Published by: WMO ; 2017 (2017 edition)
Collection(s) and Series: WMO- No. 1200
Format: Digital (Free)
ISBN (or other code): 978-92-63-11200-2
Tags: Observations ; Guide ; WMO Integrated Global Observing System (WIGOS) ; Global Space-based Inter-Calibration System (GSICS) ; Automated Weather Observing System (AWOS) ; Aeronautical meteorology ; OBS - Personnel managing observing programmes and networks ; OBS - Personnel performing meteorological observations ; Instruments and Methods of Observation Programme (IMOP) ; Governance Publications Add tagThe objective of this publication is to provide guidance to WMO Members on how to develop and implement a quality management system (QMS). The Guide details the steps required to obtain certification of compliance with the ISO standard ISO 9001:2015, Quality Management System – Requirements (ISO, 2015c)It also provides the steps for transition from ISO standard ISO 9001:2008 (ISO, 2008) to standard ISO 9001:2015 (ISO, 2015c). It is especially focused on WMO Member National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs). However, it could be successfully utilized by other service providers, ...Published by: WMO ; 2017 (2017 edition)
Guide to the Implementation of Quality Management Systems for National Meteorological and Hydrological Services and Other Relevant Service Providers
The objective of this publication is to provide guidance to WMO Members on how to develop and implement a quality management system (QMS). The Guide details the steps required to obtain certification of compliance with the ISO standard ISO 9001:2015, Quality Management System – Requirements (ISO, 2015c)It also provides the steps for transition from ISO standard ISO 9001:2008 (ISO, 2008) to standard ISO 9001:2015 (ISO, 2015c). It is especially focused on WMO Member National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs). However, it could be successfully utilized by other service providers, such as non-NMHS aeronautical meteorological service providers, to help them meet the ICAO Annex 3 quality assurance requirements. It is also applicable to the management of relevant WMO programmes by WMO constituent bodies.
Collection(s) and Series: WMO- No. 1100
Language(s): English; Other Languages: Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian, Spanish
Format: Digital (Free)
ISBN (or other code): 978-92-63-11100-8
Archives access: 2013-[...]
Tags: National Meteorological and Hydrological Service (NMHS) ; Global Space-based Inter-Calibration System (GSICS) ; WMO Integrated Global Observing System (WIGOS) ; Guide ; OBS - Personnel managing observing programmes and networks ; Governance Publications ; Quality system Add tagThe purpose of this Guide is to define the minimum technical specifications and procedures applicable to the Direct Broadcast Network for Near-real-time Relay of Low Earth Orbit Satellite Data (DBNet) and to provide guidance for implementing these specifications and procedures.
In the present Guide, the term “shall” is used when referring to the technical specifications and procedures that have to be applied for DBNet to work properly, and the term “should” when referring to those that would enhance the proper functioning of DBNet. The DBNet technical specifications are applica ...Published by: WMO ; 2017 (2017 edition)
Guide to the Direct Broadcast Network for Near-real-time Relay of Low Earth Orbit Satellite Data: Attachment to the Guide to the WMO Information System (WMO-No. 1061)
The purpose of this Guide is to define the minimum technical specifications and procedures applicable to the Direct Broadcast Network for Near-real-time Relay of Low Earth Orbit Satellite Data (DBNet) and to provide guidance for implementing these specifications and procedures.
In the present Guide, the term “shall” is used when referring to the technical specifications and procedures that have to be applied for DBNet to work properly, and the term “should” when referring to those that would enhance the proper functioning of DBNet. The DBNet technical specifications are applicable to all voluntary contributions of WMO Members to DBNet.
The aims of these technical specifications and procedures are twofold:
– To help ensure that the data provided by each particular DBNet regional network can be used operationally to meet user requirements as recorded in the WMO Integrated Global Observing System (WIGOS) Information Resource;
– To facilitate interregional data exchange and interoperability around the Earth, with a particular focus on ensuring the global consistency of the DBNet datasets.
