Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Carrio G.G.; Cotton William R. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011This paper examines the feasibility of mitigating the intensity of hurricanes by enhancing the CCN concentrations in the outer rainband region. Increasing CCN concentrations would cause a reduced collision and coalescence, resulting in more supercooled liquid water to be transported aloft which then freezes and enhances convection via enhanced latent heat of freezing. The intensified convection would condense more water ultimately enhancing precipitation in the outer rainbands. Enhanced evaporative cooling from the increased precipitation in the outer rainbands would produce stronger and more ...[article]
in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) > Vol. 11. N° 3 [03/01/2011] . - p.2557-2567
This paper examines the feasibility of mitigating the intensity of hurricanes by enhancing the CCN concentrations in the outer rainband region. Increasing CCN concentrations would cause a reduced collision and coalescence, resulting in more supercooled liquid water to be transported aloft which then freezes and enhances convection via enhanced latent heat of freezing. The intensified convection would condense more water ultimately enhancing precipitation in the outer rainbands. Enhanced evaporative cooling from the increased precipitation in the outer rainbands would produce stronger and more widespread areal cold pools which block the flow of energy into the storm core, ultimately inhibiting the intensification of the tropical cyclone.
We designed a series of multi-grid for which the time of the "virtual flights" as well as the aerosol release rates are varied. A code that simulates the flight of a plane is used to increase the CCN concentrations as an aircraft flies. Results show a significant sensitivity to both the seeding time and the aerosol release rates and support the aforementioned hypothesis.
Format: Digital (Free)[article]Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Emeis S.; Forkel R.; Junkermann W.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011The spatial structure and the progression speed of the first ash layer from the Icelandic Eyjafjallajökull volcano which reached Germany on 16/17 April is investigated from remote sensing data and numerical simulations. The ceilometer network of the German Meteorological Service was able to follow the progression of the ash layer over the whole of Germany. This first ash layer turned out to be a rather shallow layer of only several hundreds of metres thickness which was oriented slantwise in the middle troposphere and which was brought downward by large-scale sinking motion over Southern Germa ...[article]
Measurement and simulation of the 16/17 April 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash layer dispersion in the northern Alpine region
S. Emeis ; R. Forkel ; W. Junkermann ; K. Schäfer ; H. Flentje ; S. Gilge ; W. Fricke ; M. Wiegner ; V. Freudenthaler ; S. Groβ ; L. Ries ; F. Meinhardt ; W. Birmili ; C. Münkel ; F. Obleitner ; P. Suppan
in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) > Vol. 11. N° 3 [03/01/2011] . - p.2689-2701
The spatial structure and the progression speed of the first ash layer from the Icelandic Eyjafjallajökull volcano which reached Germany on 16/17 April is investigated from remote sensing data and numerical simulations. The ceilometer network of the German Meteorological Service was able to follow the progression of the ash layer over the whole of Germany. This first ash layer turned out to be a rather shallow layer of only several hundreds of metres thickness which was oriented slantwise in the middle troposphere and which was brought downward by large-scale sinking motion over Southern Germany and the Alps. Special Raman lidar measurements, trajectory analyses and in-situ observations from mountain observatories helped to confirm the volcanic origin of the detected aerosol layer. Ultralight aircraft measurements permitted the detection of the arrival of a second major flush of volcanic material in Southern Germany. Numerical simulations with the Eulerian meso-scale model MCCM were able to reproduce the temporal and spatial structure of the ash layer. Comparisons of the model results with the ceilometer network data on 17 April and with the ultralight aircraft data on 19 April were satisfying. This is the first example of a model validation study from this ceilometer network data.
Format: Digital (Free)[article]Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Rosa I.M.D.; Pereira J.M.C.; Tarantola S. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Atmospheric emissions from wildfires in Portugal were estimated yearly over the period 1990–2008 using Landsat-based burnt area maps and land cover maps, national forest inventory data, biometric models, and literature review data. Emissions were calculated as the product of area burnt, biomass loading per unit area, combustion factor, and emission factor, using land cover specific values for all variables. Uncertainty associated with each input variable was quantified with a probability density function or a standard deviation value. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of estimates were perf ...[article]
Atmospheric emissions from vegetation fires in Portugal (1990–2008): estimates, uncertainty analysis, and sensitivity analysis
in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) > Vol. 11. N° 3 [03/01/2011] . - p.2625-2640
Atmospheric emissions from wildfires in Portugal were estimated yearly over the period 1990–2008 using Landsat-based burnt area maps and land cover maps, national forest inventory data, biometric models, and literature review data. Emissions were calculated as the product of area burnt, biomass loading per unit area, combustion factor, and emission factor, using land cover specific values for all variables. Uncertainty associated with each input variable was quantified with a probability density function or a standard deviation value. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of estimates were performed with Monte Carlo and variance decomposition techniques. Area burnt varied almost 50-fold during the study period, from about 9000 ha in 2008 to 440 000 ha in 2003. Emissions reach maximum and minimum in the same years, with carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq.) values of 159 and 5655 Gg for 2008 and 2003, respectively. Emission factors, and the combustion factor for shrubs were identified as the variables with higher impact on model output variance. There is a very strong correlation between area burnt and emissions, allowing for good emissions estimates once area burnt is quantified. Pyrogenic emissions were compared against those from various economy sectors and found to represent 1% to 9% of the total.
