World Bank, 2014Although water variability has already been observed across river basins, climate change is predicted to increase variability. Such environmental changes may aggravate political tensions, especially in regions that are not equipped with an appropriate institutional apparatus. Increased variability is also likely to challenge regions with existing institutional capacity. This paper argues that the best attempts to assess the ability of states to deal with variability in the future rest with considering how agreements have fared in the past. The paper investigates to what extent particular mecha ...
Published by: World Bank ; 2014
Climate change, conflict, and cooperation : global analysis of the resilience of international river treaties to increased water variability
Although water variability has already been observed across river basins, climate change is predicted to increase variability. Such environmental changes may aggravate political tensions, especially in regions that are not equipped with an appropriate institutional apparatus. Increased variability is also likely to challenge regions with existing institutional capacity. This paper argues that the best attempts to assess the ability of states to deal with variability in the future rest with considering how agreements have fared in the past. The paper investigates to what extent particular mechanisms and institutional designs help mitigate inter-country tensions over shared water. The analysis specifically focuses on identifying which water allocation mechanisms and institutional features provide better opportunities for mitigating conflict given that water allocation issues tend to be most salient among riparians. Water-related events from the Basins at Risk events database are used as the dependent variable to test hypotheses regarding the viability, or resilience, of treaties over time. Climatic, geographic, political, and economic variables are used as controls. The analysis is conducted for the years 1948-2001 with the country dyad as the level of observation. Findings pertaining to the primary explanatory variables suggest that country dyads governed by treaties with water allocation mechanisms exhibiting both flexibility and specificity evince more cooperative behavior. Country dyads governed by treaties with a larger sum of institutional mechanisms likewise evince a higher level of cooperation, although certain institutional mechanisms are more important than others.
Collection(s) and Series: Policy Research Working Paper- No. 6916
Format: Digital (Free)
Published by: ADB ; 2014
Format: Digital (Free)This case study aims to illustrate how the Western Province in Sri Lanka is promoting urban and peri-urban agriculture and forestry as a strategy to reduce vulnerability to climate change, while at the same time enhancing urban liveability and livelihoods. Key messages include that the province is promoting the rehabilitation of flood zones through their productive use as a strategy to improve storm water infiltration and mitigate flood risks. It is recommended that future upscaling of these interventions will need new urban design concepts and the development of a provincial climate change ...
Published by: CDKN ; 2014
This case study aims to illustrate how the Western Province in Sri Lanka is promoting urban and peri-urban agriculture and forestry as a strategy to reduce vulnerability to climate change, while at the same time enhancing urban liveability and livelihoods. Key messages include that the province is promoting the rehabilitation of flood zones through their productive use as a strategy to improve storm water infiltration and mitigate flood risks. It is recommended that future upscaling of these interventions will need new urban design concepts and the development of a provincial climate change action plan, in parallel with a revision of local and national policies. The paper argues that achieving this progress on policy will require improved impact monitoring and awareness raising at all levels of government, partnership and capacity building and local financing.
Format: Digital (Free)The Sustainable Environment and Ecological Development Society (SEEDS) conducted research in the disaster-prone arid zones of India, Leh and Barmer to determine how best to overcome the challenges of integrating effective disaster risk reduction and climate adaptation into development planning. This brief describes the team’s research and observations, and suggests how other communities can address similar challenges by using windows of opportunity in post-disaster situations. The paper argues that special planning and response mechanisms need to be developed at the national level to meet the ...
Published by: CDKN ; 2014
Local approaches to harmonising climate adaptation and disaster risk reduction policies: Lessons from India
The Sustainable Environment and Ecological Development Society (SEEDS) conducted research in the disaster-prone arid zones of India, Leh and Barmer to determine how best to overcome the challenges of integrating effective disaster risk reduction and climate adaptation into development planning. This brief describes the team’s research and observations, and suggests how other communities can address similar challenges by using windows of opportunity in post-disaster situations. The paper argues that special planning and response mechanisms need to be developed at the national level to meet the increasingly unprecedented nature of climate change-induced disasters in India. Also that local knowledge and innovation can help provide effective risk reduction approaches to both disasters and long-term climate change impacts. The paper argues that rapid and poorly planned urbanisation has increased the risk of flash floods in some areas, while others suffer the effects of less dramatic ‘invisible disasters’, which go unreported.
