0.22) × 10−10 and kNO3 = (1.26 ± 0.18) × 10−11. Products from the reaction of 3-methylfuran with OH, NO3 and Cl at ...PermalinkThis study compares the properties of atmospheric dust from the Saharan deserts and the Asian deserts using data from CALIPSO and AERONET during 2006 and 2007 along with simulations using a coupled climate-microphysical sectional model. Saharan deserts are largely south of 30° N, while Asian ones are primarily north of 30° N, hence they experience different meteorological regimes. Saharan dust lifting occurs all year long, primarily due to subtropical weather systems. However, Asian dust is lifted mostly in spring when mid-latitude frontal systems lead to high winds. Rainfall is more abundant ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Xu J.; Li C.; Shi H.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011This study investigated the decadal variation of the direct surface solar radiation (DiSR) and the diffuse surface solar radiation (DfSR) during 1961–2008 in the Shanghai megacity as well as their relationships to Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) under clear-sky conditions. Three successive periods with unique features of long term variation of DiSR were identified for both clear-sky and all-sky conditions: a "dimming" period from the late 1960s to the mid 1980s, a "stabilization"/"slight brightening" period from the mid 1980s to the mid 1990s, and a "renewed dimming" period thereafter. During the ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Stroud C.A.; Makar P.A.; Moran M.D.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Regional-scale chemical transport model predictions of urban organic aerosol to date tend to be biased low relative to observations, a limitation with important implications for applying such models to human exposure health studies. We used a nested version of Environment Canada's AURAMS model (42- to- 15- to- 2.5-km nested grid spacing) to predict organic aerosol concentrations for a temporal and spatial domain corresponding to the Border Air Quality and Meteorology Study (BAQS-Met), an air-quality field study that took place in the southern Great Lakes region in the summer of 2007. The use o ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Vakkari V.; Laakso H.; Kulmala M.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011This study is based on 18 months (20 July 2006–5 February 2008) of continuous measurements of aerosol particle size distributions, air ion size distributions, trace gas concentrations and basic meteorology in a semi-clean savannah environment in Republic of South Africa. New particle formation and growth was observed on 69% of the days and bursts of non-growing ions/sub-10 nm particles on additional 14% of the days. This new particle formation frequency is the highest reported from boundary layer so far. Also the new particle formation and growth rates were among the highest reported in the li ...PermalinkEsporo, N° 151. CTA, 2011De acordo com um estudo realizado, seria possível diminuir o total das emissões relacionadas com o gado, em cerca de 12%, mediante simples melhoramentos na produção.PermalinkSpore: the magazine for agricultural and rural development in ACP countries, N° 151. CTA, 2011Some 12% of total livestock-related emissions could be cut with simple improvements in production, says a study.PermalinkSpore: le magazine du développement agricole et rural des pays ACP, N°151. CTA, 2011D’après une étude, quelque 12 % des émissions totales imputables au bétail pourraient être supprimés grâce à de simples améliorations de la production, incluant l’adoption de pâtures plus nutritives et l’ajout de faibles quantités de résidus de récoltes ou de céréales.PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 5. Pitts M.C.; Poole L.R.; Dörnbrack A.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Spaceborne lidar measurements from CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) are used to provide a vortex-wide perspective of the 2009–2010 Arctic PSC (polar stratospheric cloud) season to complement more focused measurements from the European Union RECONCILE (reconciliation of essential process parameters for an enhanced predictability of Arctic stratospheric ozone loss and its climate interactions) field campaign. The 2009–2010 Arctic winter was unusually cold at stratospheric levels from mid-December 2009 until the end of January 2010, and was one of only ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 5. El Haddad I.; Marchand N.; Temime-Roussel B.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011A comprehensive aerosol characterization was conducted at Marseille during summer, including organic (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), major ionic species, radiocarbon (14C), water-soluble OC and HULIS (HUmic LIke Substances), elemental composition and primary and secondary organic markers. This paper is the second paper of a two-part series that uses this dataset to investigate the sources of Organic Aerosol (OA). While the first paper investigates the primary sources (El Haddad et al., 2010), this second paper focuses on the secondary fraction of the organic aerosol.PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 5. El Haddad I.; Marchand N.; Wortham H.