This report distills the main findings of five case studies, with the goal of emphasizing key institutions and the interactions of non-climate and climate factors in each country or city. The case studies focused on four basic research questions: 1. Does (or could) climate change/variability contribute to the conditions for organized, political violence? 2. Does climate change/variability contribute to circumstances with high-conflict potential linked to the access and use of natural (or economic) resources by specific livelihood groups, identity groups, or urban dwellers? If so, how and why? ...Published by: USAID ; 2014
This report distills the main findings of five case studies, with the goal of emphasizing key institutions and the interactions of non-climate and climate factors in each country or city. The case studies focused on four basic research questions: 1. Does (or could) climate change/variability contribute to the conditions for organized, political violence? 2. Does climate change/variability contribute to circumstances with high-conflict potential linked to the access and use of natural (or economic) resources by specific livelihood groups, identity groups, or urban dwellers? If so, how and why? 3. What is the relationship of either of these with resilience? 4. What are possible programmatic options or approaches to enable USAID (or others) to invest more effectively in programs or initiatives to build resilience and prevent or mitigate conflict?
Format: Digital (Free)These guidelines review the rationale for hydrological data rescue, the benefits to be derived therefrom, appropriate rescue methods, sound data management practices as well as data management systems, procedures for securing rescued data far into the future and for safeguarding data through storage in an international database.Published by: WMO ; 2014
These guidelines review the rationale for hydrological data rescue, the benefits to be derived therefrom, appropriate rescue methods, sound data management practices as well as data management systems, procedures for securing rescued data far into the future and for safeguarding data through storage in an international database.
Collection(s) and Series: WMO- No. 1146
Format: Digital (Free)
ISBN (or other code): 978-92-63-11146-3United Nations, 2014This document provides some recommendations for addressing disaster risk in tourism in the post-2015 framework for disaster risk reduction. It presents: (i) status of mainstreaming disaster risk reduction in tourism; (ii) the drivers for mainstreaming disaster risk reduction into the tourism sector; (iii) recommendations for addressing disaster risk in tourism in the post-2015 framework for disaster risk reduction; (iv) measuring disaster risk in tourism; (v) a list of agencies contributing and a brief description of institutional commitment; and (vi) key documents/source of additional info.Published by: United Nations ; 2014
Tourism and disaster risk: a contribution by the United Nations to the consultation leading to the Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR)
This document provides some recommendations for addressing disaster risk in tourism in the post-2015 framework for disaster risk reduction. It presents: (i) status of mainstreaming disaster risk reduction in tourism; (ii) the drivers for mainstreaming disaster risk reduction into the tourism sector; (iii) recommendations for addressing disaster risk in tourism in the post-2015 framework for disaster risk reduction; (iv) measuring disaster risk in tourism; (v) a list of agencies contributing and a brief description of institutional commitment; and (vi) key documents/source of additional info.
Format: Digital (Free)United Nations, 2014Published by: United Nations ; 2014
How the United Nations System Supports Ambitious Action on Climate Change: The United Nations System Delivering as One on Climate Change and Sustainable Development
Language(s): English; Other Languages: Spanish
Format: Digital (Free)This report argues that investment in climate change adaptation can help ensure that the impacts of climate change do not reverse decades of development progress in Africa.
It presents practical examples of successful low-cost adaptation solutions from around sub-Saharan Africa. The report includes examples of successful adaptation projects that have provided the impetus for large-scale government investments and policy action. According to the report, by 2050 Africa's population will have doubled to 2 billion people, the majority of which will still largely depend on agriculture for th ...Published by: UNDP ; 2014
This report argues that investment in climate change adaptation can help ensure that the impacts of climate change do not reverse decades of development progress in Africa.
It presents practical examples of successful low-cost adaptation solutions from around sub-Saharan Africa. The report includes examples of successful adaptation projects that have provided the impetus for large-scale government investments and policy action. According to the report, by 2050 Africa's population will have doubled to 2 billion people, the majority of which will still largely depend on agriculture for their livelihoods. The first part of the report provides snapshots of the current and predicted future impacts of climate change on livelihoods, agriculture, and human and ecosystem health in Africa, detailing impacts by region, country and city. The second half of the report describes how countries through low-cost climate adaptation actions can improve the health and functioning of ecosystems; build community capacity to sustainably manage ecosystems; improve agricultural productivity; and innovatively store water.
