Usoskin Ilya G. - 2010Presented here is a review of present knowledge of the long-term behavior of solar activity on a multi-millennial timescale, as reconstructed using the indirect proxy method. The concept of solar activity is discussed along with an overview of the special indices used to quantify different aspects of variable solar activity, with special emphasis upon sunspot number. Over long timescales, quantitative information about past solar activity can only be obtained using a method based upon indirect proxy, such as the cosmogenic isotopes 14 C and 10 Be in natural stratified archives (e.g., tree ring ...
Presented here is a review of present knowledge of the long-term behavior of solar activity on a multi-millennial timescale, as reconstructed using the indirect proxy method. The concept of solar activity is discussed along with an overview of the special indices used to quantify different aspects of variable solar activity, with special emphasis upon sunspot number. Over long timescales, quantitative information about past solar activity can only be obtained using a method based upon indirect proxy, such as the cosmogenic isotopes 14 C and 10 Be in natural stratified archives (e.g., tree rings or ice cores). We give an historical overview of the development of the proxy-based method for past solar-activity reconstruction over millennia, as well as a description of the modern state. Special attention is paid to the verification and cross-calibration of reconstructions. It is argued that this method of cosmogenic isotopes makes a solid basis for studies of solar variability in the past on a long timescale (centuries to millennia) during the Holocene. A separate section is devoted to reconstructions of strong solar–energetic-particle (SEP) events in the past, that suggest that the present-day average SEP flux is broadly consistent with estimates on longer timescales, and that the occurrence of extra-strong events is unlikely. Finally, the main features of the long-term evolution of solar magnetic activity, including the statistics of grand minima and maxima occurrence, are summarized and their possible implications, especially for solar/stellar dynamo theory, are discussed.
Notes: Published on 21 October 2008
Format: Digital (Free)World Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP); International Council for Science (ICSU); et al. - WMO, 2010 (WMO/TD-No. 1530)This guideline is intended to help all producers of climate-relevant datasets (e.g., meteorological services, research institutions, oceanographic centres, environmental agencies, space agencies, universities) in the way they document, assess the quality of, and publicize their work related to the generation, processing and analysis of climate datasets and derived products (i.e. Fundamental Climate Data Records (FCDRs)2 and Essential Climate Variable products (ECV, cf. Annex I)), based on observations from surface-based, airborne and satellite-based instruments.Published by: WMO ; 2010
This guideline is intended to help all producers of climate-relevant datasets (e.g., meteorological services, research institutions, oceanographic centres, environmental agencies, space agencies, universities) in the way they document, assess the quality of, and publicize their work related to the generation, processing and analysis of climate datasets and derived products (i.e. Fundamental Climate Data Records (FCDRs)2 and Essential Climate Variable products (ECV, cf. Annex I)), based on observations from surface-based, airborne and satellite-based instruments.
Notes: *An update of the “Guideline for the Generation of Satellite-based Datasets and Products meeting GCOS Requirements” (GCOS-128, WMO/TD-No. 1488), including in situ datasets and amendments
Format: Digital (Free)This “Summary Guide to Survey Design and Delivery”, which is based on the publication “Introduction to Survey Design and Delivery” by NOAA Coastal Services Centre, has been produced as the result of the work of the Public Weather Services Expert Team on Services and Products Improvement (ET/SPI) mandated to provide guidance for National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) on developing user surveys and interpreting their results. It reflects attributes of a successful survey. The full text of the above publication can be viewed at the PWS Website.Published by: WMO ; 2010
Public Weather Services - Summary Guide to Survey Design and Delivery: Based on the “Introduction to Survey Design and Delivery” produced by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Coastal Services Centre
This “Summary Guide to Survey Design and Delivery”, which is based on the publication “Introduction to Survey Design and Delivery” by NOAA Coastal Services Centre, has been produced as the result of the work of the Public Weather Services Expert Team on Services and Products Improvement (ET/SPI) mandated to provide guidance for National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) on developing user surveys and interpreting their results. It reflects attributes of a successful survey. The full text of the above publication can be viewed at the PWS Website.
Format: Digital (Free)This summary guide is for National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) staff who work with the media. It provides advice on how to approach media interviews, how to handle questions and what to do when faced with difficult situations.Published by: WMO ; 2010
This summary guide is for National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) staff who work with the media. It provides advice on how to approach media interviews, how to handle questions and what to do when faced with difficult situations.
Collection(s) and Series: PWS-SG- No. 05
Format: Digital (Free)This summary guide is for Natjonal Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) staff who are required to measure the effectiveness of their services by undertaking surveys of the public. It provides advice on how to conduct surveys in order to discover the public perception and opinion of the services that NMHSs provide.Published by: WMO ; 2010
This summary guide is for Natjonal Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) staff who are required to measure the effectiveness of their services by undertaking surveys of the public. It provides advice on how to conduct surveys in order to discover the public perception and opinion of the services that NMHSs provide.