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Marseille, the most important port of the Mediterranean Sea, represents a challenging case study for source apportionment exercises, combining an active photochemistry and multiple emission sources, including fugitive emissions from industrial sources and shipping. This paper presents a Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) approach based on organic markers and metals to apportion the primary sources of organic aerosol in Marseille, with a special focus on industrial emissions. Overall, the CMB model accounts for the major primary anthropogenic sources including motor vehicles, biomass burning and the a ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 5. Gerasopoulos E.; Amiridis V.; Kazadzis S.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Three years (2006–2008) of ground-based observations of the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) in the urban environment of Athens, in the Eastern Mediterranean, are analysed in this work. Measurements were acquired with a Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer at five wavelengths. The daily average AOD at 500 nm is 0.23, and the mean Ångström coefficient calculated between 415 and 867 nm is 1.41. The annual variability of AOD has a spring maximum dominated by coarse dust particles from the Sahara (AOD 0.34–0.42), while the diurnal pattern is typical for urban sites, with AOD steadily increasing ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 5. Barlow J.F.; Dunbar T.M.; Nemitz E.G.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Urban boundary layers (UBLs) can be highly complex due to the heterogeneous roughness and heating of the surface, particularly at night. Due to a general lack of observations, it is not clear whether canonical models of boundary layer mixing are appropriate in modelling air quality in urban areas. This paper reports Doppler lidar observations of turbulence profiles in the centre of London, UK, as part of the second REPARTEE campaign in autumn 2007. Lidar-measured standard deviation of vertical velocity averaged over 30 min intervals generally compared well with in situ sonic anemometer measure ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 5. Nielsen J.K.; Maus C.; Rzesanke D.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Atmospheric liquid and solid water particles are stabilized if they are coated with either negative or positive electric charge. The surface charge causes an increase of the partial pressure of water vapour close to the surface of each particle, effectively allowing the particles to remain in their condensed phase even if the environmental relative humidity drops below unity. The theory, briefly presented in this paper, predicts a zero parameter relation between surface charge density and water vapour pressure. This relation was tested in a series of Electrodynamic Balance experiments. The mea ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 5. Helfter C.; Famulari D.; Phillips G.J.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011PermalinkThis study examines the dependence of aerosol-precipitation interactions on environmental humidity in a mesoscale cloud ensemble (MCE) which is composed of convective and stratiform clouds. The author found that increases in aerosol concentration enhance evaporative cooling, which raises not only the intensity of vorticity and entrainment but also that of downdrafts and low-level convergence. The increase in vorticity tends to suppress precipitation. The increase in low-level convergence tends to enhance precipitation by generating more secondary clouds in a muptiple-cloud system simulated her ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 5. Wagner R.; Möhler O.; Saathoff H.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011The heterogeneous ice nucleation ability of oxalic acid in the immersion mode has been investigated by controlled expansion cooling runs with airborne, ternary solution droplets composed of, (i), sodium chloride, oxalic acid, and water (NaCl/OA/H2O) and, (ii), sulphuric acid, oxalic acid, and water (H2SO4/OA/H2O). Polydisperse aerosol populations with median diameters ranging from 0.5–0.7 μm and varying solute concentrations were prepared. The expansion experiments were conducted in the AIDA aerosol and cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology at initial temperatures of 244 and 2 ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Brock C.A.; Cozic J.; Bahreini R.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011We present an overview of the background, scientific goals, and execution of the Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC) project of April 2008. We then summarize airborne measurements, made in the troposphere of the Alaskan Arctic, of aerosol particle size distributions, composition, and optical properties and discuss the sources and transport of the aerosols. The aerosol data were grouped into four categories based on gas-phase composition. First, the background troposphere contained a relatively diffuse, sulfate-rich aerosol extending from the top of the sea ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Barletta B.; Nissenson P.; Meinardi S.