This publication establishes a framework defining the functionality required within a climate data management system (CDMS). A CDMS is an integrated computer-based system that facilitates the effective archival, management, analysis, delivery and utilization of a wide range of integrated climate data.
Published by: WMO ; 2014
This publication establishes a framework defining the functionality required within a climate data management system (CDMS). A CDMS is an integrated computer-based system that facilitates the effective archival, management, analysis, delivery and utilization of a wide range of integrated climate data.
Collection(s) and Series: WMO- No. 1131
Format: Digital (Free), Hard copy
ISBN (or other code): 978-92-63-11131-9Government of Canada, 2014This report focuses on new information and knowledge, assessing advances made in understanding climate change impacts and adaptation from a sectoral perspective, based primarily on literature published up to the end of 2012. It draws from the individual chapters of Canada's national-scale science assessment of climate change impacts and adaptation, which include an overview of Canada’s changing climate (Ch. 2), thematic chapters focused on sectors (Ch. 3 to 8) and the concluding chapter on adaptation research and practice (Ch. 9). The rest of the synthesis is structured around high-level concl ...
Published by: Government of Canada ; 2014
This report focuses on new information and knowledge, assessing advances made in understanding climate change impacts and adaptation from a sectoral perspective, based primarily on literature published up to the end of 2012. It draws from the individual chapters of Canada's national-scale science assessment of climate change impacts and adaptation, which include an overview of Canada’s changing climate (Ch. 2), thematic chapters focused on sectors (Ch. 3 to 8) and the concluding chapter on adaptation research and practice (Ch. 9). The rest of the synthesis is structured around high-level conclusions, supported by examples and insights from an integrative analysis across the report themes1. Key findings include the following areas: natural resources, food production, industry, biodiversity and protected areas, human health, water and transpiration infrastructure.
Format: Digital (Free)
ISBN (or other code): 978-1-100-24143-2This paper documents a significant impact of climate variation on urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa, primarily in more arid countries. By lowering farm incomes, reduced moisture availability encourages migration to nearby cities, while wetter conditions slow migration. The paper also provides evidence for rural-urban income links. In countries with a larger industrial base, reduced moisture shrinks the agricultural sector and raises total incomes in nearby cities. However, if local cities are entirely dependent on servicing agriculture so their fortunes move with those of agriculture, reduced ...
Published by: World Bank ; 2014
This paper documents a significant impact of climate variation on urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa, primarily in more arid countries. By lowering farm incomes, reduced moisture availability encourages migration to nearby cities, while wetter conditions slow migration. The paper also provides evidence for rural-urban income links. In countries with a larger industrial base, reduced moisture shrinks the agricultural sector and raises total incomes in nearby cities. However, if local cities are entirely dependent on servicing agriculture so their fortunes move with those of agriculture, reduced moisture tends to reduce local urban incomes. Finally, the paper shows that climate induces employment changes within the rural sector itself. Drier conditions induce a shift out of farm activities, especially for women, into non-farm activities, and especially out of the workforce. Overall, these findings imply a strong link between climate and urbanization in Africa.
Format: Digital (Free)Addis Ababa University ; Horn of Africa Regional Environment Centre and Network (HoA-REC&N) ; Overseas Development Institute (ODI) - ODI, 2014This report presents the findings of a study that has explored climate finance delivery in Ethiopia. For the first time, estimates of the level of climate change relevant expenditures that appear in the national budget are presented, and their policy and institutional impacts analyzed.
The report indicates there are major challenges for Ethiopia to finance its response to climate change as there appears to be a major financing gap caused by the difference in the national Climate Resilient Green Economy strategy and the national budgetary resources for climate change-relevant act ...
Published by: ODI ; 2014
This report presents the findings of a study that has explored climate finance delivery in Ethiopia. For the first time, estimates of the level of climate change relevant expenditures that appear in the national budget are presented, and their policy and institutional impacts analyzed.
The report indicates there are major challenges for Ethiopia to finance its response to climate change as there appears to be a major financing gap caused by the difference in the national Climate Resilient Green Economy strategy and the national budgetary resources for climate change-relevant actions.