Format: Digital (Free)[article]Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Heue K.-P.; Brenninkmeijer C.A.M.; Baker A.K.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011The ash cloud of the Eyjafjallajökull (also referred to as: Eyjafjalla (e.g. Schumann et al., 2011), Eyjafjöll or Eyjafjoll (e.g. Ansmann et al., 2010)) volcano on Iceland caused closure of large parts of European airspace in April and May 2010. For the validation and improvement of the European volcanic ash forecast models several research flights were performed. Also the CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) flying laboratory, which routinely measures at cruise altitude (≈11 km) performed three dedicated measurements flights ...[article]
SO2 and BrO observation in the plume of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano 2010: CARIBIC and GOME-2 retrievals
K.-P. Heue ; C.A.M. Brenninkmeijer ; A.K. Baker ; A. Rauthe-Schöch ; D. Walter ; T. Wagner ; C. Hörmann ; H. Sihler ; B. Dix ; U. Frieß ; U. Platt ; B.G. Martinsson ; P.F.J. van Velthoven ; A. Zahn ; R. Ebinghaus
in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) > Vol. 11. N° 3 [03/01/2011] . - p.2973-2989
The ash cloud of the Eyjafjallajökull (also referred to as: Eyjafjalla (e.g. Schumann et al., 2011), Eyjafjöll or Eyjafjoll (e.g. Ansmann et al., 2010)) volcano on Iceland caused closure of large parts of European airspace in April and May 2010. For the validation and improvement of the European volcanic ash forecast models several research flights were performed. Also the CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) flying laboratory, which routinely measures at cruise altitude (≈11 km) performed three dedicated measurements flights through sections of the ash plume. Although the focus of these flights was on the detection and quantification of the volcanic ash, we report here on sulphur dioxide (SO2) and bromine monoxide (BrO) measurements with the CARIBIC DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) instrument during the second of these special flights on 16 May 2010. As the BrO and the SO2 observations coincide, we assume the BrO to have been formed inside the volcanic plume. Average SO2 and BrO mixing ratios of ≈40 ppb and ≈5 ppt respectively are retrieved inside the plume. The BrO to SO2 ratio retrieved from the CARIBIC observation is ≈1.3×10−4. Both SO2 and BrO observations agree well with simultaneous satellite (GOME-2) observations. SO2 column densities retrieved from satellite observations are often used as an indicator for volcanic ash. As the CARIBIC O4 column densities changed rapidly during the plume observation, we conclude that the aerosol and the SO2 plume are collocated. For SO2 some additional information on the local distribution can be derived from a comparison of forward and back scan GOME-2 data. More details on the local plume size and position are retrieved by combining CARIBIC and GOME-2 data.
Format: Digital (Free)[article][article]
in Global Change magazine > Issue 76 (January 2011) . - 2 p.
Language(s): English[article]is an issue of Geofizika. Andrija Mohorovičić Geophysical Institute,, 20117. Janeković, I., Sikirić, M. D., Tomažić, I. and Kuzmić, M. (2010): Hindcasting the Adriatic Sea surface temperature and salinity: A recent modeling experience. Geofizika, 27, 85-100.
8. Anil Kumar, R., Dudhia, J. and Roy Bhowmik, S. K. (2010): Evaluation of physics options of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model to simulate high impact heavy rainfall events over Indian Monsoon region. Geofizika, 27, 101-125.
9. Jurčec, V. and Dragojlović, D. (2010): The unexpected snowstorm of 13 - 14 January 2002 in Zagreb. Geofizika, 27, 127-145.