Format: Digital (Free)International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) ; United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) - UNDP, 2014This report considers the extent to which disaster risk reduction (DRR) is mainstreamed into the disaster risk management laws and institutions in Madagascar. It identifies key laws and regulations in the area of disaster risk management (DRM), especially those applicable nationwide. It finds that these legal frameworks currently focus more on response and recovery than on prevention and DRR. Legislation also provides for DRM bodies at all levels of government administration, including at the community level, although the establishment and effective functioning of these bodies remains a challe ...PermalinkThe Atlas of Mortality and Economic Losses from Weather, Climate and Water Extremes (1970–2012) seeks to raise awareness of these and other challenges to collecting and analysing disaster risk information. It presents a worldwide analysis of extreme weather, climate and water events, drawing on the Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT), compiled by the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED). The Atlas compares the reported impacts of meteorological, climatic and hydrological extremes (as categorized by CRED) on people and economies at both global and regional levels.PermalinkThis topic guide focuses on resilience to natural hazards, with emphasis on humanitarian action, in fragile and conflict-afflicted states as well as in other contexts. Although some principles are common to both contexts, there remains a high level of uncertainty about how to build resilience in adverse political economies. The document is a useful guide for policymakers and practitioners synthesizing the evidence, approaches and lessons that emerge from the literature.PermalinkWMO Members recognize the importance of providing high-quality delivery of weather-, climate-, water- and environment- related services. WMO facilitates international coordination, sets standards for meteorological and hydrological products and provides guidance on service delivery. While some great success has been achieved in this regard, Members have agreed that a more uniform and structured approach to service development and delivery is required. As a result, the WMO Strategy for Service Delivery (the Strategy) was approved at the sixteenth session of the World Meteorological Congress (Ma ...PermalinkGlobal Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery, the ; Switzerland Government - World Bank, 2014This report aims to support the Government of Morocco in the development of an integrated risk management strategy. The report summarizes methodologies, data, assumptions, results, comparative analyses, international benchmarks and other aspects of Morocco’s risks.
Developing and adopting a national strategy for integrated risk management (IRM) will not only make Morocco better prepared to avoid future crises, and be more reactive and resilient if/when they occur, but also allow the government to make more informed decisions on overall resource allocation and prioritization.PermalinkThe development of these Guidelines was prompted by the need to establish some common understanding, as well as rules and procedures, for those engaged in the preparation and promulgation of regulatory material in WMO. Their purpose therefore is to lay out principles and procedures with a view to improving the quality of the WMO Technical Regulations, Volume I to Volume IV and their annexes (manuals) and guides and ensure their consistency. The Guidelines are addressed to both technical commissions and other bodies drafting regulatory provisions (such as the Executive Council Panel of Experts ...PermalinkCe guide présente certains des systèmes d’observation existants qui sont susceptibles de répondre aux exigences pratiques de la météorologie aéronautique et donne des indications sur les systèmes que l’on juge les mieux adaptés aux différents contextes. Il préconise l’adoption, s’il y a lieu, des normes promulguées par l’OMM et l’Organisation de l’aviation civile internationale (OACI). Enfin, il aborde l’importante question du coût de la fourniture des observations en regard des avantages mesurables que l’on compte retirer d’une application donnée.PermalinkThis Guide presents some of the observing systems currently available to meet the stated operational requirements in aeronautical meteorology and provides guidance on the ones deemed most appropriate under different circumstances. Where applicable, the Guide encourages the adoption of WMO/International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) standards. An important issue considered is the cost of the provision of observations in relation to the expected measurable benefits to be derived from a particular application.PermalinkOrganización Meteorológica Mundial (OMM); Всемирная Метеорологическая Организация (BMO) - WMO, 2014 (WMO-No. 259)This document provides snapshot of the WMO Sea Ice Nomenclature (WMO No. 259, volume 1 – Terminology and Codes, Volume II – Illustrated Glossary and III – International System of Sea-Ice Symbols) by March 2014 (5th Session of JCOMM Expert Team on Sea Ice)PermalinkCuốn sách này giới thiệu một cách sơ lược về sự nghiệp khí tượng.
