A manual intended to facilitate cooperation in meteorological telecommunications between Members; to specify obligations of Members in the implementation of the World Weather Watch Global Telecommunication System; and to ensure uniformity and standardization in the practices and procedures employed in achieving these.Published by: WMO ; 2015 (2015 edition, updated in 2018)
A manual intended to facilitate cooperation in meteorological telecommunications between Members; to specify obligations of Members in the implementation of the World Weather Watch Global Telecommunication System; and to ensure uniformity and standardization in the practices and procedures employed in achieving these.
Collection(s) and Series: WMO- No. 386
Language(s): English; Other Languages: French, Russian, Spanish
Format: Digital (Free)
ISBN (or other code): 978-92-63-10386-4
Archives access: 1991-[...]This report reviews the impact of AMDAR observations on operational NWP forecasts at both regional and global scales that support national and local weather forecast offices across the globe.Published by: WMO ; 2015
Impact and benefits of AMDAR temperature, wind and moisture observations in operational weather forecasting
This report reviews the impact of AMDAR observations on operational NWP forecasts at both regional and global scales that support national and local weather forecast offices across the globe.
Collection(s) and Series: WIGOS Technical Report- No. 2015-01
Format: Digital (Free)
Tags: Observations ; Text/ Reading ; WMO Integrated Global Observing System (WIGOS) ; Global Space-based Inter-Calibration System (GSICS) ; Automated Weather Observing System (AWOS) ; Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay (AMDAR) ; OBS - Personnel managing observing programmes and networks ; OBS - Personnel performing meteorological observations ; Instruments and Methods of Observation Programme (IMOP) ; Global Observing System (GOS) Add tagThe Operational Manual consists of the text and the appendices. Items included in the text relate to the Typhoon Committee agreement, in particular, basic information for executing meteorological operation, whilst the appendices contain national practices and procedures (it is felt that the Member concerned should have the right to be able to change without having to get prior formal agreement of the Typhoon Committee) together with detailed and technical information for meteorological operation. Information described in WMO official publications such as Manuals is only referred to and not i ...Published by: WMO ; 2015
The Operational Manual consists of the text and the appendices. Items included in the text relate to the Typhoon Committee agreement, in particular, basic information for executing meteorological operation, whilst the appendices contain national practices and procedures (it is felt that the Member concerned should have the right to be able to change without having to get prior formal agreement of the Typhoon Committee) together with detailed and technical information for meteorological operation. Information described in WMO official publications such as Manuals is only referred to and not included in this Manual.
Format: Digital (Free) (ill., charts, maps)
Archives access: 1992-[...]This report provides a quantitative assessment of the health impacts of climate change and takes into account a subset of the possible health impacts, while assuming continued economic growth and health progress. Even under these conditions, it concludes that climate change is expected to cause approximately 250 000 additional deaths per year between 2030 and 2050; 38 000 due to heat exposure in elderly people, 48 000 due to diarrhoea, 60 000 due to malaria, and 95 000 due to childhood undernutrition. Results indicate that the burden of disease from climate change in the future will continue t ...Published by: WHO ; 2015
Quantitative risk assessment of the effects of climate change on selected causes of death, 2030s and 2050s
This report provides a quantitative assessment of the health impacts of climate change and takes into account a subset of the possible health impacts, while assuming continued economic growth and health progress. Even under these conditions, it concludes that climate change is expected to cause approximately 250 000 additional deaths per year between 2030 and 2050; 38 000 due to heat exposure in elderly people, 48 000 due to diarrhoea, 60 000 due to malaria, and 95 000 due to childhood undernutrition. Results indicate that the burden of disease from climate change in the future will continue to fall mainly on children in developing countries, but that other population groups will be increasingly affected.
Format: Digital (Free)
ISBN (or other code): 978-92-4-150769-1This lesson describes the role of forecasters in supporting emergency managers during tropical cyclones with a focus on the wind hazards. It provides an overview of the wind speed products produced by the National Weather Service, including how they are used to create local wind forecasts. Learners will practice interpreting probabilistic wind speed guidance and conveying appropriate wind speed information to decision-makers using projected scenarios of hazardous wind events. Developing messages for emergency managers and the public that include the potential wind speed, threat, and impact inf ...Published by: The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research ; 2015
This lesson describes the role of forecasters in supporting emergency managers during tropical cyclones with a focus on the wind hazards. It provides an overview of the wind speed products produced by the National Weather Service, including how they are used to create local wind forecasts. Learners will practice interpreting probabilistic wind speed guidance and conveying appropriate wind speed information to decision-makers using projected scenarios of hazardous wind events. Developing messages for emergency managers and the public that include the potential wind speed, threat, and impact information are also explored. This online lesson is part of the Tropical Cyclone Storm Winds: Forecasting and Communication course.