Permalinkis an issue of 気象研究所技術報告. Meteorological Research Institute, 2011PermalinkThe National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) of an increasing number of maritime countries are actively engaged in the provision of storm surge forecast services for a wide range of maritime and coastal activities, in particular for coastal defense, shipping, fisheries, offshore mining, commerce, coastal engineering, construction and recreation. This guide draws attention to vulnerabilities in coastal areas exposed to storm surges by focusing on risk forecasting, in addition to hazard forecasting.PermalinkAssuming that capital productivity is higher in areas at risk from natural hazards (such as coastal zones or flood plains), this paper shows that rapid development in these areas—and the resulting increase in disaster losses—may be the consequence of a rational and well-informed trade-off between lower disaster losses and higher productivity. With disasters possibly becoming less frequent but increasingly destructive in the future, average disaster losses may grow faster than wealth. Myopic expectations, lack of information, moral hazard, and externalities reinforce the likelihood of this scen ...PermalinkForced displacement due to natural hazard-induced disasters is a large-scale, global phenomenon. This study focuses on quantifying peak levels of displacement, including those due to preventative actions taken before and after the onset of a disaster, as people are forced to flee their homes and lands.PermalinkThe SBI at its 33rd session requested the secretariat to organize, before its thirty-fifth session, a workshop to identify gaps and challenges in the implementation of risk management approaches to the adverse effects of climate change, building on the lessons learned and practical experience of international, regional and national organizations and the private sector.PermalinkSince November 1985, WMO has organized a series of quadrennial International Workshops on Tropical Cyclones (IWTCs), the latest of which took place in La Reunion (France) from 10 to 15 November 2010. It is noteworthy that this seventh WMO International Workshop on Tropical Cyclones (IWTC-VII) has been the first held in WMO Regional Association I (Africa). The Workshop primary objectives were to review progress in tropical cyclone research and operational practices since IWTC-VI and to contribute in identifying future research and operational priorities. The six-day meeting set the scene for ex ...PermalinkPermalinkThe authors use regression analysis to assess the potential welfare impact of rainfall shocks in rural Indonesia. In particular, they consider two shocks: (i) a delay in the onset of monsoon and (ii) a significant shortfall in the amount of rain in the 90 day post-onset period. Focusing on households with family farm businesses, the analysis finds that a delay in the monsoon onset does not have a significant impact on the welfare of rice farmers. However, rice farm households located in areas exposed to low rainfall following the monsoon are negatively affected. Rice farm households appear to ...PermalinkFEM, 2011Permalink
PermalinkUNDP, 2011The purpose of this publication is to highlight the development challenges faced by people who live in drylands and to outline how these challenges can be tackled successfully. Covering about 40 percent of the world’s land surface, dryland is home to more than 2 billion people in nearly 100 countries, of which about half remains under poverty. It will be impossible to meet the Millennium Development Goals by 2015 if life does not improve for the poor people of the drylands. Together, they are the forgotten billion. The publication stresses that the policies designed to meet the needs of drylan ...PermalinkExtra-tropical cyclones that develop near the east coast of Australia often have severe consequences such as flash flooding and damaging winds and seas, as well as beneficial consequences such as being responsible for heavy rainfall events that contribute significantly to total rainfall and runoff. There is subjective evidence that the development of most major events, commonly known as East Coast Lows, is associated with the movement of a high amplitude upper-tropospheric trough system over eastern Australia. This report examines a number of large-scale diagnostic quantities in the upper trop ...PermalinkThe Japanese Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT), the Dutch Rijkswaterstaat, the United Kingdom Environment Agency, and the United States Army Corps of Engineers agreed in 2009 to develop a document to explore risk-informed approaches as being practiced and developed primarily in those four countries. This document, the result of that collaboration, reflects contributions from agencies within the four participating nations but is not an official position of any government or international organization. It is organized around a conceptual framework developed to encomp ...PermalinkOCHA, 2011I. HIGHLIGHTS/KEY PRIORITIES
· In total, an estimated 708,000 people were affected by floods and/or storms in southern Africa this rainfall season, with 314,361 either displaced or evacuated and 477 people killed.
· In comparison with the previous four seasons, the 2010/2011 flood season was average in terms of number of people affected, although the number of deaths was markedly high.
· Heavy rains early in the season affected Mozambique, South Africa and Lesotho. South Africa, which is usually not seriously affected by flooding, experienced large-scale devastation.
PermalinkThis abstract book of the Second World Landslide Forum reviews 29 sessions addressing: landslides and land-use systems, food security, wild fires, extreme weather, GIS applications developments, socio-economic impact, transportation network and lifelines, policies, urban risk reduction, early warnings and emergency plans, training and capacity development, tsunami, cultural heritage, and seismic landslide hazard analysis. It asserts that incoming climatic changes urge appropriate policies to face the new challenges posed by hydrometeorological hazards. The Forum was held in Rome on 3-9 October ...PermalinkNations Unies, 2011PermalinkThis report (available in English and French), summarizes the efforts undertaken by the United Nations system and its partners, in support to the Haitian people and their government, to answer the multiple humanitarian crises, to accompany the electoral calendar and to advance on the road to recovery.PermalinkTsunami Strike! Pacific Edition is a scenario-based learning experience for kids from middle school through high school (approximate ages 13-17). The scenario tells the story of four main characters at different locations in the Pacific basin who are each impacted by a major tsunami that originates in Alaska’s Aleutian Islands. Over the course of the story, learners not only view the unfolding events and how each of the characters responds, but also observe how warning scientists analyze and communicate the tsunami threat. Fourteen short lessons provide interactive instruction focused on the s ...PermalinkThe "SKYWARN® Spotter Convective Basics" module will guide users to a basic understanding of convective storms. Through three different scenarios, you will cover reporting and proper communication of local storm reports to the National Weather Service (NWS), personal safety during these events, and field identification of convective storm hazards. After completing the scenarios, you will be given the opportunity to practice identifying storm features from a spectrum of photos.PermalinkThis lesson is designed to help emergency managers prepare their