Collection(s) and Series: PWS-SG- No. 04
Format: Digital (Free)This summary guide is for National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) staff who have to communicate a message to the public. It provides advice on how to broadcast effectively. If you are a meteorologist who broadcasts weather forecasts and information on radio or television, or a senior manager who holds press conferences, then this guide is for you.PermalinkThis summary guide is for forecasters who are required to include uncertainty information in weather and climate forecasts and want to know the best way to present it. It provides advice on communicating probability forecasts, or other kinds of uncertainty information.PermalinkThis summary guide is for managers of forecast operations of National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs). It is designed to help you make your services understood by the public, and to engage with the community so that they better understand what you do.Permalink^Este informe se ha preparado para consolidar el Plan de Acción de Madrid (PAM) resultante de la Conferencia Internacional de la OMM sobre condiciones de vida seguras y sostenibles: beneficios sociales y económicos de los servicios meteorológicos, climáticos e hidrológicos, celebrada en Madrid (España), del 19 al 22 de marzo de 2007, conocida también como Conferencia de Madrid. El informe se presenta en tres partes y cuatro apéndices. La primera sección, parte I del informe, se refiere a la Conferencia de Madrid y al PAM. Se analizan las acciones del PAM y se formulan propuestas sobre las form ...PermalinkLe présent rapport a été rédigé pour faire suite au Plan d’action de Madrid issu de la Conférence internationale organisée par l’OMM à Madrid (Espagne), du 19 au 22 mars 2007, sous le titre: «Sécurité et avenir de l’humanité: avantages socio-économiques des services météorologiques, climatologiques et hydrologiques», également connue sous le nom de Conférence de Madrid. Il est articulé en trois parties et quatre appendices. La première partie du rapport se réfère à la Conférence et au Plan d’action de Madrid. Elle propose une analyse des actions énoncées dans le plan ainsi que des propositions ...PermalinkGNESD, 2010The papers from three of GNESD’s Member centres examine different aspects of the complex links between climate change, energy and poverty, to help clarify the debate and to demonstrate that the issues, while complex, are nonetheless perfectly manageable. The most salient finding of the studies is that energy, in spite of its pivotal role for sustainable development and for successful adaptation, is hardly mentioned in the adaptation plans prepared by developing countries under the UNFCCC’s National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPA) process. Moreover, some countries are continuing to view ...PermalinkPermalink
PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; Bais A.; Bernhard G.; et al. - WMO, 2010 (WMO/TD-No. 1538)This paper is part four of a series of documents dedicated to instruments for the measurement of solar ultraviolet radiation. The series of documents has been drawn up by the WMO Scientific Advisory Group on UV Monitoring and the UV Instrumentation Subgroup. The aim of the series is to define instrument specifications and guidelines for instrument characterization that are needed for reliable UV measurements.PermalinkWorld Bank, 2010Natural Hazards, UnNatural Disasters looks at disasters primarily through an economic lens. Economists emphasize self-interest to explain how people choose the amount of prevention, insurance, and coping. But lenses can distort as well as sharpen images, so the book also draws from other disciplines: psychology to examine how people may misperceive risks, political science to understand voting patterns, and nutrition science to see how stunting in children after a disaster impairs cognitive abilities and productivity as adults much later. It asks not only the tough questions, but some unexpect ...PermalinkThis Toolkit helps practitioners understand how to differentiate between a climate change adaptation and a traditional development initiative. It sets out the fundamental components of the design process, the approach to building stakeholder consensus, and key tools and methodologies.PermalinkThis guidebook assists planners working at the sub-national levels to identify and map the nature of current and future vulnerability to long-term climate change so that appropriate policies and intervention can be designed and implemented.PermalinkThis report has been prepared to build upon the Madrid Action Plan (MAP) that resulted from the WMO International Conference on Secure and Sustainable Living: Social and Economic Benefits of Weather, Climate and Water Services, Madrid, Spain, 19-22 March 2007, which is also known as the Madrid Conference. The report is presented in three parts and four appendices. The first section, Part I of the report relates to the Madrid Conference and the MAP. The MAP actions are analysed and proposals are made regarding the ways that both National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) and the ...PermalinkThis paper outlines a climate finance framework to assist developing countries to move to low-emissions, climate-resilient growth paths. UNDP is proposing a country-driven, multi-stakeholder climate finance framework to assist developing countries to scale up efforts to address climate change in a way that strengthens and advances national development priorities.PermalinkThe Note tries to articulate in practical terms what has (or has not) been done by local governments (LGs) in addressing climate change, and what can be done to improve outcomes from this interface. The overall conclusion is that there is little hard evidence that climate change figures prominently on the routine agenda of most LGs in the developing countries of the Asia-Pacific region.PermalinkIn applications and services which support alerting, it is necessary to identify various information objects. This document enables the registration of Object IDentifiers (OIDs) for alerting information, i.e., content included in alert messages or otherwise associated with the activity of alerting. The Registration Authority, World Meteorological Organization (WMO), maintains these OIDs and accepts requests through WMO Members for the assignment of additional OIDs for information objects relevant to alerting. This document specifies rules for the registration of all such OIDs subordinate to th ...PermalinkIn the context of the EU 2010 goal of halting biodiversity loss, researchers have been called upon to evaluate the role of economic instruments for cost-effective decision-making, as well as non-market methods to assess their benefits. This paper reviews a number of methodological challenges of evaluating and designing economic instruments aimed at biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services provision in an existing policy mix. The study draws on experiences from Brazil and Costa Rica.PermalinkMozambique is endowed with considerable hydropower potential and is rich in modern energy resources. However, more than 80 per cent of the country’s population is not connected to the national grid because of inadequate infrastructure, a lack of investment, and the huge cost of installing an energy grid, among others. This study explores the energy-security dynamics affecting the country: energy availability, accessibility and efficiency for the electricity subsector.PermalinkSouth America has vast energy resources, but countries in the region are unable to guarantee adequate energy security levels for their consumers. This paper argues that the potential economic benefits from the process of South America’s regional energy integration are high, though national regulations impose strong barriers to such a process.