Format: Digital (Free)2014This paper presents a review and analysis of the available literature and information on droughts to build a perspective on geospatial and temporal variation of droughts in Africa. The study is based on the review and analysis of droughts occurred during 1900–2013 as well as evidence available from past centuries based on studies on the lake sediment analysis, tree-ring chronologies and written and oral histories and future predictions from the global climate change models. The paper argues that the available evidence from the past shows that the African continent is likely to face extreme and ...
A review of droughts in the African continent: a geospatial and long-term perspective: In Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, 11
This paper presents a review and analysis of the available literature and information on droughts to build a perspective on geospatial and temporal variation of droughts in Africa. The study is based on the review and analysis of droughts occurred during 1900–2013 as well as evidence available from past centuries based on studies on the lake sediment analysis, tree-ring chronologies and written and oral histories and future predictions from the global climate change models. The paper argues that the available evidence from the past shows that the African continent is likely to face extreme and widespread droughts in future. This evident challenge is likely to aggravate due to slow progress in drought risk management, increased population and demand for water and degradation of land and environment. Thus, the paper argues that there is a clear need for increased and integrated efforts in drought mitigation to reduce the negative impacts of droughts anticipated in future.
Format: Digital (Free)This operational plan highlights the urgent need to enhance the management of residual disaster risk, including through the establishment of adequate disaster risk financing arrangements. It outlines a series of crosscutting actions to address these needs, focusing on institutionalizing integrated disaster risk management, strengthening capacity and knowledge, investing in disaster resilience, and engaging stakeholders. The operational plan recognizes the importance of reducing disaster risk in both the immediate and long term, taking the possible effects of climate change into account.
PermalinkInternational Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD); Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Norway Government - Norway - government, 2014This report provides information on the change in glacial extent over the past decade and quantitative data to support discussion of climate change impacts in the Nepal Himalayas. It presents a comprehensive account of the status of glaciers of Nepal in approximately 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010 based on a semi-automatic standardized analysis of satellite images with post-processing database management in ArcGIS.
Clean-ice and debris-covered glaciers were used to support studies of water resources assessment and climate change impact as mountain areas are particularly vulnerable t ...
PermalinkThis Sigma report gives a global and regional overview of catastrophes in 2013 when almost 26,000 people died in disasters. It also takes a special look at fostering climate change resilience. Typhoon Haiyan was the biggest humanitarian catastrophe of the year and Asia had the highest economic losses. Worldwide economic losses from catastrophes worldwide were US$ 140 billion in 2013. The report predicts that climate change could contribute to rising losses in the future as the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events increase. It is argued that dealing with climate change requires a r ...
PermalinkThis journal paper focuses on water development. It argues that because of the lack of sound early development policy and meaningful investments, the rational use of water resources poses a great problem and challenge to the country. The River Basin Development Authorities, set up to manage the resources, along with the state government ministries and the private sector have all impacted on the management of water resources. The paper examines the sources of surface and ground water resources in Nigeria; the goal and present organisation of water management in Nigeria groundwater protection an ...
PermalinkThe working paper is intended to identify key gaps in science and capacity to feed into the scoping phase of the Future Climate For Africa (FCFA) programme. It brings together information from 1) A review of articles and ‘grey’ (unpublished) literature on knowledge gaps and areas needed to support the capacity of African decision-makers and 2) Two regional activities: a workshop in and a side-event to the Africa Climate Change Conference 2013 in Arusha, Tanzania.
It argues that ensuring that policy-makers are able to respond to the medium- and long-term implications of climate change is ...
PermalinkConcluding four years of intense scientific collaboration by hundreds of authors from around the world, this report responds to the request of the world's governments for a comprehensive, objective and policy neutral assessment of the current scientific knowledge on mitigating climate change.
PermalinkThis briefing paper discusses ACCRA's activities in promoting pro-poor and participatory climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction in planning processes. It argues that policymakers face difficult trade-offs in planning for a changing and uncertain future. Yet many development actors continue to plan for the near-term, with little room for manoeuvre or contingency. The paper focuses specifically on one specific characteristic of adaptive capacity in order to help decision makers and planners to better prepare themselves for the future: Flexible and Forward-Looking Decision Making ( ...
PermalinkThis paper argues that cost–benefit analysis (CBA) helps inform decisions about projects, such as whether to proceed with a project or not, which project option to select, and what refinements can be made to improve project design – thus making them more effective. It also argues that CBA can also help to assess and incorporate the risk and uncertainty of climate variability and climate change into project decision making. The most effective, it says that CBA should be included as a key component of the project cycle right from the beginning, involving multidisciplinary teams, and support from ...