communities for tsunamis. Topics include basic tsunami science, hazards produced by tsunamis, the tsunami warning system, the importance of public education activities, and how to craft good emergency messages and develop tsunami response plans. The lesson also contains links to extensive Reference and Resources sections.PermalinkAs climate changes, dynamic coastal regions are experiencing a wide range of impacts. Sea levels, ocean acidification, sea surface temperatures, ocean heat, and ocean circulation have all been changing in ways unseen for thousands of years. Arctic sea ice melted significantly more during summers in the last 30 years, and storms are intensifying. Coastal ecosystems stand to be damaged, and coasts will likely erode from rising sea levels, intensified storm surges, and flooding that climate change may amplify. Coastal communities will need to prepare adaptation strategies to cope, and many who li ...PermalinkSnowmelt is an integral component of the hydrologic forecasting process in many parts of the world. Here, we examine the influences of environmental conditions on snowfall distribution, snowpack structure, snowpack-environment energy exchange, and finally, the rate and amount of snowmelt itself. The fate of snowmelt water after it reaches the ground is also explored.PermalinkThe goal of the "Role of the SKYWARN® Spotter" module is to provide baseline training for all spotters through multiple scenarios covering the procedures for spotting (including communication and storm report criteria), safety considerations for all hazards, and an overview of the national program and its history.PermalinkProvides a concise introduction to volcanic ash through the examples of the Mt. Pinatubo and Eyjafjallajökull eruptions. This is the introduction to a four-part series on Volcanic Ash.PermalinkFlash floods can occur in nearly any area of the world. A rainfall-induced flash flood is a truly hydrometeorological event: one that depends on both hydrologic and meteorological conditions. Forecasting flash floods involves a detailed understanding of the local hydrologic features and continual monitoring of the current meteorological situation. This module examines both the hydrologic and meteorological processes that often contribute to the development of flash flooding. Common tools and technologies that are used in flash flood monitoring and forecasting, from manual gauging systems to co ...PermalinkThis module allows users to explore the flood forecasting process by assuming the role of a visiting hydrologist intern at the National Hydrologic Service in Main Country. Fictional senior hydrologists guide the intern through an idealized flooding event that takes place over Main Country's Mainstem river basin and its tributary basins, each with varying landscapes and observation systems. Users will examine how these variations impact the quality and type of forecast that can be achieved. Users will also learn about common problems encountered in flood forecasting, and how to adjust forecasts ...PermalinkThe Flash Flood Warning System Reference Guide is intended to promote the implementation of flash flood early warning systems based upon proven and effective methods already in use in flash-flood prone nations around the world. Both governmental and non-governmental decision makers can use it to better understand flash floods and the elements that constitute a robust, end-to-end flash flood early warning system. The guide includes chapters on Flash Flood Science, Flash Flood Forecasting Methods, Monitoring Networks, Technology Infrastructure, Warning Dissemination and Notification, and Communi ...PermalinkThe chapter begins with a review of the general principles of atmospheric motion including scale analysis of tropical motions. An overview of the general circulation of the atmosphere and ocean is presented including stratospheric general circulation. Special emphasis is given to the Hadley circulation including its maintenance, seasonal migration, northern and southern hemispheric differences, and the contrast between tropical and midlatitude wind systems. Tropical circulations are examined in a theoretical framework as responses to heating at the equator. Regional monsoons, their conceptual ...PermalinkThis module is the second in the four-part Volcanic Ash series. It provides information about the geological, and geophysical processes related to volcanic activity and volcanic ash in the atmosphere and on the ground. It discusses four types of volcanic eruptions and describes six major volcanic hazards: Tephra Pyroclastic flow Lahar Lava flow Volcanic gas TsunamiPermalinkSediment-related disasters, which are caused by debris flows, slope failures and landslides, have different characteristics from water-related disasters. That is, disasters sites, timing of occurence, and hazard levels are difficult to predict accurately. This Tool explains practical approaches of identifying debris flows and landslides areas and introduces good practices of mitigation measures to minimize human loss. For example, disaster prevention maps containing hazard areas, sage refuges and evacuation routes are as essential and effective means as flood hazard maps.PermalinkThis tool provides basic information on preparation and implementation of flood emergency management, which breaks down into three stages: preparedness, response, and recovery. By reducing exposure to flooding at each stage, flood emergency management contributes to flood risk reduction, which is an important objective of Integrated Flood Management. To this end, flood hazard maps help users understand hazard information through the process of planning, preparing and responding to flood. Emergency exercises (e.g. role playing drill) also strengthen stakeholders’ capacity to smoothly conduct em ...PermalinkThis Tool introduces strategies for climate change adaption and implementation of the strategies in the context of flood management. Nine case studies are extracted from the following countries and a regional organization, namely US, UK, France, Germany, Netherlands, Japan, China, South Korea, and EU. The adaptation strategies are described especially from the point of flood risk assessment. Based on the projected impacts of climate change, each country formulates their own adaption measures and designates responsible agencies for their implementation.PermalinkThis tool aims to provide guidance for reservoir operations and managing flows that optimize the benefits from ecosystems in the flood plains and socio-economic activities on those. It provides guidance on the issues that need to be addressed in designing and operating reservoirs to meet the requirements of various users and uses along with the ecological needs . The tool highlights various aspects of reservoir operation and discusses possibilities how flows can be managed successfully to minimize their adverse impacts. As this tool exists in the second edition, it has been revised in order to ...PermalinkUganda has experienced a number of extreme weather and climate events in the form of floods and droughts. In a number of cases, flood events associated with heavy rainfall have been followed immediately by droughts that tend to persist for several seasons. These events have always had devastating impacts on various sectors of the country's economy. The impacts include destruction of infrastructure, loss of life and property and many other far reaching socio-economic impacts. The impact of these extreme events can be greatly reduced through good understanding of previous climatic events and the ...PermalinkThe 2011 Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction was prepared while