This Guide is primarily directed to the DBNet station operators and coordinating entities. It also contains provisions for consideration by providers of processing software and by satellite operators. Furthermore, it can be a useful reference for the users of DBNet products
Collection(s) and Series: WMO- No. 1185
Language(s): English; Other Languages: French, Spanish, Russian
Format: Digital (Free)
ISBN (or other code): 978-92-63-11185-2These Guidelines are intended to provide a one-stop, consistent and contemporary reference resource from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for managers of National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs). They should help with many of the challenges that directors and managers of NMHSs face, including:
– Ensuring that the NMHS is able to meet national needs for meteorological, hydrological and related data and services;
– Responding to newly identified challenges in a rapidly changing world;
– Clarifying and articulating the mandate of the NMHS;
– ...Published by: WMO ; 2017 (2017 edition)
Guidelines on the Role, Operation and Management of National Meteorological and Hydrological Services
These Guidelines are intended to provide a one-stop, consistent and contemporary reference resource from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for managers of National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs). They should help with many of the challenges that directors and managers of NMHSs face, including:
– Ensuring that the NMHS is able to meet national needs for meteorological, hydrological and related data and services;
– Responding to newly identified challenges in a rapidly changing world;
– Clarifying and articulating the mandate of the NMHS;
– Formulating and implementing effective strategic plans;
– Developing strong arguments to obtain sufficient financial, technical and human resources to carry out its mandate;
– Recruiting, retaining, motivating and establishing reward systems for staff;
– Maintaining networks, equipment and other supporting infrastructure;
– Providing quality services to meet varied end-user needs;
– Building sustainable capacity;
– Managing development projects;
– Keeping abreast of relevant developments in science and technology;
– Recognizing and having the ability to meet international obligations, agreed development goals and other international initiatives.
Collection(s) and Series: WMO- No. 1195
Format: Digital (Free)
ISBN (or other code): 978-92-63-11195-1
Tags: National Meteorological and Hydrological Service (NMHS) ; Global Space-based Inter-Calibration System (GSICS) ; WMO Integrated Global Observing System (WIGOS) ; Guidelines ; OBS - Personnel managing observing programmes and networks ; Technical Publications Add tagThis lesson teaches the basics of satellite image interpretation to forecasters, meteorology students, and other interested learners, with an emphasis on the African region. It begins by briefly describing visible, infrared, and water vapour channels, as well as RGBs and derived products. From there, it teaches learners how to interpret clouds and surface features using various channels and products. This sets the stage for the final section, where learners practice identifying features using assorted imagery and products. The lesson uses Meteosat Second Generation imagery over Africa and, to ...Published by: The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research ; 2017
This lesson teaches the basics of satellite image interpretation to forecasters, meteorology students, and other interested learners, with an emphasis on the African region. It begins by briefly describing visible, infrared, and water vapour channels, as well as RGBs and derived products. From there, it teaches learners how to interpret clouds and surface features using various channels and products. This sets the stage for the final section, where learners practice identifying features using assorted imagery and products. The lesson uses Meteosat Second Generation imagery over Africa and, to a lesser extent, Europe. Given the similarities in channels between satellites, the lesson should also appeal to a broader, international audience. This lesson is being designed to support EUMETSAT training courses, such as the online Satellite Application Courses run by EUMETSAT and the African training centers.