Format: Digital (Free)World Bank, 2014Although water variability has already been observed across river basins, climate change is predicted to increase variability. Such environmental changes may aggravate political tensions, especially in regions that are not equipped with an appropriate institutional apparatus. Increased variability is also likely to challenge regions with existing institutional capacity. This paper argues that the best attempts to assess the ability of states to deal with variability in the future rest with considering how agreements have fared in the past. The paper investigates to what extent particular mecha ...
Published by: World Bank ; 2014
Climate change, conflict, and cooperation : global analysis of the resilience of international river treaties to increased water variability
Although water variability has already been observed across river basins, climate change is predicted to increase variability. Such environmental changes may aggravate political tensions, especially in regions that are not equipped with an appropriate institutional apparatus. Increased variability is also likely to challenge regions with existing institutional capacity. This paper argues that the best attempts to assess the ability of states to deal with variability in the future rest with considering how agreements have fared in the past. The paper investigates to what extent particular mechanisms and institutional designs help mitigate inter-country tensions over shared water. The analysis specifically focuses on identifying which water allocation mechanisms and institutional features provide better opportunities for mitigating conflict given that water allocation issues tend to be most salient among riparians. Water-related events from the Basins at Risk events database are used as the dependent variable to test hypotheses regarding the viability, or resilience, of treaties over time. Climatic, geographic, political, and economic variables are used as controls. The analysis is conducted for the years 1948-2001 with the country dyad as the level of observation. Findings pertaining to the primary explanatory variables suggest that country dyads governed by treaties with water allocation mechanisms exhibiting both flexibility and specificity evince more cooperative behavior. Country dyads governed by treaties with a larger sum of institutional mechanisms likewise evince a higher level of cooperation, although certain institutional mechanisms are more important than others.
Collection(s) and Series: Policy Research Working Paper- No. 6916
Format: Digital (Free)
PermalinkThis case study aims to illustrate how the Western Province in Sri Lanka is promoting urban and peri-urban agriculture and forestry as a strategy to reduce vulnerability to climate change, while at the same time enhancing urban liveability and livelihoods. Key messages include that the province is promoting the rehabilitation of flood zones through their productive use as a strategy to improve storm water infiltration and mitigate flood risks. It is recommended that future upscaling of these interventions will need new urban design concepts and the development of a provincial climate change ...
PermalinkThe Sustainable Environment and Ecological Development Society (SEEDS) conducted research in the disaster-prone arid zones of India, Leh and Barmer to determine how best to overcome the challenges of integrating effective disaster risk reduction and climate adaptation into development planning. This brief describes the team’s research and observations, and suggests how other communities can address similar challenges by using windows of opportunity in post-disaster situations. The paper argues that special planning and response mechanisms need to be developed at the national level to meet the ...
Permalink2014This paper presents a review and analysis of the available literature and information on droughts to build a perspective on geospatial and temporal variation of droughts in Africa. The study is based on the review and analysis of droughts occurred during 1900–2013 as well as evidence available from past centuries based on studies on the lake sediment analysis, tree-ring chronologies and written and oral histories and future predictions from the global climate change models. The paper argues that the available evidence from the past shows that the African continent is likely to face extreme and ...
PermalinkThis operational plan highlights the urgent need to enhance the management of residual disaster risk, including through the establishment of adequate disaster risk financing arrangements. It outlines a series of crosscutting actions to address these needs, focusing on institutionalizing integrated disaster risk management, strengthening capacity and knowledge, investing in disaster resilience, and engaging stakeholders. The operational plan recognizes the importance of reducing disaster risk in both the immediate and long term, taking the possible effects of climate change into account.
PermalinkInternational Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD); Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Norway Government - Norway - government, 2014This report provides information on the change in glacial extent over the past decade and quantitative data to support discussion of climate change impacts in the Nepal Himalayas. It presents a comprehensive account of the status of glaciers of Nepal in approximately 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010 based on a semi-automatic standardized analysis of satellite images with post-processing database management in ArcGIS.
Clean-ice and debris-covered glaciers were used to support studies of water resources assessment and climate change impact as mountain areas are particularly vulnerable t ...