Năm 2007, Ủy ban liên chính phủ về biến đổi khí hậu (IPCC), được thành lập bởi Tổ chức Khí tượng thế giới (WMO) và Chương trình liên hợp quốc về môi trường, đã dành giải Nobel hòa bình. Ngày nay, thời tiết và khí hậu đang được đặt nổi bật trong sự phát triển của Mục tiêu phát triển bền vững của liên hợp quốc sau năm 2015 và của Khung hành động Hyogo về giảm rủi ro thiên tai giai đoạn sau 2015.PermalinkOrganisation météorologique mondiale (OMM); Global Water Partnership (GWP) - OMM, 2014 (OMM-No. 1164)La mise en oeuvre d’une politique nationale de gestion de la sécheresse fondée sur le principe de la réduction des risques peut exiger de revoir les dispositions prises jusqu’alors en vue d’atténuer les impacts correspondants. Ce constat a conduit l’Organisation météorologique mondiale (OMM), le Secrétariat de la Convention des Nations Unies sur la lutte contre la désertification (CNULCD) et l’Organisation des Nations Unies pour l’alimentation et l’agriculture (FAO) à tenir du 11 au 15 mars 2013, à Genève, la Réunion de haut niveau sur les politiques nationales en matière de sécheresse, en col ...PermalinkLes Membres de l’OMM savent l’importance que revêt la qualité de la prestation de services liés au temps, au climat, à l’eau et à l’environnement. L’Organisation facilite la coordination internationale, fixe des normes pour les produits météorologiques et hydrologiques et guide la prestation de services. Bien que de grands progrès aient été accomplis à cet égard, les Membres ont estimé qu’il fallait uniformiser et structurer davantage l’élaboration et la fourniture des services. En conséquence, le Seizième Congrès météorologique mondial (mai–juin 2011) a approuvé la Stratégie de l’OMM en matiè ...PermalinkВсемирная Метеорологическая Организация (BMO); Global Water Partnership (GWP) - BMO, 2014 (BMO-No. 1164)Осуществление политики в отношении засухи, основанной на философии, заключающейся в уменьшении риска, может изменить национальный подход к борьбе с засухой за счет уменьшения соответствующих последствий (риска). Именно эта идея вдохновила Всемирную Метеорологическую Организацию (ВМО), Секретариат Конвенции Организации Объединенных Наций по борьбе с опустыниванием (КБОООН) и Продовольственную и сельскохозяйственную организацию Объединенных Наций (ФАО) в сотрудничестве с рядом учреждений ООН, международных и региональных организаций и ключевых национальных агентств на организацию и проведение Со ...Permalinkالمنظمة العالمية للأرصاد ; Global Water Partnership (GWP) - المنظمة العالمية للأرصاد, 2014 (مجموعة مطبوعات المنظمة-No. 1164)إن تنفيذ سياسة بشأن الجفاف تستند إلى فلسفة الحد من المخاطر يمكن أن يغيّر النهج الذي تتبعه أي دولة في ما يتعلق بإدارة الجفاف وذلك بتقليل الآثار ذات الصلة )بالمخاطر(. وقد كانت هذه هي الفكرة التي دفعت المنظمة العالمية للأرصاد الجوية WMO( (، وأمانة اتفاقية الأمم المتحدة بشأن مكافحة التصحر ) UNCCD (، ومنظمة الأغذية والزراعة للأمم المتحدة ) FAO ( إلى القيام، بالتعاون مع عدد وكالات الأمم المتحدة والمنظمات الدولية والإقليمية والوكالات الوطنية الرئيسية، بتنظيم الاجتماع الرفيع المستوى المعني بالسياسات الوطنية بشأن الجفاف HMNDP( (، الذي عُقد في جنيف من 11 إلى 15 آذار/ مارس 2013 . وكان موضوع ذلك الاجتماع ...Permalink实施基于降低风险理念的干旱政策能 够通过降低相关影响（风险）而改变国家的 干旱管理方式。正是这一理念促使世界气 象组织（WMO）、联合国防治荒漠化公约 （UNCCD）秘书处以及联合国粮食及农业 组织（FAO）与一些联合国机构、国际和区 域组织以及主要的国家机构合作，于2013 年3月11-15日在日内瓦召开了国家干旱政策 高级别会议（HMNDP）。HMNDP的主题 是‘降低社会脆弱性 – 帮助社会（社区和行 业）’。[...]PermalinkOrganización Meteorológica Mundial (OMM); Asociación Mundial para el Agua (GWP) - OMM, 2014 (OMM-No. 1164)La aplicación de una política sobre la sequía basada en la filosofía de la reducción de los riesgos puede modificar el enfoque de la gestión de la sequía por los países mediante la reducción de los efectos conexos (riesgo). Esta es la idea que motivó a la Organización Meteorológica Mundial (OMM), la secretaría de la Convención de las Naciones Unidas de Lucha contra la Desertificación y la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Alimentación y la Agricultura (FAO), en colaboración con diversos organismos de las Naciones Unidas, organizaciones internacionales y regionales y organismos nacion ...PermalinkСтраны — члены ВМО признают важность предоставления высококачественного обслуживания в области погоды, климата, воды и окружающей среды. ВМО содействует международной координации усилий, устанавливает стандарты для метеорологической и гидрологической продукции и обеспечивает руководство по предоставлению обслуживания. Несмотря на то, что в этом отношении были достигнуты определенные значительные успехи, страны-члены согласились с тем, что требуется более единообразный и структурированный подход к развитию и предоставлению обслуживания.PermalinkLos Miembros de la OMM reconocen la importancia de proporcionar una prestación de servicios meteorológicos, climatológicos, hidrológicos y medioambientales de alta calidad. La Organización facilita la coordinación internacional, establece normas para los productos meteorológicos e hidrológicos, y proporciona orientaciones sobre la prestación de servicios. Aunque se han logrado grandes progresos en este sentido, los Miembros convinieron en que era necesario un enfoque más uniforme y estructurado de la elaboración y prestación de servicios. Como resultado, se aprobó la Estrategia de prestación d ...PermalinkNaciones Unidas, 2014PermalinkВ настоящем Руководстве представлены некоторые из систем наблюдений, которые в
настоящее время имеются для удовлетворения заявленных оперативных потребностей в
области авиационной метеорологии, а также представлены рекомендации по системам,
наиболее подходящим для использования в различных обстоятельствах. Когда это
необходимо, Руководство стимулирует принятие стандартов ВМО и Международной
организации гражданской авиации (ИКАО). Важным рассмотренным вопросом является
стоимость обеспечения наблюдений относительно ожидаемых измеримых выгод,
получ ...PermalinkLa presente Guía tiene por objeto describir diversos sistemas de observación actualmente en funcionamiento que responden a los requisitos operacionales establecidos y proponer sistemas que podrían ser más adecuados en función de circunstancias específicas. Si bien no se pretende aquí proponer ningún sistema de observación en particular, se alienta a adoptar las normas pertinentes de la Organización Meteorológica Mundial (OMM) cuando proceda. En la elaboración de estas directrices se ha tenido en cuenta en todo momento el costo de adquisición y los beneficios cuantificables que podrían derivars ...PermalinkPermalinkPermalinkOrganisation météorologique mondiale (OMM); Organisation de l'Aviation Civile Internationale (OACI) - OMM, 2014 (Edition 2011 mise à jour en 2014; OMM-No. 1001)PermalinkOrganización Meteorológica Mundial (OMM); Organización de Aviación Civil Internacional (OACI) - OMM, 2014 (Edición de 2011. Actualización de 2014; OMM-No. 1001)PermalinkPermalinkPermalinkPermalinkPermalink