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011This work presents results from the NASA Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) study. Whole air samples were obtained on board research flights that flew over California during June 2008 and analyzed for selected volatile organic compounds, including several halogenated species. Samples collected over the South Coast Air Basin of California (SoCAB), which includes much of Los Angeles (LA) County, were compared with samples from inflow air masses over the Pacific Ocean. The levels of many halocarbon species were enhanced significantly over t ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Aschmann J.; Sinnhuber B.-M.; Chipperfield M.P.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Stratospheric bromine loading due to very short-lived substances is investigated with a three-dimensional chemical transport model over a period of 21 years using meteorological input data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts ERA-Interim reanalysis from 1989 to the end of 2009. Within this framework we analyze the impact of dehydration and deep convection on the amount of stratospheric bromine using an idealized and a detailed full chemistry approach. We model the two most important brominated short-lived substances, bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), assumin ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Carrio G.G.; Cotton William R. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011This paper examines the feasibility of mitigating the intensity of hurricanes by enhancing the CCN concentrations in the outer rainband region. Increasing CCN concentrations would cause a reduced collision and coalescence, resulting in more supercooled liquid water to be transported aloft which then freezes and enhances convection via enhanced latent heat of freezing. The intensified convection would condense more water ultimately enhancing precipitation in the outer rainbands. Enhanced evaporative cooling from the increased precipitation in the outer rainbands would produce stronger and more ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Amato F.; Viana M.; Richard A.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Size and time-resolved roadside enrichments of atmospheric particulate pollutants in PM10 were detected and quantified in a Mediterranean urban environment (Barcelona, Spain). Simultaneous data from one urban background (UB), one traffic (T) and one heavy traffic (HT) location were analysed, and roadside PM10 enrichments (RE) in a number of elements arising from vehicular emissions were calculated. Tracers of primary traffic emissions (EC, Fe, Ba, Cu, Sb, Cr, Sn) showed the largest REs (>70%). Other traffic tracers (Zr, Cd) showed lower but still consistent REs (25–40%), similar to those obtai ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Ci Z.J.; Zhang X.S.; Wang Z.W.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011The Yellow Sea, surrounded by East China and the Korea Peninsula, is a potentially important receptor for anthropogenic mercury (Hg) emissions from East Asia. However, there is little documentation about the distribution and cycle of Hg in this marine system. During the cruise covering the Yellow Sea in July 2010, gaseous elemental mercury (GEM or Hg(0)) in the atmosphere, total Hg (THg), reactive Hg (RHg) and dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM, largely Hg(0)) in the waters were measured aboard the R/V Kexue III. The mean (±SD) concentration of GEM over the entire cruise was 2.61 ± 0.50 ng m−3 (ra ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Ebert M.; Worringen A.; Benker N.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011During an intensive campaign at the high alpine research station Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, in February/March 2006 ice particle residuals within mixed-phase clouds were sampled using the Ice-counterflow virtual impactor (Ice-CVI). Size, morphology, chemical composition, mineralogy and mixing state of the ice residual and the interstitial (i.e., non-activated) aerosol particles were analyzed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Ice nuclei (IN) were identified from the significant enrichment of particle groups in the ice residual (IR) samples relative to the interstitial aerosol. In ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Gilardoni S.; Vignati E.; Marmer E.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011The quantification of sources of carbonaceous aerosol is important to understand their atmospheric concentrations and regulating processes and to study possible effects on climate and air quality, in addition to develop mitigation strategies.