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Format: Digital (Standard Copyright)Gravity is an important part of geodesy, with implications for height measurements and many other applications. In this module, we explore the concept of equipotential surfaces and relate them to gravity. Then we discuss geodetic applications that rely on accurate gravity measurements, including leveling surveys and floodplain mapping. We introduce a special surface based on gravity, called the gravimetric geoid, and explain why we want to use it as a reference datum. We discuss how to measure Earth’s gravity and introduce you to the National Geodetic Survey’s GRAV-D project, including how and ...PermalinkThese free training resources include video tutorials as well as case studies with accompanying data and imagery. The resources introduce the new generation of aerosol products available from the JPSS series of polar-orbiting satellites (SNPP/VIIRS) and the GOES-R series of geostationary satellites (GOES-16/ABI). Users will learn about the types of satellite aerosol products available, including aerosol optical depth/thickness (AOD/AOT) and aerosol detection (smoke/dust masks), as well as complimentary satellite products, such as fire radiative power (FRP) hotspots and visible color imagery (R ...PermalinkThis lesson introduces users to the statistics used in generating the various weather element forecasts included in version 2 and 3 of the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) National Blend of Global Models (NBM). This Level 3 lesson is intended for forecasters and users of NWS forecast products; some prior knowledge of numerical weather prediction and statistics is useful. Learners will be introduced to the analysis of record used to calibrate the NBM’s bias and error estimates. Learners will also explore the bias correction, weighting, and post-processing procedures used to produce the forec ...PermalinkIn this recorded webinar from the Hydrologic Impacts Under Climate Change (HIUCC) course (June 2017), Dr. Julie Vano describes what the near future will likely bring in terms of hydrologic impacts studies. Her talk is parsed into four sections. Section 1 summarizes ongoing research. Section 2 discusses the sharing of hydro-climate information. Section 3 moves into the future and describes the process of planning, executing, and evaluation a climate impacts study. Section 4 provides concluding thoughts from Dr. Vano and includes three questions (and answers) from the HIUCC course attendees.PermalinkThis video provides an introduction to the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC), including information about the COSMIC-2 mission. COSMIC uses a technique called radio occultation to profile temperature, water vapor, and ionospheric information within Earth's atmosphere. The high-quality, high-resolution data contribute to improvements in numerical weather prediction, hurricane forecasts, climate studies, and ionospheric analyses. This full video resource covering COSMIC data and science is hosted on COMET's YouTube Channel. A short video highlightin ...PermalinkIn this webinar recording Scott Rudlosky and Geoffrey Stano discuss and demonstrate the capabilities of the GOES-R/16 Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) in both operational and research applications. You will learn how the GLM, the first lightning mapper in geostationary orbit, differs from land-based lightning detection. The presenters summarize important processes known as lightning events, group, flashes, and lightning jumps and show products that illustrate the location and areal extent of lightning, and its evolution in cloud systems. With this information you should be able to integrat ...PermalinkIn this webinar recording, Michael Bowlan explains how GOES-R/16 can help improve forecasts of severe storms and provide forecasters with real-time information about lightning, flooding potential and other hazards. The high-resolution Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) data can indicate whether thunderstorm updrafts are gathering strength or weakening, helping aid forecasters in making warning decisions. The ABI can also aid in identifying storms and convective complexes that have stalled or are “training”, which can signal a flood risk and help forecasters issue flood or flash flood warnings soon ...PermalinkThis lesson provides a technical introduction to Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), covering theory, procedures, and accuracy issues. Aimed at professionals in a “geospatial science” field, including engineers, surveyors, meteorologists, geographers and GIS professionals, it will also be useful for emergency managers, and technically-inclined members of the general public with appropriate math and/or science background. For those who may currently see GPS/GNSS as a “black box”, this 1.5 hour lesson provides an understanding of the underlying principles and concepts to support correctl ...PermalinkThis lesson introduces learners to the challenges in predicting and communicating