disasters have continued to wipe out the lives and livelihoods of millions. The impacts of the catastrophic earthquake in Haiti in January 2010 and floods in Pakistan in July 2010 show how disaster risk and poverty are closely interlinked. Meanwhile, in 2011, floods in Australia, the earthquake in Christchurch, New Zealand, and the earthquake, tsunami and nuclear disaster wreaking havoc in north-eastern Japan as this report goes to press are a stark reminder that developed countries are also very exposed. Less visi ...PermalinkPermalinkThis disaster preparedness guide provides general information to help general public prepare for natural disasters, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, land slides, storms, floods and fires. The booklet gives a brief orientation on what to do before, during and after a disaster strikes and identifies useful procedures and emergency tools that can be used in the event of an emergency.PermalinkThe study objective of evaluating and costing the most suitable climate change adaptation measures responding to the Rwandan Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy, 2008-2012, in which climate change and its adverse impacts were recently identified as a high priority. The EDPRS highlights the establishment of criteria for secure settlements in the areas that are exposed to meteorological hazards, as well as the development and implementation of early warning systems to improve drought and food security. This study has particularly focused on coffee and banana farming systems and a ...PermalinkThis research paper aims to provide a brief overview of the frequency, distribution and impact of floods and storms in Viet Nam through a preliminary analysis of the historical disaster damage and loss database over the past twenty years. It is a first attempt to describe a number of spatial disaster patterns and trends over time in Viet Nam. It strongly makes the case for more in-depth spatial, temporal and geographical analysis of disaster patterns and trends combined with practical policy recommendations. The paper also highlights the need for disaggregated data up to district level for mor ...PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; Global Water Partnership (GWP); United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) - WMO, 2011This training manual addresses a broad spectrum of relevant issues in this emerging field of integrated urban flood management. It is expected to provide course participants and practitioners with best practice concepts and application with the intention to further inform and engage stakeholders in promoting integrated and cooperative approaches in water management in general. The manual integrates expertise from disciplines such as hydrology, sociology, economics, architecture, urban design, construction and water resources engineering and management. The subject is approached from an interna ...PermalinkThis document gives an introduction to the concepts related to disaster risk reduction (DRR): disaster, risk, hazard, vulnerability, copying capacity, resilience, emergency and disaster management, DRR and disaster risk management. It describes the interaction between hazards, vulnerability and disaster risk, then presents a detailed explanation of these concepts. It also introduces a framework for DRR and addresses cross-cutting issues such as development, governance, gender and climate change adaptation.Permalink
PermalinkNARRI, 2011This study intends to identify the baseline reference points to depict the existing scenario of the community people in light of all the indicators set forth in the sixth DIPECHO Action Plan for South Asia in Bangladesh undertaken by NARRI Consortium. It clusters three zones based on prominent hazards and highlights significant differences in the knowledge and practice of preparedness and mitigation measures, awareness and responses to warning signals in cyclone, flood-prone and earthquake prone areas. The study presents a set of recommendations in order to strengthen the programme and project ...PermalinkAssuming that capital productivity is higher in areas at risk from natural hazards (such as coastal zones or flood plains), this paper shows that rapid development in these areas -- and the resulting increase in disaster losses -- may be the consequence of a rational and well-informed trade-off between lower disaster losses and higher productivity. With disasters possibly becoming less frequent but increasingly destructive in the future, average disaster losses may grow faster than wealth. Myopic expectations, lack of information, moral hazard, and externalities reinforce the likelihood of thi ...PermalinkThis book presents lessons to be learned from Haiti with the aim of improving the health sector’s response in major, sudden-onset disasters in the future. It also identifies opportunities provided by the disaster for making significant changes in health services in Haiti. One of the key lessons of the Haiti tragedy is that coordination can only be effective where national authorities are equipped to assume leadership and establish relief and recovery priorities.PermalinkGEF, 2011One third of all African people live today in drought-prone areas, and 250 million are exposed to drought every year. "Land, Water, and Forests" is a publication that covers the topics of land degradation, deforestation, desertification and water scarcity in the cases of the Congo Basin, Lake Chad and the Sahel region.PermalinkThis publication focuses on the importance of education in disaster prevention and makes recommendations on how to support and build on local and national initiatives to reduce the risk of disasters through education. It provides a brief overview of major hazards and disaster risks in Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. It presents a snapshot of national disaster risk reduction structures and key legislations. It also briefly outlines disaster risk reduction activities related to education undertaken by national agencies and activities by UNISDR and UNICEF.PermalinkThis report addresses drought, which is considered the major disaster occurring in the Arab region, where the total people affected between the years 1970-2009 by drought is of about 38.09 million. The report focuses on Syria, considered one of the most economically affected countries by drought in the region. The case study provides information on historical droughts in the country between 2000-2010, including data on frequency, vulnerabilities and lessons learned with drought impacts.PermalinkAragón-Durand Fernando; Adaptation Fund Board (AFB); European Commission ; et al. - European Commission, 2011These proceedings outline the outcomes and conclusions of the regional workshop addressing disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation, inlcuding: panel discussions on a) Governability and development planning, b) Risk reduction measures and climate change adaptation, c) Post-disaster recovery; a field visit to the landslide risk areas in Tegucigalpa City; round-tables on experiences and lessons corresponding to the three discussion panels that were carried out in the City of Tegucigalpa, Honduras.PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; ANAMS ; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) - WMO, 2011Severe weather events in West Africa are associated mainly with meso-scale thunderstorms and squall lines. Forecasting such severe weather to reduce the risk of hazards is one of the challenges faced by many met services. However, the recent progress in the area of numerical weather prediction has enabled some countries to forecast these events in a better way.