PermalinkThis working paper presents a holistic approach for how a city can customise its rapid vulnerability assessment in order to understand what is required for building climate resilience. The framework can be used to highlight the potential impact of climate change on urban services arising from the geographical setting of a city; the nature, size and density of its settlements; and the existing coping capacity of its society and governance system. The paper argues that the situation is aggravated by growing urban populations, high urban poverty and backlogs in the provision of basic infrastructu ...
PermalinkThis working paper explains how to increase the scale and impact of community-based adaptation (CBA). It argues that CBA is a viable way to build communities’ resilience to climate change, particularly those most vulnerable to its impacts. CBA puts them in the driving seat when it comes to designing and delivering adaptation options. However, until recently, analysis of the impacts beyond the immediate beneficiaries was not possible because not enough CBA projects had been implemented. As a result, most of the lessons about best practice have yet to be scaled out or included in wider developm ...
PermalinkThis guide draws on the experience of CDKN’s programmes on climate-related disaster risk management (DRM) within the context of climate compatible development. It explores why mainstreaming DRM into development policy has had widely varying results between countries. In doing so, this guide attempts to delve beneath the surface of mainstreaming and identify the ways forward for integrating short- and long-term considerations for disaster risk reduction in important development sectors.
PermalinkThis paper overviews the case studies evaluating economics of climate adaptation (ECA) and ranging from assessments of tropical cyclone and storm surge risk in New York to drought risk in India and flash flood risk in Guyana. The ECA methodology is a guide that addresses the questions of climate-related losses and preventive measures to avert these losses in a more systematic way. Looking ahead to 2030 or 2050, it provides decision makers with the facts to understand the total climate risk in their region and design an appropriate adaptation strategy. It highlights that decision makers need th ...
PermalinkThis report provides an overview of major and emerging trends from around the world, with examples of how some of the trend-related challenges have been addressed, their implications for policy-makers, and further actions that can be taken by stakeholders and the international community. It argues that water and energy are closely interconnected and highly interdependent. Choices made and actions taken in one domain can greatly affect the other, positively or negatively. Trade-offs need to be managed to limit negative impacts and foster opportunities for synergy. The argument is given that wat ...
PermalinkThis paper deals with the consequences of climate change for farmers in Africa, including increasing temperatures and changing rainfall, increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide content and impacts on agricultural production. The paper attempts to illustrate local conditions that must be taken into account to understand the impacts/consequences of climate change for African farmers and how they may cope with them. The review is in three parts; climate change is approached by dealing with the three sides from which the danger comes: (i) global warming, (ii) increasing climate variability, (iii) mo ...
PermalinkLassa Jonatan A.; Nugraha Erwin; Institute of Resource Governance and Social Change (IRGSC) - IRGSC, 2014This paper investigates the evolution of institutional transformation and policy change in the area of planing and building resilience to climate change in the Bandar Lampung City, Indonesia. It highlights the experience on how the city adapting to climate change through modified urban development policy. The paper also discusses challenges, barriers, and policy gaps in city-scale climate adaptation planning.
PermalinkThis overview report presents a summary of the first comprehensive assessment of Arctic Ocean acidification (AOA) conducted by the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP).
PermalinkThis booklet is based on outcomes from a two-year Indo-Norwegian research and capacity development project titled, ‘Extreme Risks, Vulnerabilities and Community-Based Adaptation in India (EVA)’. The findings draw upon empirical data from rural communities in Jalna District in the dryland region of Marathwada of Maharashtra.
PermalinkPermalinkThis report aims to contribute to a future comprehensive quantitative depiction of potential climate change impacts in Switzerland, from which the impacted community can draw upon to inform and support stakeholders and policymakers. The report compiles quantitative information from multiple fields, based on common climate scenarios. It is thus an effort toward building a set of quantitative scenarios of climate change impacts in Switzerland, in analogy to the CH2011 climate scenarios.
PermalinkThis report outlines key findings and makes recommendations on how to better support decision-making processes for understanding climate change adaptation and implementing emerging researched approach - Flexible and Forward-looking Decision Making (FFDM). The report describes three case studies conducted in Kotido, Uganda, in Gemechis, Ethiopia, and in Guijá, Mozambique outlining the use of FFDM as well as the effectiveness and limitations of a game-enabled reflection approach in capacity-building activities.
PermalinkThis working paper summarizes existing work on the costs and benefits of climate change adaptation for the water sector in Africa. It reviews adaptation cost estimates for the continent and the main economic appraisal methods used, then summarizes results. It focuses on adaptation to climate impacts on the water sector, such as damage to water infrastructure, rather than impacts from water on other sectors, such as agricultural drought.