localized tropical cyclone (TC) rainfall threats. The lesson discusses the key ingredients conducive for heavy TC rainfall, and the tools used by the National Weather Service to forecast it. Learners work through a TC case to practice interpreting precipitation guidance correctly and communicating the threat and impacts. The lesson also highlights the issuance of flash flood emergencies and areal flood warnings during TC events, and how to best communicate TC rainfall impacts for a local area. The lesson will tak ...PermalinkIn this webinar recording, Andrea Schumacher demonstrates the GOES-R series' new capabilities for real-time tropical cyclone analysis and monitoring, which will contribute significantly to improved hurricane track and intensity forecasts. The GOES-16 imager will provide dramatic new views of tropical cyclone phenomena, offering vastly improved time and spatial resolution as well as color composite images to enhance cloud bands and other features. This webinar will also explore the role of the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) in helping identify areas of strong thunderstorms associated with ...PermalinkThis lesson provides an in-depth case study to illustrate principles of dam failure modeling and examines some of the critical data inputs and outputs. Output is provided from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers HEC-RAS model for simulated failures of a large dam. Several simulations are presented that show the impact from varying the size of the breach and the time it takes the breach to fully develop. The lesson also summarizes several infamous large dam failures from around the world and the impacts from other factors are such as reservoir shape and size, the age of the dam, and the material u ...PermalinkThis short lesson provides an overview of the world's oceans, including information about geography, physical properties, major currents, and the effects of oceans on weather and climate. Brief information about wind waves, swell, and tides and the drivers of each of these phenomena are included along with an introduction to ocean measurements.PermalinkThis lesson offers a comprehensive overview of temperature measurement as related to the atmosphere, bodies of water, soils, and other parts of Earth’s surface. The lesson begins by defining temperature and why it is an important property to characterize. It provides details about the properties and characteristics of sensors used for temperature measurements and the advantages and disadvantages of different sensors depending on the application. Lastly, the lesson outlines the methods used for measuring different types of temperature, from soil to the free atmosphere.PermalinkThe National Weather Service (NWS) Western Region (WR) has developed a Ensemble Situational Awareness Table (ESAT), which uses probabilistic NWP to bring attention to the potential for extreme events, especially in middle-range forecasts. The lesson, which is the first of two on the ESAT, describes the ESAT and how its data can be used to support assessment of extreme weather event forecasts. Additionally, statistical methods, including employment of reanalysis and NWP model climatologies (R-Climate and M-Climate, respectively) are described in reference to the products available in the ESAT.PermalinkExtremely cold air comes every winter to at least part of the United States and affects millions of people. Arctic air and brisk winds can lead to dangerously cold wind chill values, resulting in frostbite and hypothermia. About 63% of weather-related deaths in the U.S. result from exposure to excessive cold and/or hypothermia. Extreme cold can also lead to significant damage to buildings and infrastructure, resulting in $500-million in average annual insured losses. This lesson describes the potential impacts of cold wind chill values and extremely cold temperatures, and explores ways forecas ...PermalinkIn this webinar recording Dr. Emily Berndt and Dr. Michael Folmer discuss the capabilities of the GOES-R/16 Red-Green-Blue (RGB) composites. Multispectral or RGB composites are qualitative, false color images designed to enhance specific features in the atmosphere that are important to forecasters, aviators, mariners, and emergency response officials. RGB composites have been enthusiastically integrated into forecast operations because of their ability to highlight the presence and evolution of important forecast phenomena. This presentation details the development of RGB composites and provid ...PermalinkThis case-study lesson provides an opportunity to apply the information in the ASMET lesson “Satellite-Derived Climatology Products for Monitoring Convection Over West and Central Africa” to a case that occurred over West and Central Africa in June 2014. It demonstrates how to integrate climatology information with satellite, global instability indices (GII), and NWP data when convection is forecast to occur.PermalinkThe first of a two-part series, this 40-50 minute non-narrated interactive lesson is intended to help professionals with basic