PermalinkThis Sigma report gives a global and regional overview of catastrophes in 2013 when almost 26,000 people died in disasters. It also takes a special look at fostering climate change resilience. Typhoon Haiyan was the biggest humanitarian catastrophe of the year and Asia had the highest economic losses. Worldwide economic losses from catastrophes worldwide were US$ 140 billion in 2013. The report predicts that climate change could contribute to rising losses in the future as the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events increase. It is argued that dealing with climate change requires a r ...
PermalinkThis journal paper focuses on water development. It argues that because of the lack of sound early development policy and meaningful investments, the rational use of water resources poses a great problem and challenge to the country. The River Basin Development Authorities, set up to manage the resources, along with the state government ministries and the private sector have all impacted on the management of water resources. The paper examines the sources of surface and ground water resources in Nigeria; the goal and present organisation of water management in Nigeria groundwater protection an ...
PermalinkThe working paper is intended to identify key gaps in science and capacity to feed into the scoping phase of the Future Climate For Africa (FCFA) programme. It brings together information from 1) A review of articles and ‘grey’ (unpublished) literature on knowledge gaps and areas needed to support the capacity of African decision-makers and 2) Two regional activities: a workshop in and a side-event to the Africa Climate Change Conference 2013 in Arusha, Tanzania.
It argues that ensuring that policy-makers are able to respond to the medium- and long-term implications of climate change is ...
PermalinkConcluding four years of intense scientific collaboration by hundreds of authors from around the world, this report responds to the request of the world's governments for a comprehensive, objective and policy neutral assessment of the current scientific knowledge on mitigating climate change.
PermalinkThis briefing paper discusses ACCRA's activities in promoting pro-poor and participatory climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction in planning processes. It argues that policymakers face difficult trade-offs in planning for a changing and uncertain future. Yet many development actors continue to plan for the near-term, with little room for manoeuvre or contingency. The paper focuses specifically on one specific characteristic of adaptive capacity in order to help decision makers and planners to better prepare themselves for the future: Flexible and Forward-Looking Decision Making ( ...
PermalinkThis paper argues that cost–benefit analysis (CBA) helps inform decisions about projects, such as whether to proceed with a project or not, which project option to select, and what refinements can be made to improve project design – thus making them more effective. It also argues that CBA can also help to assess and incorporate the risk and uncertainty of climate variability and climate change into project decision making. The most effective, it says that CBA should be included as a key component of the project cycle right from the beginning, involving multidisciplinary teams, and support from ...
PermalinkThis working paper presents a holistic approach for how a city can customise its rapid vulnerability assessment in order to understand what is required for building climate resilience. The framework can be used to highlight the potential impact of climate change on urban services arising from the geographical setting of a city; the nature, size and density of its settlements; and the existing coping capacity of its society and governance system. The paper argues that the situation is aggravated by growing urban populations, high urban poverty and backlogs in the provision of basic infrastructu ...
PermalinkThis working paper explains how to increase the scale and impact of community-based adaptation (CBA). It argues that CBA is a viable way to build communities’ resilience to climate change, particularly those most vulnerable to its impacts. CBA puts them in the driving seat when it comes to designing and delivering adaptation options. However, until recently, analysis of the impacts beyond the immediate beneficiaries was not possible because not enough CBA projects had been implemented. As a result, most of the lessons about best practice have yet to be scaled out or included in wider developm ...
PermalinkThis guide draws on the experience of CDKN’s programmes on climate-related disaster risk management (DRM) within the context of climate compatible development. It explores why mainstreaming DRM into development policy has had widely varying results between countries. In doing so, this guide attempts to delve beneath the surface of mainstreaming and identify the ways forward for integrating short- and long-term considerations for disaster risk reduction in important development sectors.
PermalinkThis paper overviews the case studies evaluating economics of climate adaptation (ECA) and ranging from assessments of tropical cyclone and storm surge risk in New York to drought risk in India and flash flood risk in Guyana. The ECA methodology is a guide that addresses the questions of climate-related losses and preventive measures to avert these losses in a more systematic way. Looking ahead to 2030 or 2050, it provides decision makers with the facts to understand the total climate risk in their region and design an appropriate adaptation strategy. It highlights that decision makers need th ...