The study deems regional energy cooperation is particularly essential for removing the insecurity of energy supplies facing the region.PermalinkIAEA, 2010This annual publication contains estimates of energy, electricity and nuclear power trends up to the year 2050, using a variety of sources, such as the IAEA's Power Reactor Information System and data prepared by the United Nations.PermalinkIAEA, 2010Pursuant to the obligations placed on it by the Conventions, the IAEA regularly convenes the Inter-Agency Committee on Response to Nuclear Accidents (IACRNA)2, whose purpose is to co-ordinate the arrangements of the relevant international intergovernmental organizations (‘international organizations’) for preparing for and responding to nuclear or radiological emergencies. Although the Conventions assign specific response functions and responsibilities to the IAEA and the Parties, various international organizations have — by virtue of their statutory functions or of related legal instruments ...PermalinkIn 2010, a historic heat wave and numerous wildfires impacted Moscow and surrounding areas in the Russian Federation. At the same time, catastrophic flooding from unusually heavy monsoon rains was ongoing in Pakistan. Both events led to many fatalities and considerable human suffering. As climate change due to anthropogenic forcing continues, extreme weather events such as these are likely to become more common (IPCC 2007), further increasing the need for preparedness and early warning systems.
The need for robust early warning systems goes beyond purely natural disasters and extend ...PermalinkBates Peter; Alverson Keith; Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC); et al. - UNESCO, 2010Never has accurate information been more important, yet at
present we know very little about the Arctic Ocean. Critical physical processes are poorly understood, ecosystems remain unstudied and undiscovered, and indigenous voices go unheard. This lack of knowledge thwarts efforts to detect, predict or manage the interrelated physical, biological and social impacts of climate change, making sustainable development almost impossible. A coordinated observing system must therefore be
created for the Arctic Ocean and its coasts, to provide baseline data and ensure sustained monitor ...PermalinkThis sixtieth anniversary commemorative booklet spells out 60 ways that WMO makes a difference in peoples' lives. It illustrates the critical role that WMO and the NMHSs of its 189 Members play in numerous economic sectors and in maintaining a harmonious balance in nature. The rapid advances in information and space technologies have greatly helped in improving the forecasting ability of the meteorological community.PermalinkFAO, 2010Indigenous peoples1 must be considered an undeniable stakeholder in a development agenda shaped by such a mandate. Recent estimates indicate that although indigenous peoples make up approximately 5 percent of the worldâ€™s total population, they comprise about 15 percent of the global poor.2 The adversities faced by indigenous peoples have grown in the last few decades, but so too have the recognition of and appreciation for their potential contributions to sustainable development and natural resources management. Protecting the livelihood systems and specialized knowledge that are held within ...PermalinkThere has been a remarkable and refreshing interest in urban environment over the past few years. New development means some specific sectors and different sectors economic advancement. Advanced nations are economically developed and no doubt developing countries are more concern about economic development. One of the important sectors of economic development in developing world is manufacturing industries. Developing countries has industries promoted and motivated or controlled by different advanced foreign nations which sometimes contradict with the urban land use and environment and become ...Permalink
PermalinkPermalinkUNEP, 2010This Atlas is a visual account of Africa's endowment and use of water resources, revealed through 224 maps and 104 satellite images as well as some 500 graphics and hundreds of compelling photos. However the Atlas is more than a collection of static maps and images accompanied by informative facts and figures: its visual elements vividly illustrate a succinct narrative describing and analyzing Africa's water issues and exemplifying them through the judicious use of case studies. It gathers information about water in Africa and its role in the economy and development, health, food security, tra ...PermalinkUNEP, 2010Latin America and the Caribbean is the richest region of the planet in terms of its biological diversity that ranges from marmosets, jaguars and parrots to orchids, palms and
This diversity is sustained by the abundance of its ecosystems such as tropical forests and wealth
in natural resources and reflected too in the mosaic of cultures and people that live there. The
environment of Latin America and the Caribbean also reflects the interaction between human
activities and natural processes, both past and present.