In the framework of the European Integrated Project on Aerosol Cloud Climate Interactions (EUCAARI) fine (DpPermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Wu D.L.; Chae J.H.; Lambert A.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011A research algorithm is developed for noise evaluation and feature detection of the CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) Level 1 (L1) backscatter data with an emphasis on cloud/aerosol features in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS). CALIOP measurement noise of the version v2.01 and v2.02 L1 backscatter data aggregated to (5 km) horizontal resolution is analyzed with two approaches in this study. One is to compare the observed and modeled molecular scatter profiles by scaling the modeled profile (with a fitted scaling factor α) to the observed clear-sky ba ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Flechard C.R.; Nemitz E.; Smith R.I.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Inferential models have long been used to determine pollutant dry deposition to ecosystems from measurements of air concentrations and as part of national and regional atmospheric chemistry and transport models, and yet models still suffer very large uncertainties. An inferential network of 55 sites throughout Europe for atmospheric reactive nitrogen (Nr) was established in 2007, providing ambient concentrations of gaseous NH3, NO2, HNO3 and HONO and aerosol NH4+ and NO3− as part of the NitroEurope Integrated Project.
Network results providing modelled inorganic Nr dry deposition ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Fuentes E.; Coe H.; Green D.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011The effect of nanogel colloidal and dissolved organic matterPermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Rose D.; Gunthe S.S.; Su H.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Size-resolved chemical composition, mixing state, and cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) activity of aerosol particles in polluted mega-city air and biomass burning smoke were measured during the PRIDE-PRD2006 campaign near Guangzhou, China, using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), a volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer (VTDMA), and a continuous-flow CCN counter (DMT-CCNC).PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Slowik J.G.; Brook J.; Chang R.Y.-W.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011As part of the BAQS-Met 2007 field campaign, Aerodyne time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometers (ToF-AMS) were deployed at two sites in southwestern Ontario from 17 June to 11 July 2007. One instrument was located at Harrow, ON, a rural, agriculture-dominated area approximately 40 km southeast of the Detroit/Windsor/Windsor urban area and 5 km north of Lake Erie. The second instrument was located at Bear Creek, ON, a rural site approximately 70 km northeast of the Harrow site and 50 km east of Detroit/Windsor. Positive matrix factorization analysis of the combined organic mass spectral dataset ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Mahajan A.S.; Sorribas M.; Gómez Martín J.C.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Simultaneous measurements of atomic iodine (I), molecular iodine (I2) and ultrafine particles were made at O Grove, Galicia (42.50° N, 8.87° W), on the northwest coast of Spain. The observations show a strong tidal signature, and indicate that the most probable sources of reactive iodine species are the exposed macroalgae during low tide. For the first time, I2 and I were concurrently measured revealing a high average I2/I ratio of ~32, which is higher than previously inferred by modelling studies. A 1-dimensional photochemical model is employed to simulate the observations showing that the hi ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Kurtén T.; Petäjä T.; Smith J.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011The state-of-the art method for measuring atmospheric gas-phase sulfuric acid is chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) based on nitrate reagent ions. We have assessed the possible effect of the sulfuric acid molecules clustering with base molecules on CIMS measurements using computational chemistry. From the computational data, three conclusions can be drawn. First, a significant fraction of the gas-phase sulfuric acid molecules are very likely clustered with amines if the amine concentration is around or above a few ppt. Second, some fraction of these acid-amine clusters may not be cha ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Kopacz M.; Mauzerall D.L.; Wang J.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011The remote and high elevation regions of central Asia are influenced by black carbon (BC) emissions from a variety of locations. BC deposition contributes to melting of glaciers and questions exist, of both scientific and policy interest, as to the origin of the BC reaching the glaciers. We use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model to identify the location from which BC arriving at a variety of locations in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau originates. We then calculate its direct and snow-albedo radiative forcing. We analyze the seasonal variation in the origin of BC using an adjoint sensitivity ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Kuhn T.; Earle M.E.; Khalizov A.F.