Due to lack of capacity, many of the West African countries were not able to use numerical weather prediction systems effectively in their day to day forecasting activities. The CPC/African Desk has been playing big role in buil ...PermalinkFor developing countries, particularly LDCs (Least Developed Countries), this publication provides guidelines on enhancing the contribution of WMO and NMHSs (National Meteorological and Hydrological Services) to the achievement of the MDGs (Millenium Development Goals). Benefiting from the GFCS (Global Framework for Climate Services), NMHSs should be encouraged to use these guidelines, among others, to mainstream their activities, including generation and effective delivery of relevant weather-, climate- and water-related information and services into national sustainable development strategie ...Permalink
PermalinkMaplecroftís Climate Change and Environmental Risk Atlas provides analysis of the key risks to business in the four areas of: climate change vulnerability and adaptation; emissions and energy use; environmental regulation; and ecosystem services. Interactive maps and indices enable the identification, evaluation and comparison of risks, whilst subnational maps pinpoint vulnerability down to a 25km² scale.PermalinkSince 2007 Sompo Japan has been carrying out research on risk finance methods to respond to climate change together with organizations including Japan Bank for International Cooperation. As a result, Sompo Japan began offering Weather Index Insurance in Khon Kaen Province in northeast Thailand in January 2010. This product, which is one method of adaptation to climate change, aims to reduce damage caused by droughts for rice farmers who rely heavily on rainfall, by linking compensation to precipitation.PermalinkPermalinkUNESCO’s recently published report “From Green Economies to Green Societies” serves as an important contribution to the preparatory process of the UN Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio +20), to be held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil from 4-6 June 2012. It provides the Organization’s vision for Rio+20 and gives concrete examples demonstrating the Organization’s work to promote sustainable development. It also provides a roadmap for future action on how to build equitable, inclusive, green societies through education, the sciences, culture and communication and information.”PermalinkUNESCO’s recently published report “From Green Economies to Green Societies” serves as an important contribution to the preparatory process of the UN Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio +20), to be held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil from 4-6 June 2012. It provides the Organization’s vision for Rio+20 and gives concrete examples demonstrating the Organization’s work to promote sustainable development. It also provides a roadmap for future action on how to build equitable, inclusive, green societies through education, the sciences, culture and communication and information.”PermalinkUNICEF, 2011PermalinkTypically, climate change is described in terms of average changes in temperature or precipitation, but most of the social and economic costs associated with climate change will result from shifts in the frequency and severity of extreme events. This fact is illustrated by a large number of costly weather disasters in 2010, which tied 2005 as the warmest year globally since 1880. Incidentally, both years were noted for exceptionally damaging weather events, such as Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the deadly Russian heat wave in 2010. Other remarkable events of 2010 include Pakistan’s bigge ...PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) - WMO, 2011PermalinkThis paper constructs an integrated assessment model of tropical cyclones in order to quantify the impact that climate change may have on tropical cyclone damages in countries around the world. The paper relies on a tropical cyclone generator in each ocean and several climate models to predict tropical cyclones with and without climate change. A damage model is constructed to compute the resulting damage when a cyclone strikes each country. Economic development is expected to double global tropical cyclone damages because more will be in harm's way. Climate change is expected to double global ...PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; George Mason University ; Environmental Science and Technology Center (ESTC); et al. - WMO, 2011Droughts produce a large number of socio-economic impacts which may arise from the interaction between natural conditions and human factors. There is growing evidence that the frequency and extent of drought has increased as a result of global warming. Some information on the current droughts in 2011 around the world in the Horn of Africa, China, Texas in the US, and England and Wales is presented. The context of current droughts calls for pro-active future actions to cope with droughts. National governments must adopt policies that engender cooperation and coordination at all levels ...PermalinkIISD, 2011PermalinkMore than two billion people depend on the world’s arid and semi-arid lands. Preventing land degradation and supporting sustainable development in drylands has major implications for food security, climate change and human settlement. This report, issued at the beginning of the United Nations Decade for Deserts and the Fight against Desertification, sets out a shared strategy by UN agencies to rise to the challenge of addressing the special needs of these vital zones. Our focus is twofold: tackling the underlying causes of land degradation, and strengthening the capacity of dryland populations ...PermalinkThis paper briefly reviews some aspects of the current status of research on changes in climate extremes, identifying gaps and issues that warrant additional work. This paper focuses primarily on the historical instrumental record, giving a sense of the nature of the results that have been obtained, challenges that arise from observational, methodological