PermalinkThis report provides an overview of major and emerging trends from around the world, with examples of how some of the trend-related challenges have been addressed, their implications for policy-makers, and further actions that can be taken by stakeholders and the international community. It argues that water and energy are closely interconnected and highly interdependent. Choices made and actions taken in one domain can greatly affect the other, positively or negatively. Trade-offs need to be managed to limit negative impacts and foster opportunities for synergy. The argument is given that wat ...
PermalinkThis paper deals with the consequences of climate change for farmers in Africa, including increasing temperatures and changing rainfall, increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide content and impacts on agricultural production. The paper attempts to illustrate local conditions that must be taken into account to understand the impacts/consequences of climate change for African farmers and how they may cope with them. The review is in three parts; climate change is approached by dealing with the three sides from which the danger comes: (i) global warming, (ii) increasing climate variability, (iii) mo ...
PermalinkLassa Jonatan A.; Nugraha Erwin; Institute of Resource Governance and Social Change (IRGSC) - IRGSC, 2014This paper investigates the evolution of institutional transformation and policy change in the area of planing and building resilience to climate change in the Bandar Lampung City, Indonesia. It highlights the experience on how the city adapting to climate change through modified urban development policy. The paper also discusses challenges, barriers, and policy gaps in city-scale climate adaptation planning.
PermalinkThis overview report presents a summary of the first comprehensive assessment of Arctic Ocean acidification (AOA) conducted by the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP).
PermalinkThis booklet is based on outcomes from a two-year Indo-Norwegian research and capacity development project titled, ‘Extreme Risks, Vulnerabilities and Community-Based Adaptation in India (EVA)’. The findings draw upon empirical data from rural communities in Jalna District in the dryland region of Marathwada of Maharashtra.
PermalinkPermalinkThis report aims to contribute to a future comprehensive quantitative depiction of potential climate change impacts in Switzerland, from which the impacted community can draw upon to inform and support stakeholders and policymakers. The report compiles quantitative information from multiple fields, based on common climate scenarios. It is thus an effort toward building a set of quantitative scenarios of climate change impacts in Switzerland, in analogy to the CH2011 climate scenarios.
PermalinkThis report outlines key findings and makes recommendations on how to better support decision-making processes for understanding climate change adaptation and implementing emerging researched approach - Flexible and Forward-looking Decision Making (FFDM). The report describes three case studies conducted in Kotido, Uganda, in Gemechis, Ethiopia, and in Guijá, Mozambique outlining the use of FFDM as well as the effectiveness and limitations of a game-enabled reflection approach in capacity-building activities.
PermalinkThis working paper summarizes existing work on the costs and benefits of climate change adaptation for the water sector in Africa. It reviews adaptation cost estimates for the continent and the main economic appraisal methods used, then summarizes results. It focuses on adaptation to climate impacts on the water sector, such as damage to water infrastructure, rather than impacts from water on other sectors, such as agricultural drought.
PermalinkThis paper highlights the impact of climate change on agriculture. It argues that the erratic climate of the region has strongly impacted the local food system especially the seed availability and therefore food security in general. This paper identifies some of the innovation in water use efficiency, water management at crop levels, and proposes some agriculture interventions in order to achieve a sustainable local seed systems, participatory breeding, livestock adaptation measures and improvement of existing agroforestry as well as knowledge management.
PermalinkThis chapter offers a bird’s eye view of the overall architecture of international climate change law. Following a discussion of the defining features of climate change law, it discusses the origins and development of the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and subsequent arrangements adopted under its auspices, notably the 1997 Kyoto Protocol and the 2010 Cancún Agreements. The chapter shows that while the UNFCCC process has grown more complex over time – in terms of its rules, institutions and the actors involved – so has international climate change law and g ...
PermalinkThe CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE), led by the International Water Management Institute (IWMI), and partners organized a two day international workshop which was held on May 7- 8, 2013. The workshop titled “Moving from Water Problems to Water Solutions: Research Needs Assessment for the Eastern Gangetic Plains” focused on reviewing the state of knowledge, institutions and successful practices to enhance productivity of land and water resources within the region. The proceedings of the workshop are highlighted in this report.