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011The relative roles of volume and surface nucleation were investigated for the homogeneous freezing of pure water droplets. Experiments were carried out in a cryogenic laminar aerosol flow tube using supercooled water aerosols with maximum volume densities at radii between 1 and 3 μm. Temperature- and size-dependent values of volume- and surface-based homogeneous nucleation rates between 234.8 and 236.2 K were derived using a microphysical model and aerosol phase compositions and size distributions determined from infrared extinction measurements in the flow tube. The results show that the cont ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Zieger P.; Weingartner E.; Henzing J.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011In the field, aerosol in-situ measurements are often performed under dry conditions (relative humidity RHPermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Zieger P.; Weingartner E.; Henzing J.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011In the field, aerosol in-situ measurements are often performed under dry conditions (relative humidity RHPermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Kopacz M.; Mauzerall D.L.; Wang J.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011The remote and high elevation regions of central Asia are influenced by black carbon (BC) emissions from a variety of locations. BC deposition contributes to melting of glaciers and questions exist, of both scientific and policy interest, as to the origin of the BC reaching the glaciers. We use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model to identify the location from which BC arriving at a variety of locations in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau originates. We then calculate its direct and snow-albedo radiative forcing. We analyze the seasonal variation in the origin of BC using an adjoint sensitivity ...PermalinkPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 369. N° 1934. Bowerman Niel H.A.; Frame David J.; Huntingford Chris; et al. - The Royal Society, 2011A number of recent studies have found a strong link between peak human-induced global warming and cumulative carbon emissions from the start of the industrial revolution, while the link to emissions over shorter periods or in the years 2020 or 2050 is generally weaker. However, cumulative targets appear to conflict with the concept of a ‘floor’ in emissions caused by sectors such as food production. Here, we show that the introduction of emissions floors does not reduce the importance of cumulative emissions, but may make some warming targets unachievable. For pathways that give a most likely ...PermalinkThe report is an effort to inform project developers and policy-makers about the main lessons learned by the BioCarbon Fund while accompanying the development of more than 20 A/R CDM forest projects in 16 countries since it started operations in 2004. It sheds light on opportunities the CDM offers to the forestry sector and also on the challenges encountered by project developers when complying with the regulatory requirements. The report concludes with recommendations for policy-makers on how current rules could be made more pragmatic to better match the realities of this type of projects on ...PermalinkPermalinkIn April 2008, Norway and Tanzania signed a letter of intent on a climate change partnership focused on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD). The current paper reviews Norwegian-supported programmes on adaptation and mitigation of climate change in Tanzania, trying to find out how fruitful this partnership has been.PermalinkDemocratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is a high forest cover – low deforestation rate country emerging from a long period of political and civil instability that eroded public and social institutions. The purpose of this evaluation is to assess the Norwegian support to the formulation and implementation of a national strategy for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) in DRC.PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) - WMO, 2011 (WMO-No. 1073)Scientific evidence and new analyses demonstrate that control of black carbon particles and tropospheric ozone through rapid implementation of proven emission reduction measures would have immediate and multiple benefits for human well-being.Black carbon exists as particles in the atmosphere and is a major component of soot, it has significant human health and climate impacts.PermalinkThe groups and populations likely to be most harmed by climate change are the least responsible for causing it and have the least resources to cope with the consequences—this is the "double injustice". It forms the background to climate negotiations between governments representing countries of the North and the South, but it also occurs within nations across the