science background better understand the Earth’s gravity field and what causes its variations. Of particular interest to earth/physical scientists as well as surveying engineers, this lesson covers Newton’s laws with a focus on Earth’s gravity field as it applies to geodesy. After a review of the basics of Newtonian gravitation and gravity, it explores how density, altitude, and latitude affect gravity.PermalinkProduced in collaboration between NOAA’s National Ocean Service (NOS) US Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) Program Office and The COMET Program, this video explains how high-frequency radar (known as HF radar) is used to provide detailed information in real-time on coastal ocean surface currents. It describes the important role that HF radar products play in critical coastal operations such as hazardous spill response. Finally, it covers basic capabilities and strengths of HF radar as well as how to access coastal current data. Coastal decision-makers and managers across all levels of g ...PermalinkThis lesson will introduce National Weather Service (NWS) forecasters to the communication strategies used for decision support services during wildland fire incidents. It also serves as a baseline for practices that leverage unique NWS capabilities to assist land management, firefighting, and emergency management entities in critical decision making. The learners will work through a simulation to see the effects of their communication choices on decisions made by fire personnel. The lesson replaces an earlier edition produced in 2008.PermalinkIn this webinar recording, Tim Schmit demonstrates the improved temporal, spatial, spectral and calibration attributes of the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) on the GOES-R series. The main uses for each of the sixteen spectral bands will be covered, using examples from the recently launched GOES-16 ABI. Imagery and data loops for various types of atmospheric phenomena will be presented to illustrate the improved spectral capabilities and higher temporal and spatial resolution of the ABI. This is a recorded webinar presented by an instructor at his home institution. Audio variations may exist.PermalinkThis lesson provides an overview of basic weather processes, beginning with how the distribution of incoming solar energy helps to establish Earth’s atmospheric circulations. Learners will gain an understanding of the differences between weather and climate, and how Earth’s winds tend to have dominant patterns determined by region. An introduction to atmospheric stability, clouds, precipitation processes, and thunderstorm characteristics is also included, along with an introduction to weather impacts affecting aviation operations.PermalinkThis series of videos, produced in collaboration with NOAA and the FAA, provides an introduction to the new Impacts TAF Board tactical decision aid. Introducing the Impacts TAF Board (3:00) The new Aviation Weather Center (AWC) Impacts TAF Board helps aviation professionals easily monitor when and where airport operations will be impacted by the weather. This video introduces the history, purpose and benefits of the board. Using the Impacts TAF Board (4:20) This video explores the Impacts TAF Board website and explains the key elements of the board and how to use them.PermalinkThis lesson will introduce National Weather Service (NWS) forecasters to the benefits of pre-season coordination in understanding the critical needs of decision-makers, particularly the state and local Departments of Transportation (DOTs). The strategies used by DOTs to mitigate road impacts during the winter and how the NWS can best support their needs are also discussed. Learners will gain insight into the common methods of collaboration between the NWS and DOT, and the different types of winter weather events in which they work together. Learners will also practice communicating winter weat ...PermalinkThis lesson consists of presentations by nine professionals from NOAA and NASA recorded at the GOES-R Workshop for Broadcast Meteorologists at Kennedy Space Center. The workshop was offered by StormCenter Communications, Inc. in partnership with the COMET Program in conjunction with the November 2016 GOES-R launch. These presentations introduce broadcast meteorologists to the new capabilities of this next-generation weather satellite and cover topics including new instrumentation and data available via the GOES-R series, and how the imagery will improve forecasting. After completing this lesso ...PermalinkThis lesson offers users of climate information a demonstration of the utility of the Local Climate Analysis Tool (LCAT) for water resources applications. The training follows a NOAA Climate Resilience Toolkit case study in Tampa, Florida, and illustrates how LCAT analyses can be used to inform the steps to climate resilience outlined in the Toolkit. This text-based, interactive lesson will be accessible to anyone using LCAT for water resources decision-making, though will be most useful to those with some familiarity with drought/water