PermalinkEl cambio climático es tan duro con la economía como lo es con la sociedad. Los eventos meteorológicos y climatológicos extremos se han cobrado un alto precio en los últimos años, llevándose cientos de miles de vidas y causando pérdidas económicas por encima de 380 000 millones de dólares de Estados Unidos —una cifra que se espera se duplique cada 12 años—.PermalinkBoletín, Vol. 61(2). OMM, 2013¿Cuál sería la eficacia y el coste de una política para mitigar el cambio climático causado por el ser humano? ¿Qué ventajas y riesgos conlleva el esperar a una mejor comprensión por parte de la ciencia?PermalinkThe three main operational components of daily weather production systems are real-time observing and data collection, routine global exchange of data and information and the systematic operational processing of data to produce meteorological analyses, numerical weather predictions (NWP) and weather forecasts and warnings. Thus, these three components – the Global Observing System (GOS), the WMO Information System (WIS), and the Global Data-processing and Forecasting System (GDPFS) – have formed the backbone of the World Weather Watch (WWW) System.PermalinkTwo fundamental requirements for effective running of the World Weather Watch (WWW) are adequacy of human resources and of physical infrastructure. When the WWW was established in the 1960s, these two requirements formed the most important obstacles for WMO and its partners to deliver an efficient and effective cooperation framework for global weather monitoring. Since the inception of the WWW, WMO has cooperated with diverse partners in order to respond to the human resources needs of developing countries through its Education and Training Programme. Through strategic interventions considerab ...PermalinkВ этой статье вкратце рассматривается вопрос о том, какую пользу может принести для смягчения изменения климата достижение целей Инициативы Организации Объединенных Наций Устойчивая энергетика для всех.PermalinkThis report addresses the main policy relevant questions about climate change adaptation in the Mediterranean region and provides answers based on a theoretical framework applied to the case of three Mediterranean countries, namely Turkey, Egypt and Tunisia. The first sections deals with adaptation to climate change from a theoretical viewpoint, covering not only economic issues, but also fairness and international agreements on mitigation and adaptation.
The second part makes use of the conceptual framework developed in the theoretical discussion to analyse the adaptation-rela ...PermalinkThe GCOS Reference Upper‐Air Network (GRUAN) guide provides both mandatory operating requirements and guidelines on how to achieve the operating protocols specified in the GRUAN Manual (GCOS‐170). Mandatory operating protocols are distinguished by the words “must” or “shall” while guidelines are distinguished by the words “could” or “should”. The primary goals of GRUAN are to provide vertical profiles of reference measurements suitable for reliably detecting changes in global and regional climate on decadal time scales, initially for temperature, pressure and water vapour, with ...PermalinkThis GCOS (Global Climate Observing System) Reference Upper‐Air Network (GRUAN) Manual describes mandatory operating protocols (distinguished by use of the words “must” or “shall”) which describe what is expected of participating sites, the GRUAN Lead Centre, and the Working Group on GRUAN (WG‐GRUAN) to achieve the goals of GRUAN. These protocols have the status of requirements in a technical resolution, which sites within GRUAN are expected to follow or implement.PermalinkDrawing upon several sources of information and types of analysis, including literature reviews, field visits and rapid participatory assessments, this paper provides a critical assessment of land-related development policies and projects over the past two decades in Central America. Reflections on past land-related development policies and projects in Central America are based on their contributions to growth and poverty reduction. The paper calls for future projects to better integrate poverty reduction and development goals, natural resource management, disaster risk management and climate ...PermalinkThe hazards associated with convective systems present some of the most dangerous conditions encountered by aircraft and pose many challenges to aviation operations. When convection is forecast to develop, aviation forecasters are required to issue a series of warning messages and other meteorological aeronautical products to various members of the aviation community. This lesson teaches these forecasters how to produce the products, doing so in the context of a case study in which learners assume the role of aeronautical forecaster on duty at the airport in Niamey, Niger on a night when conve ...PermalinkThis lesson describes current and future satellites sensors and products used for monitoring the fire cycle, with an emphasis on polar-orbiting satellites. Product information is presented in the context of the fire lifecycle: from assessing the pre- and post-fire environment to detecting and monitoring active fires, smoke, and aerosols. Product information is also consolidated in the Fire Product Suite. The lesson concludes with an interactive fire case study, supplemented with observations from a National Weather Service trainer/forecaster who experienced the fire. The lesson is intended for ...PermalinkTurbulence is a major concern for the aviation industry. It often goes undetected in cloud-free areas, catching pilots off guard when they fly into it. Turbulence can injure passengers and crew, and cause structural damage to aircraft. This makes it critical for aviation weather forecasters to closely monitor the atmosphere for signs of turbulence and issue special warnings when it is likely to be present. This lesson helps prepare forecasters for these tasks by providing general information about turbulence and showing them how to detect it using satellite imagery, tephigrams, and NWP product ...PermalinkThis lesson provides an overview of meteorological and environmental RGB products, namely, how they are constructed and how to use them. The first half provides background information on the RGB development process and the rapid evolution of RGB products as newer geostationary and polar-orbiting satellite imagers incorporate additional spectral channels. The second half of the lesson, the