and climate modelling uncertainties and discussing the extent to which detection and attribution research has been able to link observed changes to external forcing of the climate system. It also very briefly discusses projections for the 21s ...PermalinkThis study aims to analyse climate related disasters risk reduction governance in the European context. There will be a particular focus on the flow of information from researchers to policy makers and the way in which the decision-making process in climate adaptation and risk reduction is commonly managed. The study will confine itself to Europe and will look into practical cases of European regional and national adaptation strategies. It will also investigate specific projects and initiatives addressing Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR).PermalinkA key aim of the Norwegian Development Fund is to increase the adaptive capacity of marginalised rural poor farmers and pastoralists in the South. The focus country of this project study, Ethiopia, has a legacy of variable and unpredictable rainfall, causing frequent droughts and heavy floods, undermining local as well as national food and water security. The analysis in this paper is based mainly on interview data collected in two sites in Afar as well as insights from past studies in the region as documented in published literature. Some of the key issues identified for Afar are followed u ...PermalinkUnusual or extreme weather and climate-related events are of great public concern and interest, yet there are often conflicting messages from scientists about whether such events can be linked to climate change. There is clear evidence that climate has changed as a result of human-induced greenhouse gas emissions, and that across the globe some aspects of extremes have changed as a result. But this does not imply that the probability of occurrence (or, given a fixed damage, risk) of a specific type of recently observed weather or climate event has changed significantly as a result of human in ...PermalinkEarthquakes, floods, droughts, storms: disasters seem to occur unexpectedly and with unimaginable force. But why do some countries better succeed than others to cope with extreme natural events? The WorldRiskReport 2011 helps to evaluate the vulnerability of societies to natural hazards. On behalf of Alliance Development Works, UNU-EHS has developed the WorldRiskIndex and calculated risk values for 173 countries worldwide.PermalinkThe Manual on Flood Forecasting and Warning provides the basic knowledge and guidance to develop or to set up an appropriate and tailored system for any case in which a flood forecasting and warning system is required. The aim is to provide a succinct but comprehensive overview of the basic knowledge and information that the relevant personnel of the National Meteorological or Hydrometeorological Services or other flood management service should require.PermalinkThis report was prepared to provide a snapshot of how disaster risk reduction (DRR) and climate change adaptation (CCA) are undertaken and integrated, if at all, in the Asia Pacific region. It does so by taking stock of past and ongoing regional initiatives and by looking into the role of certain organizations in the implementation process. It also discusses key developments in three areas—political, policy and institutional—which are instrumental in facilitating the integration of DRR and CCA agendas in the region. Concluding remarks and next steps to push the integration forward are presente ...PermalinkUNEP, 2011The report highlights water, agriculture, energy and climate change issues in Central Asia’s Amu Darya River Basin.PermalinkIISD, 2011On Friday, 13 May, Margareta Wahlström, UN Special Representative for Disaster Risk Reduction, introduced in plenary the Chair's Summary, which highlighted the consensus points from the discussions that had taken place over the course of the week. She said the next challenge is to assist countries and communities in implementing disaster risk reduction.PermalinkThe Report is the second biennial global assessment of disaster risk reduction prepared in the context of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR). The ISDR, launched in 2000, provides a framework to coordinate actions to address disaster risks at the local, national, regional and international levels. The Hyogo Framework for Action for Action 2005-2015 (HFA), endorsed by 168 UN member states at the World Conference on Disaster Reduction in Kobe, Japan in 2005, urges all countries to make major efforts to reduce their disaster risk by 2015PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; Motha Raymond P.; Wilhite Donald A.; et al. - WMO, 2011 (WMO/TD-No. 1572)The Murcia Expert Meeting is based on the outcomes of the Regional Workshop on Indices and Early Warning Systems for Drought which was held at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln in December, 2009. At the Lincoln workshop, drought experts examined what indices are used for meteorological, agricultural and hydrological drought and developed the Lincoln Declaration on Drought Indices. There was a consensus agreement that the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) should be used to characterize meteorological droughts by all NMHSs around the world. Several other of the recommendations formt eh Lin ...PermalinkDevastating climate and weather-related events recorded in recent years have captured public interest. This brochure provides a sample of extreme events for the past decade (2001-2010), including an A3 map, and reviews whether these extreme events are consistent with scientific assessments of climate.PermalinkWorld Economic Forum, 2011There are three “clusters” of risks that will create significant liabilities during the coming decade, according to the report, which was compiled after a survey of about 580 respondents and will form a starting point for risk-based discussions at the upcoming WEF meeting of global business and political leaders at Davos and Klosters, Switzerland, later this month.