world. In light of this phenomenon, what are the distributional implications of current, fairly ambitious, policies to decarbonize the economy? Based on research within rich countries of the Organisation for Economic Development and C ...PermalinkThis European Environment Agency (EEA) report assesses the damage costs to health and the environment resulting from pollutants emitted from industrial facilities. It is based on the latest information, namely for 2009, publicly available through the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR, 2011) in line with the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Aarhus Convention regarding access to environmental information.PermalinkUNEP FI, 2011This report has been commissioned by the three major investor climate change networks (the European-based Institutional Investors Group on Climate Change (IIGCC), the North Americanbased Investor Network on Climate Risk (INCR), and the Investor Group on Climate Change Australia/New Zealand (IGCC)) and the United Nations Environment Programme Finance Initiative (UNEP FI). These groups, and their members, are concerned about climate change because of the potential for climate change to have major negative impacts on the economic systems they operate in and, in turn, on the assets in which they i ...PermalinkThis report presents an overview of the progress achieved so far by the EU, its Member States and other EEA member countries towards their respective targets under the Kyoto Protocol and the EU burden-sharing agreement, as well as 2020 targets set at EU level. The assessment is based on greenhouse gas (GHG) emission data in Europe for the period 2008–2010, including recent EEA estimates of proxy 2010 GHG emissions.PermalinkThe Norwegian Government launched its International Climate and Forest Initiative in December 2007, aiming at reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD). In order to assess the results of the Initiative with regard to its objectives, Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (Norad) organised a real-time evaluation starting in early 2010. This fact sheet demonstrates the objectives, scope, process and principles of that evaluation.PermalinkKyoto City passed a proposed ordinance to completely revise the Kyoto City Global Warming Countermeasure Ordinance on September 29, 2010, and promulgated the new ordinance on October 12. The city aims to reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs) by 40 percent compared to 1990 levels by fiscal 2030, and by 25 percent by fiscal 2020.PermalinkForest Europe, 2011The Summary for policy makers presents a compact and comprehensive overview of status and trends, as well as challenges and opportunities for forests, forest policy and forest management in Europe.PermalinkForest Europe, 2011The State of Europe’s Forests 2011 report provides a comprehensive, up-to-date description of the status and trends of forests and forest management in Europe. The report aims to stimulate sound policy decisions on forests and forest-related issues in Europe by providing objective and harmonized data for FOREST EUROPE’s SignatoriesPermalinkThis report documents the most recent emissions and projections information provided by the Member States of the European Union under the National Emission Ceilings Directive (NECD) (1) at the end of 2010.
The directive requires all 27 Member States to report information annually concerning emissions and projections for four main air pollutants: nitrogen oxides (NOX), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and ammonia (NH3). These pollutants harm both human health and the environment by contributing to the formation of ozone and particulate matter and by ...PermalinkUNDP, 2011This report serves as the Executive Summary to a series of manuals and guidebooks that UNDP is offering in support of LECRDS. It provides a brief outline of the approach and methodologies that these materials treat in detail.PermalinkPermalinkPermalinkLe 29 septembre 2010, la ville de Kyoto a adopté un arrêté amendant la totalité des arrêtés concernant les mesures de lutte contre le réchauffement climatique et l'a promu le 12 octobre. La ville a pour objectif une réduction des émissions de gaz à effet de serre de 25% par rapport à 1990 d'ici 2020 et de 40% par rapport à 1990 d'ici 2030PermalinkLe 29 septembre 2010, la ville de Kyoto a adopté un arrêté amendant la totalité des arrêtés concernant les mesures de lutte contre le réchauffement climatique et l'a promu le 12 octobre. La ville a pour objectif une réduction des émissions de gaz à effet de serre de 25% par rapport à 1990 d'ici 2020 et de 40% par rapport à 1990 d'ici 2030Permalinkis an issue of Options. IIASA, 2010Contains:
- Cutting emissions by 2020 Pages 16-17
- Energy and climate change Pages 14-15
- Insurance for extreme climatic events Pages 12-13