Applications section, focuses on the formulation and uses of RGB products; providing examples, interpretation exercises, satellite specific information, and other background information for many of the common ...PermalinkWriting TAFs for Ceilings and Visibility, Africa Edition outlines the processes for developing an effective Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (TAF) that meets International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) guidelines. Geared specifically to forecasters in Africa, the lesson includes a case study for an event impacting Cape Town International Airport to provide practice applying the processes to real-life forecast situations.PermalinkThis module provides examples of radar imagery from various locations in the Caribbean to demonstrate the different types of images available. Also, examples of different meteorological and non meteorological features are presented to show features seen in island locations.PermalinkThis module provides an introduction to the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea for weather forecasters. It focuses on major aspects of the geography, oceanography, and climatology. Geography covers major political boundaries, cities, ports, topographical features, rivers, and volcanic areas. Oceanography includes major bathymetric features, mean sea surface temperature and surface salinity, ocean currents, and tidal ranges. Climatology covers the seasonal climatology of jet streams and synoptic weather systems, extratropical cyclones in the Gulf of Mexico, and monthly and seasonal statistics of ...PermalinkThis module applies concepts covered in the module, Fog: Its Processes and Impacts to Aviation. It examines the fog processes at a tropical location: Guyana. A basic overview of the main fog types is provided, and then a detailed analysis is done for a representative fog event at the Cheddi Jagan International Airport in Guyana. Conclusions are made about fog processes in Guyana which can then be applied to forecasting for aviation impacts.PermalinkIt is our common experience to observe that the lowest levels of the atmosphere cool down more slowly on humid nights than on dry nights. When the sky is cloudy we observe the atmosphere to cool even more slowly. Can longwave radiation fluxes alone explain these observations? This learning object uses a simple interactive model to demonstrate the role of radiation in nighttime cooling. As a learning object, it is meant to supplement other teaching material in a course by elucidating a specific concept. By adjusting the emissivity and temperature of earth and atmospheric layers, the student can ...PermalinkThis module is a learning object on a foundational aspect of dynamic meteorology, the pressure gradient force. As a learning object, it is meant to supplement other teaching material in a course by elucidating a specific concept. The horizontal pressure gradient force is presented through an interactive tool which allows a student to adjust pressures on an idealized surface map and examine the horizontal accelerations produced in response. Three short exercises are provided to reinforce the concepts.PermalinkClimate information can be used as guidance for a range of weather-dependent operations. This module summarizes the Climate Analysis Process, a series of steps for determining which climatological products and data will be most useful for a specified application. The Climate Analysis Process is followed in the context of preparing a climatological brief for a ship deployment across multiple ocean basins. Though the focus is on Department of Defense data sources, including the Advanced Climate Analysis and Forecasting (ACAF) system, information on other sources is also provided. Products from t ...PermalinkThis lesson aims to improve aviation forecasts of fog in the African airspace by teaching forecasters to make more accurate forecasts using satellite imagery, numerical weather prediction, and other available data. A process for diagnosing and forecasting fog is presented and applied to a case over the Nairobi, Kenya region. Learners assume the role of aviation forecaster, analysing various products to determine whether the current Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (TAF) is valid or needs to be amended. The lesson is intended for aviation forecasters, general weather forecasters interested in aviati ...PermalinkThis lesson introduces the VIIRS imager that operates on the current U.S. Suomi NPP satellite and is planned for future JPSS environmental satellites. VIIRS has many advanced features that improve both spectral and spatial resolution and enable the delivery of consistent, high quality, and high resolution data to users worldwide. The lesson covers the enhanced capabilities of VIIRS and highlights some of its applications. These include single channel and multispectral products used to monitor dust, volcanic ash, convection, fog and low clouds, sea surface temperature, tropical cyclones, contra ...PermalinkThis module provides an introduction to ensemble forecast systems with an operational case study of Hurricane Sandy. The module concentrates on models from NCEP and FNMOC available to forecasters in the U.S. Navy, including NAEFS (North American Ensemble Forecast System), and NUOPC (National Unified Operational Prediction Capability). Probabilistic forecasts of winds and waves developed from these ensemble forecast systems are applied to a ship transit and coastal resource protection. Lessons integrated in the case study provide information on ensemble statistics, products, bias correction and ...PermalinkThe module provides a brief overview of severe local storms in the tropics. Basic ingredients for thunderstorms and assessment of thunderstorm potential from soundings are described. Then properties and hazards of ordinary thunderstorms, multicellular thunderstorms, supercells are reviewed. Conditions conducive to supercell formation in the tropics are examined along with methods of identifying them in radar and satellite images. Supercell and non-supercell tornado properties and formation are described. Finally, tornadoes, waterspouts, and dust devils properties are