Those clusters are macroeconomic risks, including unfunded social liabilities and weak financial markets; the illegal economy, including organized crime and corruption; and limits to growth caused by lack of resources ...PermalinkLe Manuel sur la prévision et l’annonce des crues présente les éléments de connaissance et d’orientation indispensables au développement ou à la création d’un système approprié et adapté, quel que soit le cas où un système de prévision et d’annonce de crues s’impose. Il propose un tour d’horizon, à la fois succinct et fouillé, des connaissances et des renseignements dont pourrait avoir besoin le personnel compétent des Services météorologiques et hydrologiques nationaux ou d’autres services de gestion des crues. Il s’appuie sur les résultats d’importantes missions de recherche et de consultati ...PermalinkPour les pays en développement, en particulier les PMA (Pays les moins avancés), cette publication fournit des lignes directrices visant à renforcer la contribution de l'OMM et des SMHN (Services météorologiques et hydrologiques nationaux) à la réalisation des OMD (Objectifs du Millénaire pour le développement). Bénéficiant du CMSC (Cadre mondial pour les services climatologiques), les SMHN devraient être encouragés à se fonder sur ces lignes directrices pour notamment inscrire leurs activités, y compris la production et la fourniture effective d'informations et de services météorologiques, ...PermalinkСвязанные с погодой и климатом разрушительные события, зарегистриро-ванные в последние годы, привлекли внимание широкой общественности, правительств и средств массовой информации. В настоящей брошюре приводится ряд примеров экстремальных явлений, произошедших за по- следнее десятилетие (2001-2010 гг.). Некоторые из этих явлений были сравнимы с наиболее значительными событиями прошлых лет или превос- ходили их по интенсивности, продолжительности или географической про- тяженности.PermalinkCiertos fenómenos climáticos y meteorológicos devastadores registrados en los últimos años han atraído la atención del público en general, de los gobiernos y de los medios de comunicación. En el presente folleto se ofrece una muestra de los fenómenos extremos des último decenio (2001-2010). Algunos de ellos han sido equiparables -o más graves incluso en intensidad, duración o extensión geográfica- a los históricamente más importantes.PermalinkLes catastrophes d’origine climatique et météorologique qui secouent la planète depuis quelques années attirent l’attention du public, des gouvernements et des médias. La présente brochure donne un aperçu des phénomènes extrêmes qui ont eu lieu au cours de la dernière décennie (2001–2010). Certains se comparent aux événements les plus importants survenus dans l’histoire, voire les dépassent en intensité, durée ou étendue.PermalinkPermalinkEl Manual sobre predicción y avisos de crecidas ofrece los conocimientos y la orientación básicos necesarios para elaborar o implantar un sistema de predicción y aviso de crecidas adecuado y adaptado a cada situación. El objetivo es describir, de manera resumida pero completa, la información y los conocimientos básicos que debe tener el personal competente de los Servicios Meteorológicos e Hidrológicos Nacionales u otro servicio de gestión de crecidas. El Manual se basa en la información más reciente obtenida en actividades de primera línea de investigación y asesoría de todo el mundo e incluy ...PermalinkPermalinkالأمم المتحدة, 2011إن اإلصدار الثاني من تقرير التقييم العاملي بشأن احلد من مخاطر الكوارث الصادر عن األمم املتحدة يعتبر مصدراً لفهم وحتليل اخملاطر العاملية للكوارث في احلاضر واملستقبل. وتواصل الكوارث الكبيرة والصغيرة، من كارثة زلزال هايتي في يناير/كانون الثاني 2010 لتأثيرات الفيضانات األخيرة في بلدان مثل بنني والبرازيل، توضيح العالقة الوثيقة بني الكوارث والفقرPermalinkNaciones Unidas, 2011Esta segunda edición del Informe de evaluación global sobre la reducción del riesgo de desastres de las Naciones Unidas proporciona un recurso para comprender y analizar el riesgo global de desastres hoy y en el futuro. Los desastres grandes y pequeños, desde la catástrofe de Haití en enero de 2010 hasta los impactos recientes de las inundaciones en países como Benín o Brasil, siguen demostrando la estrecha relación que existe entre los desastres y la pobreza.PermalinkIDB, 2011Este documento contiene los indicadores de riesgos de desastres y gestión del riesgo calculados para El Salvador (IDD, IVP, IDL e IGR) según la metodología desarrollada por el Banco. Este documento se refiere forma el Sistema de Indicadores cubre diferentes perspectivas de la problemática de riesgos de El Salvador y tiene en cuenta aspectos como: condiciones de daño o pérdidas potenciales debido a la probabilidad de eventos extremos, desastres o efectos sufridos de manera recurrente, condiciones socio-ambientales que facilitan que se presenten desastres, capacidad de recuperación macroeconómic ...PermalinkOrganización Meteorológica Mundial (OMM); Panel Intergubernamental sobre Cambio Climático (IPCC); Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo (PNUD) - IPCC, 2011PermalinkOrganisation météorologique mondiale (OMM); Groupe d'Experts Intergouvernemental sur l'Evolution du Climat (GIEC); Programme des Nations Unies pour l'environnement (PNUE) - GIEC, 2011PermalinkNations Unies, 2011La deuxième édition du Bilan mondial sur la réduction des risques de catastrophe des Nations Unies est une ressource permettant de comprendre et d’analyser les risques de catastrophe à l’échelle mondiale aujourd’hui et à l’avenir. Des catastrophes plus ou moins graves, du séisme survenu en Haïti en janvier 2010 aux impacts récents des inondations dans des pays comme le Bénin ou le Brésil, continuent à mettre en évidence les rapports étroits entre les catastrophes et la pauvreté.PermalinkIPCC, 2011PermalinkPermalinkPermalink