resources questions and information needs. Some backgroun ...PermalinkThis lesson provides an introduction to the instrumentation used for meteorological measurements. Aimed at undergraduate and graduate students in meteorology and the atmospheric sciences, it examines the types of observing systems available to measure temperature, pressure, humidity, trace gases, clouds and aerosols, winds, precipitation, and radiation. Learners will explore the main components of an instrument and become acquainted with performance characteristics including types of errors. This introductory lesson provides a foundation for more detailed training focused on measurement of spe ...PermalinkThis updated one-hour lesson explores the types of atmospheric and surface features that can be observed at night. It describes recent technical improvements in nighttime visible imaging with the VIIRS Day/Night Band on board the Suomi NPP and JPSS satellites, and the lunar phases and other conditions necessary for effective nighttime visible imaging. This lays the foundation for the rest of the lesson, which explores operational uses of nighttime visible observations. These include the detection and monitoring of city lights, tropical cyclones, fog and stratus, polar nights, auroras, fires an ...PermalinkThis advanced lesson explores the performance characteristics of instrumentation used for meteorological measurements. Static performance characteristics are examined in the context of calibration, which offers a means to determine an instrument's response. Dynamic performance characteristics, including first and second order inputs, are discussed using three classic examples: step or impulse, ramp or time varying, and oscillatory inputs. The lesson provides information about the effects of representativeness and regional homogeneity on measurements, and also describes processes for obtaining ...PermalinkEnglish Description The COMET Translation Resource Center supports the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) community's efforts to expand the availability of training materials through translation. Here you'll find resources to guide and support your translation efforts and a forum to exchange ideas and resources. The site hosts the Guide to Translation Project Management which was developed as a collaborative WMO Global Campus project by The COMET Program and the Meteorological Service of Canada with funding by NOAA’s National Weather Service International Activities Office. The guide is a ...PermalinkThis lesson introduces the concepts needed to understand and use ensemble prediction system (EPS) products. It describes basic statistical quantities and methods used to develop EPS products, such as probability distribution functions (PDFs) and cumulative distribution functions (CDFs). From there, it discusses ways of using EPS products compared to deterministic products. The final section briefly introduces nine common EPS products. The lesson is a prerequisite for the EPS Products Reference Guide.PermalinkThe National Weather Service (NWS) has developed the INSITE tool (INtegrated Support for Impacted air-Traffic Environments) to improve NWS convective impact forecasts by providing functionality that enables forecasters to include more precise impact areas in aviation convective weather forecast products. The tool lets forecasters identify potential constraints to the National Airspace System by combining forecast weather and air-traffic data. Improved convective weather forecast products can reduce delays in air-traffic and increase efficiency in the National Airspace System (NAS). In this 45- ...PermalinkIn this webinar recording, Dr. Dan Lindsey presents GOES-16/GOES-R 30-second and 1-minute rapid scan imagery to demonstrate unprecedented views of convection, wildfire, storm intensification, and other quickly-evolving features. GOES-16 rapid scan also enables cloud and feature tracking in and around tropical cyclones. The webinar includes examples of how rapid scan sectors may be prioritized and selected by the National Weather Service. Instructions about how to obtain and use archived data are also provided. This is a recorded webinar presented by an instructor at his home institution. Audio ...PermalinkThis lesson introduces learners to the challenges in predicting precipitation associated with tropical cyclones (TCs). It also provides an overview of the deterministic and probabilistic rainfall guidance products issued by the Weather Prediction Center (WPC) to forecast TC-related precipitation. Learners work through a TC case to practice interpreting the guidance correctly and communicating the precipitation threat. The lesson also highlights the different interpretations of probabilistic products from the WPC and National Hurricane Center, and the need for collaboration between national cen ...PermalinkThis lesson is a follow-on to COMET’s Communicating Forecast Uncertainty lesson, which introduces research findings on the effective communication of uncertainty information and enables learners to apply them to a North