- Stopping deforestation Pages 9, 21PermalinkJournal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, Vol. 88. No 4. Kondo Yutaka; Takegawa Nobuyuki; Matsui Hitoshi - Meteorological Society of Japan, 2010Large amounts of reactive gases and aerosols are emitted from urban areas. Megacities, including the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (TMA), are very large, concentrated sources of these species affecting local, regional, and global ozone (O3) and aerosol levels. Emissions strongly influence air quality and climate on these scales. In 2003-2004, we made intensive measurements of O3 and chemical composition of aerosol particles with diameters less than 1 µm (PM1 aerosol) together with their precursors for the first time in Tokyo, Japan, as a part of the series of Integrated Measurement Program for Aeros ...PermalinkAtmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters, Volume 3 Number 4. Mahmood Rashed; Yao Jin-Feng - Science Press, 2010South Asian monsoons were analyzed within the context of increasing emissions of black carbon (BC) aerosols using a global atmospheric general circulation model. The BC aerosols were allowed to increase only over the south Asian domain to analyze the impacts of regional black carbon over the climatological patterns of monsoons. The black carbon significantly absorbed the incoming short wave radiation in the atmosphere, a result that is consistent with previous studies. Pre-monsoon (March-April-May) rainfall showed positive anomalies, particularly for some coastal regions of India. The summer ( ...PermalinkAtmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters, Volume 3 Number 4. Shi Xiang-Jun; Wang Bin; Liu Xiao-Hong; et al. - Science Press, 2010Aerosol indirect effects on warm clouds are estimated in the Grid-point Atmospheric Model of IAP LASG (GAMIL) with a new two-moment cloud microphysics scheme using two different physically-based aerosol activation parameterizations: Abdul-Razzak and Ghan, and Nenes and Seinfeld. The annual global mean changes in shortwave cloud forcing from preindustrial times to present day (a measure of the aerosol indirect effects) estimated from these two parameterizations are remarkably similar: 0.76 W m-2 with the Abdul-Razzak and Ghan parameterization, and 0.78 W m-2 with the Nenes and Seinfeld paramete ...Permalinkis an issue of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters. Science Press, 2010Permalinkis an issue of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters. Science Press, 2010Contains:
- Analysis of a Beijing Heavy Snowfall Related to an Inverted Trough in November 2009
LI Jin,ZHAO Si-Xiong,YU Fei
- Comparative Studies of Different Mesoscale Convection Parameterization Schemes in the Simulation of Mei-Yu Front Heavy Rain
PING Fan,LUO Zhe-Xian
- An Improved Atmospheric Vector Radiative Transfer Model Incorporating Rough Ocean Boundaries
FAN Xue-Hua,CHEN Hong-Bin,HAN Zhi-Gang,LIN Long-Fu
- A Case Study of the Impacts of Dust Aerosols on Surface Atmospheric Variables and Energy Budgets in ...PermalinkUNEP, 2010Climate change represents one of the greatest challenges but also an inordinate opportunity to catalyze a transition to a low-carbon, resource efficient Green Economy.
This report informs governments and the wider community on how far a response to climate change has progressed over the past 12 months, and thus how far the world is on track to meet wider goals,.
The pledges associated with the Copenhagen Accord of 2009 are the point of departure for this report. What might be achieved in terms of limiting a global temperature rise to 2ºC or less in the 21st centur ...PermalinkPermalinkPermalinkPermalinkEuropean Commission, 2010Emissions of air pollutants derive from almost all economic and societal activities. They result in clear risks to human health and ecosystems. In Europe, policies and actions at all levels have greatly reduced anthropogenic emissions and exposure but some air pollutants still harm human health. Similarly, as emissions of acidifying pollutants have reduced, the situation for Europe's rivers and lakes has improved but atmospheric nitrogen oversupply still threatens biodiversity in sensitive terrestrial and water ecosystems. The movement of atmospheric pollution between continents attracts incre ...PermalinkThis document reports on a workshop, hosted by Sokoine University in Tanzania and commissioned by the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (Norad). The workshop tackled the issue of developing ecosystem service payments in Africa in the context of Norway’s support of REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation) initiatives.PermalinkThe Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) aims at providing reliable long-term observations of the chemical composition and physical properties of the atmosphere that are relevant for understanding atmospheric chemistry and climate change. Reactive gases are one of the foci of the GAW programme. This group includes carbon monoxide (CO), which is present only in trace quantities in the atmosphere but plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry. Compatibility of data from different observational platforms and sites is of crucial importance fo ...PermalinkPermalinkUNDP, 2009Integrated climate change planning - a how-to guide for local and regional policy-makers on planning a low-carbon future. This document focuses on the importance of full engagement of sub-national authorities to comprehensively address climate change and suggests that taking the necessary action to tackle climate change will be more effective if it helps address local development issues.PermalinkThis report forms the first deliverable of Working Group 3 of the COST Action 728 on “Enhancing Mesoscale Meteorological Modelling Capabilities for Air Pollution and Dispersion