compared.PermalinkThis module presents radar case studies taken from events in the Caribbean that highlight radar signatures of severe weather. These cases include examples of deep convection, squall lines, bow echoes, tornadoes, and heavy rain resulting in flooding. Each case study includes a discussion of the conceptual models of each type of event as a review before showing the radar signatures and allowing the learner to analyze each one.PermalinkThis three-hour lesson describes the impacts of weather on aviation operations and highlights the role of the National Weather Service (NWS) in supporting the Federal Aviation Administration's air traffic management organization. The lesson contains an Introduction (40 min), several cases (10-20 min each) focused on various weather phenomena, and a detailed case (35 min) allowing forecasters to follow the planning for and evolution of an event. The content emphasizes best practices for aviation forecasters, including identifying and communicating the threat, understanding partners' needs, and ...PermalinkWe think in three-dimensional space and a fourth dimension, time. Therefore, we should think about the atmosphere in similar terms. However, we are often stuck with two-dimensional maps. Water vapor imagery can help us break out of that flatland and move to more dimensions. This imagery holds so much under-utilized potential. We can actually see three-dimensional structures evolving in near-real-time. And if we have a good handle on the current three-dimensional structure, we can then use NWP to its fullest as a verification/interrogation instrument for our 3D mental model. Come see the atmosp ...PermalinkMesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs) occur globally and can account for significant percentages of the annual precipitation in some locations. MCSs are responsible for flooding as well as damaging surface winds in some instances. Thus, it is important for forecasters to understand when, where, and how MCSs develop and maintain themselves. This module covers all modes of MCSs with a strong focus on the tropics and the different aspects that brings to MCS development, maintenance, and structure. It describes conceptual models of MCSs and the dynamical and physical processes that influence their e ...PermalinkThis extension of the COMET lesson “GOES-R: Benefits of Next Generation Environmental Monitoring” focuses on the ABI instrument, the satellite's 16-channel imager. With increased spectral coverage, greater spatial resolution, more frequent imaging, and improved image pixel geolocation and radiometric performance, the ABI will bring significant advancements to forecasting, numerical weather prediction, and climate and environmental monitoring. The first part of the lesson introduces the ABI's key features and improvements over earlier GOES imagers. The second section lets users interactively ex ...PermalinkThis lesson is an update to the 2008 expert lecture on hyperspectral observations presented by Dr. Mitch Goldberg, Program Scientist for NOAA's Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Program. The lesson discusses what hyperspectral observations are, how they are made, some current products, their contributions to improved monitoring of the atmosphere, oceans, and land surfaces, as well as their impact on numerical weather prediction. The lesson begins by discussing the importance of satellite observing systems. From there, it reviews the principles of remote sensing that are needed for deriving p ...PermalinkThe module illustrates the typical synoptic pattern influencing fire weather in southeast Australia. A case study provides insight into how experienced forecasters combine the four key ingredients—wind, temperature, dew point temperature, and fuel state—to produce a fire danger index value and resulting forecast policy map. Then, a case exercise allows the learner to practice using weather and fuel data to create a fire weather forecast policy map for southeastern Australia.PermalinkThe Tropical Synoptic Meteorology Curriculum Package is a university-level, online meteorology course package. It is freely available to interested institutions that are expanding their course offerings, particularly their online offerings. The course fulfills the synoptic and mesoscale meteorology requirements for the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Basic Instruction Package for Meteorology (BIP-M), but with an emphasis on the tropics to provide focus for those working or planning to work in tropical regions. The course utilizes existing and newly developed resources, including the on ...PermalinkThis Regional Study Guide highlights the sections of the Introduction to Tropical Meteorology, 2nd Edition online textbook that are applicable to aeronautical forecasting operations in Africa. Topics include remote sensing, global circulations, tropical variability, tropical cyclones and the challenges encountered when forecasting tropical weather. The guide consists of a list of links to the content in the textbook and has its own stand-alone quiz.PermalinkThis lesson illustrates how numerical guidance from the Weather Research and Forecasting Model - Environmental Modeling System (WRF-EMS) can be added to surface observations, satellite graphics, and conceptual models of important aviation phenomena, to produce TAFs. Specifically, the lesson describes how visibility, cloud ceilings, and the flight categories variables provide values for aviation forecasts in Africa.PermalinkNowcasting for Aviation in Africa summarizes techniques and best practices for developing area-specific forecasts at very short (0-6 hour) timescales. This 1-hour lesson presents a case study focused on interpreting threats and communicating correct warning information for a weather event affecting multiple airports in Gauteng Province, South Africa. In completing the lesson, the learner will assess the state of the atmosphere, develop a nowcast, monitor conditions, and update/create appropriate nowcast products for aviation stakeholders.PermalinkSince the advent of rawinsonde observations, thermodynamic diagrams have been used by meteorologists to analyze sounding data in the course of preparing