These sometimes drama ...PermalinkOECD, 2010Companies are increasingly aware of the need to address climate change. However, while many companies are taking action to address climate change, many others are still lagging behind. This report surveys responsible business practices addressing climate change and driving the shift to a low-carbon economy. It summarises policies, regulations and other instruments in support of a low carbon economy in OECD countries and emerging economies, and analyses corporate responses to these drivers.
Using the principles of responsible business conduct identified in the OECD Guidelines for Multi ...PermalinkThe Manual on Stream Gauging (WMO No. 519) was first released in 1980. Since then, however, there have been significant advances both in the approach and the methodologies employed.
Consequently, at its twelfth session (Geneva, October 2004), the WMO Commission for Hydrology (CHy) decided to meet the identified needs of the National Hydrological Services by revising the Manual to include the newer technologies that have been introduced over the period and are currently employed in this crucial field.
In this context, Volume I of the Manual on Stream Gauging encompasses the topics ...PermalinkThe Manual on Stream Gauging (WMO No. 519) was first released in 1980. Since then, however, there have been significant advances both in the approach and the methodologies employed.
Consequently, at its twelfth session (Geneva, October 2004), the WMO Commission for Hydrology (CHy) decided to meet the identified needs of the National Hydrological Services by revising the Manual to include the newer technologies that have been introduced over the period and are currently employed in this crucial field.
In this context, Volume I of the Manual on Stream Gauging encompasses the topics ...PermalinkPermalinkIn order to remove barriers to the development of wind energy, the design of the projects integrates some of the lessons learned from existing successful wind policies. These include the necessity of reviewing the regulatory environment
to offer developers clear and expeditious procedures, the importance of giving developers access to data on wind resources.
and the need to increase awareness of
public authorities, companies and the
public through education and training
programmes.PermalinkWMO, 2010PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; Kepert Jeffrey David; Ginger J.D. - WMO, 2010 (WMO/TD-No. 1555)PermalinkUnited Nations, 2010The objective of the study is to serve as a guiding framework for policymakers, researchers and practitioners interested in developing practical tools for evidence-based policymaking, impact assessment, monitoring and evaluation in the area of social inclusion. It provides guidance on how to develop tools, taking into consideration the historical, cultural and contextual backgrounds of one’s own society.
The study also builds on the work on social indicators that has already been undertaken by many people at local, national, regional and international levels. It is hoped that th ...PermalinkThe Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) aims at providing reliable long-term observations of the chemical composition and physical properties of the atmosphere that are relevant for understanding atmospheric chemistry and climate change. Reactive gases are one of the foci of the GAW programme. This group includes carbon monoxide (CO), which is present only in trace quantities in the atmosphere but plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry. Compatibility of data from different observational platforms and sites is of crucial importance fo ...Permalinkобслуживания, поддерживающих оповещения, необходимо выявлять различные информационные объекты. Настоящий документ предоставляет возможность для регистрации идентификаторов объектов (OID) для оповещательной информации, т. е. контента, включенного в оповещательные сообщения или каким-либо иным образом связанного с деятельностью по оповещению. Регистрирующий орган, Всемирная Метеорологическая Организация (ВМО), поддерживает эти OID и принимает запросы через страны – члены ВМО на выделение дополнительных OID для информационных объектов, имеющих отношение к оповещению. В настоящем документе определ ...PermalinkEn las aplicaciones y los servicios que apoyan el sistema de alerta, es necesario determinar diversos objetos de información. El presente documento permite el registro de Identificadores de Objetos (OIDs, por sus siglas en inglés) relacionados con la información sobre alertas, a saber, el contenido incluido en los mensajes de alerta o de otro tipo relacionados con las actividades de alerta. La autoridad encargada del registro en la Organización Meteorológica Mundial (OMM) mantiene esos OIDs y acepta que los Miembros de la OMM soliciten la asignación de OIDs adicionales para objetos de informac ...PermalinkDans les applications et services qui soutiennent le processus d’alerte, il est nécessaire d’identifier divers objets informationnels. Le présent document est destiné à faciliter l’enregistrement d’identificateurs d’objet (OID) pour l’information d’alerte, c’estàdire le contenu des messages d’alerte ou autres messages associés au processus d’alerte. L’autorité d’enregistrement, à savoir l’Organisation météorologique mondiale (OMM), tient à jour ces OID et traite les demandes d’enregistrement de nouveaux OID pour des objets informationnels se rapportant au processus d’alerte. Le présent documen ...PermalinkLa présente brochure publiée à l'occasion du soixantième anniversaire de l'Organisation énumère 60 actions concrètes menées par l'OMM pour protéger et faciliter la vie des gens. Elle évoque le rôle essentiel que l'OMM et les SMHN de ses 189 Membres jouent dans de nombreux secteurs économiques comme dans le maintien d'un équilibre harmonieux du milieu naturel. Le progrès rapide des technologies de l'information et des techniques spatiales a grandement concouru au renforcement des capacités de prévision de la communauté météorologique.Permalink