PermalinkThe dramatic impact of climate variability and climate change continued to be felt all over the world throughout 2013.The WMO Statement on the Status of the Global Climate in 2013 pro¬vides a snapshot of global and regional trends in weather and climate over the past year and highlights some of the year’s most significant extreme events.
PermalinkLes Membres de l’OMM savent l’importance que revêt la qualité de la prestation de services liés au temps, au climat, à l’eau et à l’environnement. L’Organisation facilite la coordination internationale, fixe des normes pour les produits météorologiques et hydrologiques et guide la prestation de services. Bien que de grands progrès aient été accomplis à cet égard, les Membres ont estimé qu’il fallait uniformiser et structurer davantage l’élaboration et la fourniture des services. En conséquence, le Seizième Congrès météorologique mondial (mai–juin 2011) a approuvé la Stratégie de l’OMM en matiè ...
PermalinkСтраны — члены ВМО признают важность предоставления высококачественного обслуживания в области погоды, климата, воды и окружающей среды. ВМО содействует международной координации усилий, устанавливает стандарты для метеорологической и гидрологической продукции и обеспечивает руководство по предоставлению обслуживания. Несмотря на то, что в этом отношении были достигнуты определенные значительные успехи, страны-члены согласились с тем, что требуется более единообразный и структурированный подход к развитию и предоставлению обслуживания.
PermalinkNaciones Unidas, 2014
Permalink在2013年，世界各地的人们继续感受到气 候变率和气候变化带来的巨大影响。《WMO关 于2013年度气候状况声明》盘点了过去一年天 气与气候的全球和区域趋势，重点突出了2013 年一些最显著的极端事件。
Permalinkطفق العالم يشعر طوال عام 2013 بالآثار الكبيرة المترتبة على تقلبية المناخ وتغيره. ويقدم بيان المنظمة العالمية للأرصاد الجوية عن حالة المناخ العالمي في 2013 صورة للاتجاهات العالمية والإقليمية للطقس والمناخ طوال العام الماضي، ويبرز بعضاً من أهم الظواهر المتطرفة التي شهدها العام الماضي.
PermalinkЗначительное воздействие изменчивости и измене- ния климата продолжало ощущаться во всем мире на протяжении 2013 г. В Заявлении ВМО о состоянии глобального климата в 2013 г. представлена общая картина глобальных и региональных трендов в погоде и климате за прошедший год и освещаются некоторые из наиболее значимых экстремальных явлений года.
PermalinkLos graves efectos de la variabilidad del clima y del cambio climático continuaron sintiéndose en todo el mundo durante 2013. La Declaración de la OMM sobre el estado del clima mundial de 2013 ofrece un panorama de las tendencias meteorológicas y climáticas mundiales y regionales durante el último año y destaca algunos de los fenómenos extremos más significativos de 2013.
PermalinkTout au long de 2013, la variabilité du climat et le changement climatique ont eu des répercussions considérables dans le monde entier. La Déclaration de l’OMM sur l’état du climat mondial en 2013 donne un aperçu de l’évolution du temps et du climat à l’échelle mondiale et régionale pendant l’année écoulée et met en lumière certains des phénomènes extrêmes les plus significatifs.
PermalinkSiempre que un episodio meteorológico extremo —ola de calor, crecida, sequía, etc.— aparece en los titulares de algún medio de comunicación, alguien en algún lugar señala con dedo acusador al cambio climático provocado por el ser humano.
PermalinkLos informes de evaluación del clima en los ámbitos estatal, nacional e internacional son importantes a la hora de ofrecer una base científica que permita comprender y evaluar los impactos de la variabilidad climática y del cambio climático en sectores económicos tales como la agricultura y la alimentación, los recursos hídricos, la energía y el transporte.
PermalinkEn las últimas décadas se han alcanzado grandes progresos en el desarrollo y las aplicaciones de la predicción del tiempo a medio plazo y la predicción estacional del clima. El proyecto de predicción subestacional a estacional acercará a las comunidades meteorológicas y climáticas para afrontar las escalas de tiempo implicadas, aprovechando la experiencia compartida y complementaria y los conocimientos de predicción, investigación y aplicaciones, en busca de sistemas de predicción del tiempo y del clima que presenten una mayor continuidad e integración.