American case. This lesson focuses on a European winter weather case and provides an additional opportunity to evaluate end-user needs and formulate effective responses to their questions based on the research findings. Learners are strongly encouraged to take Communicating Forecast Uncertainty before starting this lesson. The lesson is aimed at experienced forecasters with kno ...PermalinkLong-term management of critical water resources infrastructure needs to incorporate projected changes to environmental conditions. Reservoirs form the heart of water resource assets. Long-range plans for the repair, replacement, maintenance and renovation of these facilities depend on accurate projections of reservoir pool elevations. Environmental conditions, in turn, dictate the magnitude and timing of inflows and outflows from reservoirs, and thus the resulting water surface elevation. This lesson explores the factors that affect reservoir pool elevation and the considerations and challeng ...PermalinkGOES-16, the first satellite in the GOES-R series, launched in November 2016 and now provides 16 multispectral bands of satellite data, including CONUS scans every five minutes, with 0.5 kilometer visible imagery resolution and 2.0 km longwave infrared resolution. This lesson harnesses GOES-16’s increased temporal and spatial resolutions to identify convective development and intensity signatures on traditional longwave IR and visible band imagery, and compares the experience to using legacy GOES products. The lesson is geared toward early-career forecasters, those forecasters wanting more exp ...PermalinkIn this webinar recording, Amanda Terborg (with input from Dr. Chad Gravelle), will demonstrate the capabilities of GOES-R/16 in analyzing hazards affecting the aviation industry. The talk focuses specifically on four hazards (but there are others): 1) fog and low stratus, 2) in-flight turbulence, 3) dust, and 4) volcanic ash. Through the use of GOES-R/16 spectral bands, band differences, and RGB composites, satellite data users can detect the development and evolution of aviation threats better than with any previous geostationary satellites. This is a recorded webinar presented by an instruc ...PermalinkThis lesson provides an overview of Earth’s atmosphere, its vertical structure, the fundamental forces acting on air, and how the atmosphere's composition affects the colors we see in the sky. The lesson also includes information about how Earth receives energy from the Sun as solar and infrared radiation, and the mechanisms for transferring heat around the globe. Learners will be introduced to the components of Earth’s water cycle, and also briefly explore the main types of systems used to observe the atmosphere.PermalinkThis scenario-based lesson examines how the limitations of high-resolution NWP forecasts affect their analyses and forecasts of winter and severe weather, and how best to use the output in light of the limitations. The lesson is structured around a case that occurred in Texas in December 2015 when winter weather and severe weather hit Amarillo and Dallas-Ft. Worth, respectively. As users go through the case, they learn how spin-up time, errors in initial conditions, and deficiencies in the modeling of mesoscale phenomena can impact high-resolution forecasts in the NAM nest and HRRR models.PermalinkThe EPS Products Reference Guide provides information about nine commonly used ensemble prediction system (EPS) products. Each has a description, tips for interpreting and using it effectively, a list of its strengths and weaknesses, and practice exercises. The Guide is meant to be used as reference material and does not have a quiz.PermalinkThe lesson is intended to help NOAA's National Weather Service facilitate forecasters' use of ensemble forecast information in hydrology. The lesson provides information about the benefits and limitations of the Hydrologic Ensemble Forecast Service (HEFS), explains the sources of uncertainty (meteorological inputs and hydrologic modeling), and demonstrates how to interpret a HEFS product for hydrologic analysis and forecasting.PermalinkPermalinkThe aim of this publication is to provide a specification for the shortlist of NCMPs that can be produced consistently and easily by most countries. By having clearly defined NCMPs, it should be possible for countries with fewer resources to focus their efforts on a small number of products that have wide applicability and interest.PermalinkThe focus of this document is on observations at surface meteorological observing stations. However, many of the principles will also be valid for other forms of observations, including upper-air observations and datasets based on mobile or remotely sensed platforms (for example, satellites, radar or drifting buoys). In particular, as many key remotely sensed datasets begin in the 1970s, it is recommended that, where feasible, the current climatological standard normal period (1981–2010 at the time of writing) be used for these datasets to allow comparison among different data forms on a consi ...Permalink