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Format: Digital (Standard Copyright)Understanding Marine Customers, 2nd edition, introduces the different marine forecast customers and discusses what forecast information they need to know and why they need to know it. A better understanding of the needs of the marine forecast customer will lead to better daily forecasts. The 2nd edition expands upon marine customer base to include more nearshore users, such as beachgoers, surfers, and sea kayakers.PermalinkThe Product Access Guide is a web-based resource maintained by the World Meteorological Organization to (i) facilitate online search for quality-controlled, documented satellite-based data products from providers worldwide, related expert groups, and training material, (ii) enhance the visibility of satellite data products and related material; (iii) address insufficient awareness of users, especially in developing countries. The Product Access Guide complements the WMO Information System and allows a more targeted search experience than Google or the GEO portal. This resource is made availabl ...PermalinkA weather forecaster’s knowledge of climatology is important to the success of a forecast, especially where convection is involved. That’s particularly true over Central and West Africa where convection has a strong diurnal cycle and usually develops over particular geographic regions and during specific time intervals. The lesson describes satellite-derived cloud climatology products and several global instability indices, all of which can be integrated with other products to forecast convection. Although the lesson uses examples of climatology products from specific months, it makes the full ...PermalinkThe National Blend of Global Models was developed to utilize the best available science and provide a consistent National Weather Service forecast product across the U.S. This lesson describes the background and motivation for the National Blend and includes comparisons of Blend forecasts with current guidance. The lesson also offers a short summary of future plans and training related to the National Blend.PermalinkYou've seen it happen repeatedly. Forecasters have a tough forecast ahead of them. But how are they supposed to know which model data will be the best one to help them come to a conclusion about the situation? In situations like this, the first step should always be to assess the model data against a set of current observations that should show a 1-to-1 relationship with the model output. Which variable should be plotted? On which surface? Which current observations will make the most sense to assess against? If you know the answers to some, but not all of these questions, find these answers a ...PermalinkThe availability of numerical guidance from NWP models has been an important component of operational forecasting for decades. For many, the output from this numerical guidance was produced by a mysterious “black box”. Rules for using and adjusting the guidance for operational forecasters were often subjective “Rules of Thumb” based on experience rather than based on quantitative analysis. To open up this “black box”, we produced this web-based “Operational Models Encyclopedia” linking both generic information on how NWP models work, and specifics on physical parameterizations, dynamics, and d ...PermalinkThis lesson introduces forecasters to the various probabilistic guidance products used by the National Hurricane Center to forecast storm surge. It provides an overview of how these probabilistic surge products are created, their purposes, and why they are preferred to deterministic-only style guidance for specific events. The lesson also provides practice in correctly interpreting probabilistic storm surge guidance at various phases of an event. Basic familiarity with probabilistic forecast guidance is required. This online lesson is part of the Tropical Cyclone Storm Surge: Forecasting and C ...PermalinkThis lesson provides a brief overview of surface and upper-air data and how these data are plotted on meteorological charts. The content introduces various charting and reporting techniques, including station models, contour analyses, streamlines, and upper air maps. Examples cover both the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere and provide learners with opportunities to practice recognizing frequently used weather symbols. Supplemental materials include three Weather Symbol Identification drills. Completing these drills may require approximately 1-1.5 hours above the length of time estim ...PermalinkAimed at community planners, emergency managers, and other coastal zone decision-makers this video will explain how using geospatial information already available through NOAA, combined with strategic local investments in infrastructure can provide communities with the data needed to confidently plan for future sea-level changes. This resource is hosted on COMET's YouTube Channel.PermalinkThis lesson introduces learners to the uncertainty and errors in forecasting the track, timing, and intensity of tropical cyclones. It provides an overview of how the National Hurricane Center’s cone of uncertainty is constructed, as well as its uses and common misconceptions. Learners will explore the influences of track, timing, and intensity forecast errors