PermalinkBates Peter; Alverson Keith; Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC); et al. - UNESCO, 2010PermalinkBates Peter; Alverson Keith; Commission Océanographique Intergouvernementale (COI); et al. - UNESCO, 2010Jamais l’exactitude de l’information n’a été plus importante
qu’aujourd’hui et pourtant, nous savons encore très peu de choses sur l’océan Arctique. Certains processus physiques essentiels sont mal connus, des écosystèmes ne sont pas étudiés– ou pas découverts – et les voix autochtones demeurent ignorées. Ce manque de connaissances nuit aux initiatives visant à identifier, prédire ou gérer les conséquences physiques, biologiques et sociales – qui sont liées entre elles– du changement climatique, ce qui rend le développement
durable pratiquement impossible. Il est donc nécessair ...Permalinkis an issue of Hydrological Processes. Wiley-Blackwell, 2009PermalinkLa Guia de practicas hidrologicas tiene por objeto aportar informacion sobre las practicas, procedimientos e instrumentos actualmente utilizados a quienes se dedican a la hidrologia.
Esperamos que la presente Guia sea util no solo a los SHN de los Miembros de la OMM, sino tambien a otras partes interesadas y organismos que participan en la gestion de los recursos hidricos y, en particular, en el seguimiento y evaluaction de tales recursos.PermalinkPermalinkAguilar Revelo Lorena; Unión Internacional para la Conservación de la Naturaleza (UICN); Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo (PNUD); et al. - UICN, 2009En 2007, UICN, PNUD, PNUMA y WEDO reconocieron la necesidad de una estrategia coordinada entre las instituciones mundiales involucradas con los temas de género y cambio climático. El resultado fue la creación de la Alianza Global de Género y Clima (GGCA). El objetivo principal de la GGCA es velar por que las políticas sobre el cambio climático, la toma de decisiones, y las iniciativas en los planos mundial, regional y nacional incluyan las consideraciones de género. Para satisfacer la exigencia en cuanto al mejoramiento de las competencias en materia de género y cambio climático, la GGCA ha de ...PermalinkAguilar Revelo Lorena; Union internationale pour la conservation de la nature (UICN); Programme des Nations Unies pour le Développement (PNUD); et al. - UICN, 2009En 2007, UICN, PNUD, PNUE et WEDO ont reconnu le besoin pour une stratégie coordonnée auprès des institutions internationales travaillant dans le domaine de la parité entre hommes et femmes et des changements climatiques. La conclusion en fut la création de la Global Gender and Climate Alliance (GGCA). Son but principal est de s’assurer que les politiques en matière de changements climatiques, les prises de décision, et les initiatives aux niveaux global, régional et national prennent en compte la parité entre hommes et femmes. La Global Gender and Climate Alliance a développé ce manuel de for ...PermalinkIUCN, 2009The primary goal of the Global Gender and Climate Alliance is to ensure that climate change policies, decision making, and initiatives at the global, regional and national levels are gender-responsive. The GGCA has developed this training manual to increase the capacity of policy and decision makers so that efforts to mitigate and adapt to climate change are gender-sensitive.PermalinkPermalinkThis report summarizes the science of climate change and the impacts of climate change on the United States, now and in the future. It is largely based on results of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), and integrates those results with related research from around the world. This report discusses climate-related impacts for various societal and environmental sectors and regions of the nation. It is an authoritative scientific report written in plain language, with the goal of better informing public and private decision making of better informing public and private decision maki ...PermalinkUNECE, 2009Permalink联合国 (UN), 2009什么是减少碳排放量的最佳方法？谁应当 在应对当前和未来气候变化问题时承担资金方 面的责任？ 这些问题至关重要。而另外一些问题也十 分重要。比如说，在全球和各国所发生的气候 变化将会对妇女、男人、男孩和女孩分别产生 什么影响；个人的行为会阻碍还是有助于全球 应对气候变化的努力。贫困人群，特别是那些 生活在发展中国家的贫困人群，可能会承受气 候变化带来的最坏结果。由于大多数穷人生活 在 易 受 洪 水 、 暴 风 雨 和 海 平 面 上 升 影 响 的 地 区，且他们的生活更多地依赖农业和渔业，因 此他们在遭遇难以预测的干旱、洪涝和前所未 有的飓风侵袭时，更易于受到饥饿的威胁，甚 至失去生计。而在贫困人群中的妇女们在灾难 面前显得尤其脆弱。Permalinkالأمم المتحدة, 2009فما هو النهج األفضل لتخفيض انبعاثات الكربون؟ ومن سيتحمل املسؤولية املالية من أجل التصدي ملشكلة تغير املناخ اآلن وفي املستقبل؟ ولئن كانت هاتان القضيتان تكتسيان أهمية حاسمة، فإن هناك أيضاً قضايا أساسية لها أهميتها تتعلق بأثر تغير املناخ على النساء والرجال والبنني والبنات في مختلف أنحاء العالم، بل في داخل البلدان ذاتها، وكيف ميكن للسلوك الفردي أن يقوض اجلهود العاملية املبذولة للتصدي لتغير املناخ أو املساهمة في هذه اجلهود. وعلى األرجح، فإن الفقراء، والسيما في البلدان النامية، هم الذين سيواجهون أسوأ اآلثار الناجمة عن تغير املناخ. فاألرجح أن الفقراء هم الذين يعيشون في املناطق املعرضة للف ...PermalinkКаков же наилучший подход к снижению уровня выбросов углеродных соединений? Кто должен нести финансовую ответственность за принятие мер, касаю- щихся нынешнего и будущего изменения климата? Эти вопросы крайне важны. Однако столь же важны вопросы, касающиеся того, каким образом изменение климата скажется на женщинах, мужчинах, мальчиках и девочках во всем мире и, конечно, в каждой стране, и каким образом поведение отдельных людей может либо подорвать глобальные усилия по преодолению измене- ния климата, либо содействовать им. Бедняки, особенно в развивающихся странах, по-видимому, столк ...PermalinkNaciones Unidas, 2009¿Cómo afecta la dinámica de la población a la emisión de gases de efecto invernadero y al cambio climático? La urbanización y el envejecimiento de la población, ¿reforzarán u obstacularizarán las medidas de adaptación a un mundo que se está calentando? Y ¿podrían una mejor atención de la salud reproductiva y unas mejores relaciones entre mujeres y hombres lograr una diferencia en la lucha contra el cambio climático? Encuentre las respuestas a estas preguntas en el informe Estado de la Población Mundial 2009.PermalinkNations Unies, 2009Quel effet a la dynamique de la population sur les gaz à effet de serre et les changements climatiques? L'urbanisation et le vieillissement de la population vont-ils aider ou entraver les efforts d'adaptation au réchauffement de la planète? Et de meilleurs soins de santé reproductive, ainsi que l'amélioration des rapports entre femmes et hommes, pourraient-ils faire une différence dans la lutte contre les changements climatiques? Vous trouverez les réponses à ces questions dans L'état de la population mondiale 2009.PermalinkUnited Nations, 2009This year's flagship report argues that reproductive health care, including family planning, and gender relations could influence the future course of climate change and affect how humanity adapts to rising seas, worsening storms and severe droughts. Women, especially impoverished women in developing countries, bear the disproportionate burden of climate change, but have so far been largely overlooked in the debate about how to address problems of rising seas, droughts, melting glaciers and extreme weather, the report concludes.PermalinkThis module explores the science of snowpack and snowpack assessment. It begins by describing the factors involved in snowpack development and then focuses on snowpack evolution. Using two scenarios (one set in mountainous terrain, the other in a relatively flat area), the module explores how basic processes, such as conduction and radiation, and various precipitation events impact snowpack, particularly its density, structure, and stability, throughout the cold season. Woven throughout the module are video clips of avalanche forecasters discussing snowpack and demonstrating various assessment ...PermalinkThis webcast introduces the forecaster to the new multiple-forecast-center North American Ensemble Forecast System (NAEFS). Beginning with a brief review of the theory behind ensemble prediction, this presentation then introduces the elements of the NAEFS. These include the U.S. National Centers for Environmental Prediction’s Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS) and the Canadian Meteorological Center’s Ensemble Forecast System (CEFS). A description of each separate ensemble system is followed by a discussion of how the NAEFS improves the ensemble forecast over either the GEFS or CEFS alone. ...PermalinkThis module, part of the "NWP Training Series: Effective Use of NWP in the Forecast Process", explores how NWP models handle both grid-scale microphysical (precipitation) and convective processes through parameterizations and/or explicit methods, with an emphasis on how model treatment (and errors in the triggering) of these processes affects forecast depiction of precipitation and related forecast variables. Back in 2000, the subject matter expert for this module was Dr. Ralph Petersen of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Environmental Modeling Center (NCEP/EMC). Revisions to ...PermalinkVorticity maxima and minima signatures are common features of the atmosphere. They indicate areas of ascending and descending circulation and atmospheric forcing and can be used to diagnose dynamic features such as the axis of maximum winds and deformation zones. This module provides insight on the analysis of these dynamic atmospheric features using Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite imagery. The module is an adaptation of Phil Chadwick's work from the series of modules in "Dynamic Feature Identification: The Satellite Palette".PermalinkS-290 Unit 3: Fuels covers the effects of fuels on fire behavior and the terminology for describing fuel characteristics, as well as fuel models used for classification. This module is part of the Intermediate Wildland Fire Behavior Course.PermalinkThis module discusses global climate change that is occurring largely because of greenhouse gases emitted by human activities, and in particular the impact that tropical deforestation plays in the climate system. It also covers signs of climate change, the current thinking on future changes, and international agreements that are attempting to minimize the effects of climate change. The United Nations Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries (UN-REDD Programme) is also discussed.PermalinkModel Fundamentals, part of the Numerical Weather Prediction Professional Development Series and the "NWP Training Series: Effective Use of NWP