Applications”. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the current capabilities and applications of mesoscale modelling systems for describing and predicting air quality and related meteorological conditions. The applications are discussed from the perspective of meteorology, which is in line with the main aim of the COST 728 Action.PermalinkPermalinkThis short course provides broadcast meteorologists, educators, and the public with an overview of the evolution of our modern urban environment with a focus on impacts on the urban watershed, air quality, and climate. This course complements the course Watersheds: Connecting Weather to the Environment and both are part of the Earth Gauge™ environmental curriculum for weathercasters and educators. This curriculum is being developed by the National Environmental Education Foundation (NEEF). [See http://www.earthgauge.net/wp/] Unit 1, Where We Live, takes a look at past and current U.S. growth p ...PermalinkThis module is an introduction to NOAA's next generation Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R) series, focusing on the value and anticipated benefits derived from an enhanced suite of instruments for improved monitoring of meteorological, environmental, climate, and space weather phenomena and related hazards. An extensive set of visualizations highlight GOES-R and its advanced observing capabilities for providing support in thirteen key environmental application areas including air quality and visibility, climate, cloud icing, fires, hurricanes, land cover, lightning, l ...PermalinkPermalinkPermalink"The Program of Energy Research and Development [PERD] decided to conclude its funding of research into greenhouse-gas sinks at the end of the 2006-07 fiscal year."--Page 10 of 112.PermalinkPermalinkis an issue of 気象研究所技術報告. Tokieda Takayuki; Ishii Masao; Saito Shu; et al. - Meteorological Research Institute, 2007PermalinkPermalinkPermalinkPermalinkPermalinkPermalinkPermalinkPermalink
Atmospheric Monitoring and Inverse Modelling for Verification of National and EU bottom-up GHG inventories : report of the Workshop "Atmospheric Monitoring and Inverse Modelling for Verification of National and EU Bottom-up GHG Inventories" under the Mandate of Climate Change Committee Working Group I, Casa Don Guanella, Ispra, Italy (08-09 March 2007)The workshop "Atmospheric monitoring and inverse modelling for verification of national and EU bottom-up GHG inventories" was held on 08-09 March 2007 in Ispra, Italy, under the mandate of European Climate Change Committee Working Group 1, as follow-up of a first workshop on 23-24 October 2003. This report presents the summary and conclusions of the workshop and summaries of all workshop presentations.PermalinkPermalinkUNEP, 2006Since 1991 the publication of the Handbook for the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (1987) has proved to be an invaluable reference source for the decisions the Parties have made in the process of developing the ozone regime. The Handbook itself is published in response to the Parties’ decision (made in 1990) requesting the Secretariat to publish and update regularly a Handbook, setting out the Protocol, as adjusted and amended, together with the decisions of the Parties and other relevant material. Since then, the Protocol has been adjusted on six occasions and ame ...PermalinkIAEA, 2006Development of the chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) technique as a tool for dating groundwater has occurred over the past 20 years, and a number of research publications have documented its use in specific aquifers. This publication is intended to facilitate a comparative analysis of CFC and isotope techniques and a wider use of the CFC technique under appropriate conditions, by providing a description of its scientific basis, sampling and measurement methods, interpretation and limitations of data, and a variety of case studies.PermalinkWith
- Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (English (Vol.1, Vol.2, Vol.3), French, Russian, Spanish (Vol.2 only))
- Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management
in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (English, Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian, Spanish)
- Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (English, Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian, Spanish)PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; Umwelt Bundes Amt für Mensch und Unwelt ; Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) - WMO, 2006 (WMO/TD-No. 1336)PermalinkPermalinkPermalinkPermalinkPermalinkPermalinkPermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; Barrie Leonard A.; Wehrli C. - WMO, 2005 (WMO/TD-No. 1287)PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP); Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) - IPCC, 2005Permalink