PermalinkThis paper highlights the impact of climate change on agriculture. It argues that the erratic climate of the region has strongly impacted the local food system especially the seed availability and therefore food security in general. This paper identifies some of the innovation in water use efficiency, water management at crop levels, and proposes some agriculture interventions in order to achieve a sustainable local seed systems, participatory breeding, livestock adaptation measures and improvement of existing agroforestry as well as knowledge management.
PermalinkThis chapter offers a bird’s eye view of the overall architecture of international climate change law. Following a discussion of the defining features of climate change law, it discusses the origins and development of the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and subsequent arrangements adopted under its auspices, notably the 1997 Kyoto Protocol and the 2010 Cancún Agreements. The chapter shows that while the UNFCCC process has grown more complex over time – in terms of its rules, institutions and the actors involved – so has international climate change law and g ...
PermalinkThe CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE), led by the International Water Management Institute (IWMI), and partners organized a two day international workshop which was held on May 7- 8, 2013. The workshop titled “Moving from Water Problems to Water Solutions: Research Needs Assessment for the Eastern Gangetic Plains” focused on reviewing the state of knowledge, institutions and successful practices to enhance productivity of land and water resources within the region. The proceedings of the workshop are highlighted in this report.
PermalinkThe dramatic impact of climate variability and climate change continued to be felt all over the world throughout 2013.The WMO Statement on the Status of the Global Climate in 2013 pro¬vides a snapshot of global and regional trends in weather and climate over the past year and highlights some of the year’s most significant extreme events.
PermalinkLes Membres de l’OMM savent l’importance que revêt la qualité de la prestation de services liés au temps, au climat, à l’eau et à l’environnement. L’Organisation facilite la coordination internationale, fixe des normes pour les produits météorologiques et hydrologiques et guide la prestation de services. Bien que de grands progrès aient été accomplis à cet égard, les Membres ont estimé qu’il fallait uniformiser et structurer davantage l’élaboration et la fourniture des services. En conséquence, le Seizième Congrès météorologique mondial (mai–juin 2011) a approuvé la Stratégie de l’OMM en matiè ...
PermalinkСтраны — члены ВМО признают важность предоставления высококачественного обслуживания в области погоды, климата, воды и окружающей среды. ВМО содействует международной координации усилий, устанавливает стандарты для метеорологической и гидрологической продукции и обеспечивает руководство по предоставлению обслуживания. Несмотря на то, что в этом отношении были достигнуты определенные значительные успехи, страны-члены согласились с тем, что требуется более единообразный и структурированный подход к развитию и предоставлению обслуживания.
PermalinkNaciones Unidas, 2014
Permalink在2013年，世界各地的人们继续感受到气 候变率和气候变化带来的巨大影响。《WMO关 于2013年度气候状况声明》盘点了过去一年天 气与气候的全球和区域趋势，重点突出了2013 年一些最显著的极端事件。
Permalinkطفق العالم يشعر طوال عام 2013 بالآثار الكبيرة المترتبة على تقلبية المناخ وتغيره. ويقدم بيان المنظمة العالمية للأرصاد الجوية عن حالة المناخ العالمي في 2013 صورة للاتجاهات العالمية والإقليمية للطقس والمناخ طوال العام الماضي، ويبرز بعضاً من أهم الظواهر المتطرفة التي شهدها العام الماضي.
PermalinkЗначительное воздействие изменчивости и измене- ния климата продолжало ощущаться во всем мире на протяжении 2013 г. В Заявлении ВМО о состоянии глобального климата в 2013 г. представлена общая картина глобальных и региональных трендов в погоде и климате за прошедший год и освещаются некоторые из наиболее значимых экстремальных явлений года.
PermalinkLos graves efectos de la variabilidad del clima y del cambio climático continuaron sintiéndose en todo el mundo durante 2013. La Declaración de la OMM sobre el estado del clima mundial de 2013 ofrece un panorama de las tendencias meteorológicas y climáticas mundiales y regionales durante el último año y destaca algunos de los fenómenos extremos más significativos de 2013.
PermalinkTout au long de 2013, la variabilité du climat et le changement climatique ont eu des répercussions considérables dans le monde entier. La Déclaration de l’OMM sur l’état du climat mondial en 2013 donne un aperçu de l’évolution du temps et du climat à l’échelle mondiale et régionale pendant l’année écoulée et met en lumière certains des phénomènes extrêmes les plus significatifs.