in the Forecast Process", describes the components of an NWP model and how they fit into the forecast development process. It also explores why parameterization of many physical processes is necessary in NWP models. The module covers background concepts and terminology necessary for learning from the other modules in this series on NWP. Back in 2000, the subject matter expert for this module was Dr. Ralph Petersen of the National Centers for Environmen ...PermalinkUnderstanding Drought--This webcast provides an introduction to drought. It presents the measures and scales of drought and how drought is monitored. It also covers how drought is predicted, the impacts of drought, and provides information about drought-related resources. This content serves as a foundation to learning more about climate variability and operational climate services and prepares users for the national implementation of NIDIS. This module was last updated on Sept 28, 2009.PermalinkThis is part one of a two-module series on estimation of observed precipitation. Through use of rich illustrations, animations, and interactions, this module provides an overview of the science of precipitation estimation using various measuring platforms. First, we define quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) and examine technologies for remote sensing of QPE, including radar and satellite and the strengths and limitations of each. That is followed by an examination of the use of rain gauges for precipitation estimation and important issues to consider with rain gauge measurement. Final ...PermalinkS-290 Unit 1: The Fire Environment examines the components of the fire environment triangle and how each affects fire behavior. As part of this topic, heat transfer mechanisms and firebrand transport and the contribution to fire behavior are included. Basic fire terminology is introduced and will be used throughout the course. Later units in the S-290 course will build upon material introduced in this module.PermalinkThis module discusses climate change, particularly as it is currently being affected by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases emitted by human activities. It also covers signs of climate change, how scientists study climate, the current thinking on future changes, and what can be done to minimize the effects. Updated in 2012.PermalinkThis module examines mesoscale ocean circulation models and features and processes that they predict. These models simulate temperature, salinity, currents, and elevation in 3 dimensions through a period of time. They have sufficient resolution to simulate features like fronts, eddies, upwelling, and internal tides. In this module, we examine current operational models, limitations to model forecasts, examples of predicted ocean features, and potential applications.PermalinkSatellite Feature Identification: Blocking Patterns examines how water vapor imagery can be used to help diagnose blocking patterns and their dissipation. Four major blocking patterns are covered in this module: Blocking highs, Cut-off lows, Rex blocks and Omega blocks. This module is part of the series: "Dynamic Feature Identification: The Satellite Palette".PermalinkSatellite Feature Identification: Ring of Fire introduces forecasters to the potentially damaging convection that can develop in conjunction with blocking high pressure centers and examines how to identify it from a water vapor imagery perspective. This module is part of the series "Dynamic Feature Identification: The Satellite Palette".PermalinkThis case exercise focuses on a potential fog event in Melbourne, Australia, on 6-7 April 2008. The key aim of this module is to step through the forecast process during a potential fog event from the perspective of an aviation forecaster with the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. This involves consideration of model guidance and observations, identification of potential areas of fog, forecasting and nowcasting fog formation and clearance, and considering and providing TAF updates throughout.PermalinkThis module answers the question, "How can climate data and products from the U.S. Air Force’s climate division (the 14th Weather Squadron) assist Department of Defense (DoD) forecasters in preparing for assignments to new locations and handling requests for specific information?" The 14th Weather Squadron is the DoD’s largest source of climatological data and analysis products and offers a standard suite of climate analysis products that are available both as preformatted text and graphics and, increasingly, as customizable products with user-defined variables. This module teaches forecasters ...PermalinkThis module, part of the "NWP Training Series: Effective Use of NWP in the Forecast Process", discusses three aspects of forecast guidance developed from raw NWP model data: Post-processing Statistical guidance Model assessment tools Post-processing methods, including a new section of downscaling of coarser resolution data, bias correction, and post-processing of ensemble forecast system data, are introduced. Interpolation of raw model data to produce the data seen by operational meteorologists is also described. Next, we present information on statistical guidance methods and techniques, incl ...PermalinkThis module, part of the "NWP Training Series: Effective Use of NWP in the Forecast Process", describes model parameterizations of surface, PBL, and free atmospheric processes, such as surface snow processes, soil