their weather forecasts. This module comprehensively examines the use of the tephigram, widely used for over 60 years by meteorologists in the United Kingdom, Canada, and other countries throughout the world particularly in Europe and Africa. It explores thermodynamic properties, convective parameters, stability assessment, and several forecast applications. The module is designed for both instruction and reference. It also comes with an inter ...PermalinkPermalinkPermalinkPermalinkFlood Maps are tools to visualize flood information for decision makers and the general public. These maps form the basis for developing flood risk scenarios based on land use, various environmental and climate conditions and including social and economic conditions. Flood maps in their various formats and scales are the basis for the planning and implementation of development alternatives. In addition to the general objective of a flood map, special uses require specific information including maps that depict exposure to floods of various recurrence periods, flood risks, vulnerability and res ...PermalinkFlood forecasting and early warning is carried out to reduce risks in flood prone areas. This tool is tailored for use when decision‐makers need to establish an effective overview of the flood situation, provide timely and accurate early warnings and flood forecasting services to a variety of users. Many countries have already integrated flood forecasting and early warning measures into their local and national emergency planning systems. This tool provides a concise overview of concepts and approaches in flood forecasting and early warning that help flood managers and practitioners to develop ...PermalinkAs floods do not recognize borders, transboundary flood risk management is imperative in shared river basins, involving both Governments – as borders are involved – and their people – as risk is involved. However, transboundary flood management is not easy to implement, as joint monitoring, forecasting and early warning, coordinated risk assessment and joint planning of measures, and appropriate legal and institutional frameworks are all necessary. The tool on transboundary aspects of flood management focuses on common problems, objectives and approaches of flood management in transboundary ba ...PermalinkCoastal flood hazards are diverse (storm surges, tsunamis, tropical storms, seiches etc.) and are highly unpredictable. A profound understanding of these hazards, their mechanisms and potential impacts is therefore indispensable in order to derive an appropriate risk management response.
Such response should be selected from the widest range of measures and policies possible, taking due account of the inherent uncertainties both with respect to the probability of hazard and evolving socioeconomic developments.
This Tool paper aims at providing practical guidance to flood ...PermalinkFlood managers have traditionally focused on structural interventions that, in the majority of cases have succeeded only in shifting impacts downstream or upstream. Meanwhile, however, the analytical tools for flood risk assessment and risk management practices offer a far greater variety of options. The Tool introduces the topic based on a judicious combination of measures that address risk reduction, risk retention and risk transfer through a strategic mix of structural and non-structural measures for flood preparedness, response and recovery. Risk reduction options also include the question ...PermalinkThis tool provides flood management practitioners a generic approach for integrating environmental considerations into the decision-making processes in basin flood management on project as well as strategic levels. As such, it provides generic approaches for conducting Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEA) at the basin flood management planning stage and Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) at the project design and implementation stage.PermalinkThis tool sets out to provide for the operational level a lead-in on available concepts and methods to assess flood losses for three major purposes: the activation and facilitation of local and external help, the formulation of recovery plans, and long-term development planning and policy reform in the realm of flood management. The second edition of the Tool incorporates recent developments in flood loss assessment and techniques across the world, such as examples of practiced assessment case studies from Czech Republic, Japan, Madagascar and Nepal.PermalinkPermalinkWorld Bank, 2013This case study is part of World Bank Treasury's financial solutions in practice series. It introduces Mexico government's initiatives, which allowed the country to move from an ex-post response to natural disasters to an ex-ante preparedness approach, through: (i) the fund for natural disasters, to which it transfers budgetary funds for disaster relief and reconstruction efforts; and (ii) an institutional framework for disaster preparedness involving risk assessment, risk reduction, the promotion of a culture of prevention, and insurance.
The paper also features Mexican sub-na ...PermalinkThis case study is designed to provide a practical example of how to use climate information to support adaptation planning and policy-making. The paper focuses on the Bagamoyo district in coastal Tanzania. Local livelihoods are mostly based on natural resources, including small-scale agriculture, seaweed farming, traditional fishing and small-scale eco-tourism. People living on the coast report that climate variability and climate change are affecting their lives due to factors such as unreliable timing and intensity of rainfall, major flooding and sea-level rise. These impacts have increased ...PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; United Nations Environment Management Group (UNEMG); U.S. Global Change Research Program ; et al. - 2013PermalinkFAO, 2013In 2010, FAO prepared guidelines to support policy-makers in integrating climate change concerns into new or existing forest policies and national forest programmes. This document serves as a companion to those 2010 guidelines in order to aid sustainable forest management.