PermalinkUna parte importante del Marco Mundial para los Servicios Climáticos es el desarrollo de las habilidades científicas para el estudio del tiempo y del clima.
PermalinkEl cambio climático es tan duro con la economía como lo es con la sociedad. Los eventos meteorológicos y climatológicos extremos se han cobrado un alto precio en los últimos años, llevándose cientos de miles de vidas y causando pérdidas económicas por encima de 380 000 millones de dólares de Estados Unidos —una cifra que se espera se duplique cada 12 años—.
PermalinkBoletín, Vol. 61(2). OMM, 2013¿Cuál sería la eficacia y el coste de una política para mitigar el cambio climático causado por el ser humano? ¿Qué ventajas y riesgos conlleva el esperar a una mejor comprensión por parte de la ciencia?
PermalinkBoletín, Vol. 61(2). OMM, 2013La innovación y la adaptación no solo han permitido a la humanidad sobrevivir sino también alcanzar nuevas cotas. La innovación condujo al desarrollo de nuevas herramientas y dio lugar a la industrialización, a la informatización y a un sinfín de avances científicos, con consecuencias positivas y negativas.
PermalinkТрадиционная концепция детерминистических ограничений подвергается сомнению путем рассмотрения возможности определенной успешности прогнозирования во всех временных масштабах от часов до
PermalinkПолезно вспомнить, что ученые говорят об эволюции климата под влиянием повышенного парникового эффекта, обусловленного деятельностью человека.
PermalinkЭто жители Эфиопии, Непала, Кирибати, Бразилии, канадской территории Нунавут и Бангладеш. Их связывает то, что они живут на одной планете и принадлежат к одной цивилизации. У каждого из них свой неповторимый образ жизни, основанный на опыте существования в разных климатических зонах планеты, будь то экваториальная, полузасушливая, муссонная, горная, океаническая или полярная зона.
PermalinkВ этой статье вкратце рассматривается вопрос о том, какую пользу может принести для смягчения изменения климата достижение целей Инициативы Организации Объединенных Наций Устойчивая энергетика для всех.
PermalinkКаждый год 23 марта отмечается Всемирный метеорологический день в ознаменование вступления в силу в 1950 г. Конвенции ВМО, учредившей Организацию.
PermalinkФонд зеленого климата создается как глобальный канал, по которому потечет большая часть финансовых средств, выделяемых для изучения климата. Это механизм целевого распределения денежных средств в размере 100 миллиардов долларов США, которые развитые страны обязуются к 2020 г.
PermalinkThe aim of this paper is to examine the challenges of addressing loss and damage through national institutional arrangements that integrate disaster risk reduction (DRR) and climate change adaptation (CCA) in Bangladesh. Published as part of the Germanwatch Loss and Damage Initiative, it analyses DRR and CCA policies, strategies, institutions and approaches, and identifies areas where greater synergy may be achieved.
The paper recommends that the following steps be undertaken: develop a comprehensive policy on the integration of DRR and CCA to address loss and damage; establish policy a ...
PermalinkFuture Fit is a DFID Executive Management Committee initiative, to produce a vision and strategy for the department’s response to the challenges and opportunities that climate change and resource scarcity pose for poverty reduction and development. The Future Fit strategy asks the question what strategic shifts in front line sectors - Food, Water, Energy, and Cities - are needed to protect development gains and respond to the challenge of climate change and resource scarcity. Answers to this question will feed into the review of the DFID business model and resource allocation. As part of this ...
PermalinkThe Australian Community Climate and Earth-System Simulator (ACCESS) is a new coupled ocean and atmosphere climate modelling system being developed at the Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research (CAWCR). ACCESS uses the UK Met Office Unified Model (Met UM, Davies et al. 2005) as its atmospheric component, which is coupled with the GFDL Ocean Model version 4.1 (MOM4p1, Griffies et al. 2009) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory Sea Ice Model version 4.1 (CICE4, Hunke and Lipscomb 2010), using the numerical coupler OASIS3.25 (Valcke 2006). The development of ACCESS has followed ...