thermal and moisture processes, surface vegetation effects such as evapotranspiration, radiative processes involving clouds and trace gases, and turbulent processes in the PBL and free atmosphere. It specifically addresses how models treat these processes, how such processes can potentially interact with each other, and how they can influence forecasts of sensible weather elements. B ...PermalinkAltimeters onboard satellites such as Jason-2 measure sea surface height and other characteristics of the ocean surface. These characteristics are linked to underlying processes and structures, making altimetry data useful for understanding the full depth of the global ocean. This 75-minute module explores major discoveries made possible by altimetry data in oceanography, marine meteorology, the marine geosciences, climate studies, the cryosphere, and hydrology. For example, altimeters have played a vital role in detecting and monitoring sea level rise and its relation to climate change. The m ...PermalinkS-290 Unit 2: Topographic Influences on Wildland Fire Behavior provides an overview of how topography affects fuels and the direction and spread of wildland fires. Information on features of topographic maps and estimating slope is also presented. This module is part of the Intermediate Wildland Fire Behavior Course.PermalinkImpact of Model Structure & Dynamics, part of the "NWP Training Series: Effective Use of NWP in the Forecast Process", explains how a model forecast, and thus interpretation of that forecast, is affected by the basic design of the model. Topics include how meteorological variables are represented in grid point and spectral models, fundamental differences between hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic models, horizontal resolution of orographic and free-atmosphere features, vertical coordinate systems and how they affect the vertical resolution of features in the model forecast, and the forecast impact ...PermalinkDistributed Hydrologic Models for Flow Forecasts – Part 1 provides a basic description of distributed hydrologic models and how they work. This module is the first in a two-part series focused on the science of distributed models and their applicability in different situations. Presented by Dr. Dennis Johnson, the module begins with a review of hydrologic models, and then examines the differences between lumped and distributed models. It explains how lumped models may be distributed by subdividing the basin and suggests when distributed hydrologic models are most appropriate. Other topics cove ...PermalinkS-290 Unit 7: Wind Systems outlines general and local winds and their processes. Detailed information is provided about critical fire weather winds, including frontal winds, foehn winds, and thunderstorm winds and the effects of these winds on wildland fires. The module also describes topographic influences on winds, and provides guidelines for estimating winds based on location and fuel sheltering. The module is part of the Intermediate Wildland Fire Behavior Course.PermalinkThe "Regional Training Course on the Use of Environmental Satellite Data in Meteorological Applications for RAIII and IV," which took place in Córdoba, Argentina between September 22 and October 3, 2008, was sponsored by WMO and NOAA NWS, and organized with the assistance of CONAE, CIRA, UBA, INPE, Eumetsat and The COMET Program. The goal of the training course was to increase the skills of Latin American meteorologists for providing better services through the use of environmental satellites. This Webcast collection offers the following seven lectures presented at the workshop, five in Spanis ...PermalinkThis lesson, part of the "NWP Training Series: Effective Use of NWP in the Forecast Process", introduces the student to the full series. Motivation for the series is presented by Mr. LeRoy Spayd, Chief of the National Weather Service Training Division; this includes a demonstration of the value added by human forecasters to NWP forecasts through recent precipitation verification. Contributors to the series are acknowledged as well. Then Dr. Bill Bua, a member of the NWP Training Team, expands on points raised by Mr. Spayd by posing and answering a question on the role of NWP in the forecast pr ...PermalinkUnderstanding Assimilation Systems: How Models Create Their Initial Conditions, is part of the "NWP Training Series: Effective Use of NWP in the Forecast Process." This module explains the data assimilation process, including the role of the model itself as well as the observations. It provides learners an appreciation for how models use data as a function of model resolution and data type, how data influence the analysis, the limitations of data assimilation systems, the importance of initial conditions on the quality of NWP guidance, as well as the challenges of assessing the quality of NWP ...Permalink"Writing TAFs for Winter Weather" is the fourth unit in the Distance Learning Aviation Course 2 (DLAC2) series on producing TAFs that meet the needs of the aviation community. In addition to providing information about tools for diagnosing winter weather and its related impacts, the module extends the Practically Perfect TAF (PPTAF) process to address an airport’s operational thresholds. By understanding the thresholds at airports for which they produce TAFs, forecasters will be better able to produce a PPTAF. The unit also examines how to communicate effectively the logic and uncertainty usin ...Permalink