This document provides guidance on what forest managers should consider in assessing vulnerability, risk, mitigation options, and actions for adaptation, mitigation and monitoring in response to climate change.PermalinkKellett Jan; Caravani Alice; Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery, the ; et al. - ODI, 2013This report examines the record of the international community to date, investigating the priorities in financing of DRR, and asking questions of both the equity and adequacy of past efforts. Beyond this it points to the future of a more rational, targeted investment in risk reduction.PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; Associated Programme on Flood Management (APFM); Sayers and Partners - WMO, 2013This case study, which is a part of wider scope Tool “Effectiveness of Flood Management,” summarizes flood management approaches and policies adopted in England. The study introduces the national framework of flood management policies and the roles of flood related organizations. For better and efficient management, England has been taking a risk based approach to flood management for years, including systematic benefit cost analysis and project appraisal. Adaptive approach to cope with emerging climate change issues is also becoming a mainstream management strategy.PermalinkEEA, 2013In 2010, the EEA produced its first assessment of global megatrends as part of its five-yearly assessment of the European environment’s state, trend and prospects (SOER 2010). In preparation for SOER 2015, the EEA is updating each of the megatrends, providing a more detailed analysis based on the latest data. This publication is one of the 11 updates being published separately in the second half of 2013 and early-2014. In 2014 the chapters will be consolidated into a single EEA technical report, which will provide the basis for the analysis of megatrends included in SOER 2015.PermalinkWHO, 2013In 2010, the EEA produced its first assessment of global megatrends as part of its five-yearly assessment of the European environment’s state, trend and prospects (SOER 2010). In preparation for SOER 2015, the EEA is updating each of the megatrends, providing a more detailed analysis based on the latest data. This publication is one of the 11 updates being published separately in the second half of 2013 and early-2014. In 2014 the chapters will be consolidated into a single EEA technical report, which will provide the basis for the analysis of megatrends included in SOER 2015.PermalinkEEA, 2013In 2010, the EEA produced its first assessment of global megatrends as part of its five-yearly assessment of the European environment’s state, trend and prospects (SOER 2010). In preparation for SOER 2015, the EEA is updating each of the megatrends, providing a more detailed analysis based on the latest data. This publication is one of the 11 updates being published separately in the second half of 2013 and early-2014. In 2014 the chapters will be consolidated into a single EEA technical report, which will provide the basis for the analysis of megatrends included in SOER 2015.PermalinkThese Guidelines are intended to provide a one-stop, consistent and up-to-date reference resource for everything managers need to know about running a National Meteorological or Hydrometeorological Service (NMS).PermalinkBuzzella Maria Mercedes; Institute of Water Resources Management, Hydrology and Agricultural Hydraulic Engineering - Leibniz Universität, 2013Precipitation data is the main input parameter in order to simulate rainfall-runoff processes, since it is strongly dependent on the accuracy of the spatial and temporal representation of the precipitation. In regions where rainfall stations are scarce, additional data sources may be considered necessary. In this manner, remote sensing from satellite platforms has provided a satisfactory alternative due to its global coverage. Although a wide range of satellite-based estimations of precipitation is available, not all the satellite products are suitable for all regions. Most of the studies perf ...PermalinkUNFPA, 2013The document consolidates the knowledge, methods, and practices that emerged from the 2010 expert group meeting entitled "Population Dynamics and Climate Change II: Building for Adaptation" organized by UNFPA, IIED and the Colegio de México in Mexico City.
It intends to catalyze action in global, national and local communities around a more informed, data driven adaptation process, and to bring together disparate disciplines, from environment science to planning to social science and beyond. The use of spatial data is at the core of this agenda.
It is divided in ...PermalinkThis document is intended to be a step-by-step guide to using scenarios to plan for climate change adaptation. The document aims to aid natural resource managers, planners, scientists and other stakeholders working at a local or regional scale to develop resource management approaches that take future possible climate change impacts and other important uncertainties into account.PermalinkThis guide describes how weADAPT can be used together with the Climate Information Portal (CIP) to quickly and easily access climate data for many locations across Africa, using an interactive map. By linking the two portals, users are able to see climate data context and find data to support their own research, project planning or policy design in a specified place or area.
The document offers a step-by-step guide to using the linked resources through weADAPT and CIP, including: defining the question; searching nearby climate stations and uploaded data; historical data accessed ...PermalinkWorld Bank, 2013Three recent rounds (2003, 2006, and 2009) of the Family Income and Expenditure Survey are matched to rainfall data from 43 rainfall stations in the Philippines to quantify the extent to which unusual weather has any negative effects on the consumption of Filipino households. It is found that negative rainfall shocks decrease consumption, in particular food consumption. Rainfall below one standard deviation of its long-run average causes food consumption to decrease by about 4 percent, when compared with rainfall within one standard deviation. Positive deviations above one standard deviation h ...PermalinkSPREP, 2013The Pacific Adaptation to Climate Change (PACC) project has put together this guide as a response to the need from PACC-participating countries to integrate climate change risks into their national and sector strategies and plans, and budgetary processes. The guide aims to provide a practical step-by-step framework on how to mainstream climate change into Pacific island countries and territories development planning and decision-making processes.Permalink