PermalinkThis brief deals with adapting Australia’s agriculture to climate change, especially broadacre farming, and is based mainly, but not exclusively, on experiences in southern South Australia. It highlights key needs to support future adaptation, including investment in education, social science research, seasonal weather predictions and policy certainty and adaptability.
PermalinkThe second Topic Guide is now available for download. ‘Adaptation: Decision Making Under Uncertainty’ is a peer-reviewed report about the latest thinking on how to manage climate change in development decisions. Author Dr Nicola Ranger – Senior Research Fellow at the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) – finds that whilst climate change will affect the long-term outcomes of many development interventions, dealing with it need not be complicated, nor prevent action.
PermalinkThis report addresses the main policy relevant questions about climate change adaptation in the Mediterranean region and provides answers based on a theoretical framework applied to the case of three Mediterranean countries, namely Turkey, Egypt and Tunisia. The first sections deals with adaptation to climate change from a theoretical viewpoint, covering not only economic issues, but also fairness and international agreements on mitigation and adaptation.
The second part makes use of the conceptual framework developed in the theoretical discussion to analyse the adaptation-rela ...
Permalink从十年的视角出发，有可能评估各种趋 势并预见未来。这一视角还能够为开发业务 气候服务的努力提供参考依据，而通过气候 服务可为农业、卫生、灾害风险、水资源和 其它部门的决策过程提供信息和预报。目前 正在通过WMO牵头的全球气候服务框架协 调这方面的努力。
PermalinkThis paper argues that policies that discourage the demand for non-renewable energy can be used to cut down CO2 emission as it would help to discourage consumption patterns away non-renewable energy sources. The transmission mechanism can be deduced from the high price that the withdrawal of fuel subsidy would bring and the resultant downward adjustment in non-renewable energy use in consumption and production (such as emission from vehicles) which would bring about reduction in total emission. The study focused on Nigeria as a significant oil producing country in Sub Saharan Africa and employ ...
PermalinkThis paper argues that the high and volatile food prices that triggered a renewed interest in food security since the 2008–09 crisis are expected to continue due to the impacts of climate change. It notes that current policy is focused on food production; however, a broader approach based on food systems would be more appropriate as it encompasses all aspects of food production, storage, distribution and consumption. As most low-income groups in both rural and urban areas are net buyers of food, access and affordability are central concerns. There is also a need for more attention to urban foo ...
PermalinkCongress during its sixteenth session in 2011 welcomed the decision of the Commission for Climatology during its fifteenth session in 2010 for improving WMO Climate System Monitoring including related methodologies and dissemination of monitoring reports for timely information on extreme weather and climate events occurring on large scale and having high socioeconomic impacts. A brochure called "Assessment of the observed extreme conditions during the 2009/2010 boreal winter" was published by WMO in 2010 and is now followed by this supplement to the WMO annual statement on the status of the g ...
Permalinkملخص لصانعي السياسات
تغير املناخ 2013 األساس العلمي الفيزيائي
PermalinkDeutscher Wetterdienst, 2013
PermalinkUniversité de Genève, 2013
PermalinkIPCC, 2013"Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis" is the contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. This comprehensive assessment of the physical aspects of climate change puts a focus on those elements that are relevant to understand past, document current, and project future climate change.
PermalinkThere exists a wealth of largely overlooked experience that has been accrued over generations by small-scale farmers and pastoralists in poor countries as they cope with climatic extremes and increasing uncertainty – climate-change related or otherwise. IIED has 40 years’ experience of working with these producers; this Gatekeeper paper draws lessons from this wealth of knowledge in order to inform adaptation planning efforts at all levels. The paper underscores how measures to increase climate change resilience must view food, energy, water and waste management systems as interconnected and m ...
PermalinkThe GCOS Reference Upper‐Air Network (GRUAN) guide provides both mandatory operating requirements and guidelines on how to achieve the operating protocols specified in the GRUAN Manual (GCOS‐170). Mandatory operating protocols are distinguished by the words “must” or “shall” while guidelines are distinguished by the words “could” or “should”. The primary goals of GRUAN are to provide vertical profiles of reference measurements suitable for reliably detecting changes in global and regional climate on decadal time scales, initially for temperature, pressure and water vapour, with ...