on potential tropical cyclones impacts. The lesson offers suggestions on how to communicate tropical cyclone forecasts knowing their inherent uncertainty. This online lesson is part of the Tropical Cyclone Storm Winds: Forecasting and Co ...PermalinkScatterometers and altimeters provide a variety of space-based observations that are useful for marine analysis and forecasting as well as other applications. Key among the products are ocean surface winds from scatterometers and significant wave heights from altimeters. This lesson describes the basics of scatterometers and altimeters, including how they work, what they measure, and how scatterometer winds and altimeter significant wave heights are derived. It then discusses some of the challenges in using the estimates, such as dealing with ambiguities and rain contamination. The lesson also ...PermalinkOSCAR/Space, the “satellite” component of the WMO OSCAR resource, contains updated quality-controlled information on past, present and future satellite missions, instruments and related characteristics, covering a period from 1960 up to 2050, which adds up to 500+ satellites and 800+ instruments dedicated to Earth Observation and Space Weather. In addition, OSCAR/Space provides expert assessments of the applicability of the various instruments for particular measurements. This resource can be used as a reference for studies, as a gap analysis tool, as support for planning, and for educational ...PermalinkThis lesson introduces forecasters to the complex and multifaceted process for creating a forecast. It also discusses how NWP fits into that process. In addition, the lesson provides a broad overview of the basic components of NWP and how they combine to produce a model forecast.PermalinkThis lesson introduces forecasters to the orthometric and tidal datums used to describe tropical cyclone storm surge measurements and forecasts. It provides a general overview of how to interpret storm surge forecasts using various vertical datums. This online lesson is part of the Tropical Cyclone Storm Surge: Forecasting and Communication course.PermalinkMarine Weather Services Incident Response and Decision Support provides guidance for forecasters tasked with supporting oil or chemical spills and other marine-focused incidents. The lesson follows an example spill event to help demonstrate marine forecasters' responsibilities for coordinating with emergency managers, other NOAA line offices, and governmental agencies and outlines best practices related to effective communication.PermalinkThis lesson is focused on how a model forecast and the interpretation of that forecast, is affected by the basic design of the model. Topics include how meteorological variables are represented in grid point and spectral models, fundamental differences between hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic models, horizontal resolution of orographic and free-atmosphere features, vertical coordinate systems and how they affect the vertical resolution of features in the model forecast.PermalinkAircraft icing has resulted in numerous accidents, some fatal. The problem is due, in part, to a lack of awareness on the part of aviation forecasters (and others) that icing is imminent. The lesson addresses this issue by presenting a process for forecasting enroute icing for aviation and applying it to a case over the Continental U.S. The process involves gaining situational awareness of potential icing areas and making a first forecast of their locations and flight levels; comparing the first forecast to NWP forecasts; and adjusting as needed. To reach a wide audience and stay current, the ...PermalinkThis lesson introduces forecasters to the probabilistic guidance products used by the National Hurricane Center to assess tropical cyclone wind threats. It provides an overview of how these probabilistic wind speed products are created, their purposes, and how to interpret them. The lesson also provides practice in determining the total risk and timing for location-specific peak wind events. This online lesson is part of the Tropical Cyclone Storm Winds: Forecasting and Communication course.PermalinkThis lesson introduces users to the five different guidance products that will be included in Version 1.0 of the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) National Blend of global Models (NBM). The primary audience for this lesson includes forecasters and users of NWS forecast products; some prior knowledge of numerical weather prediction is useful. Learners will explore how model guidance from the Global Forecast System, Global Ensemble Forecast System, Canadian Meteorological Centre Ensemble, Ensemble Kernel Density Model Output Statistics (MOS) and gridded GFS MOS is produced. The strengths and l ...PermalinkThis lesson introduces the concepts and principles basic to retrieving important land and ocean surface properties using microwave remote sensing observations from polar-orbiting satellites. Section one reviews the advantages of microwave remote sensing from polar-orbiting platforms and briefly highlights some of the unique spectral characteristics that allow for differentiation between various surface types and properties. Subsequent sections present a more in-depth look at the derivation and application of microwave products that quantify four different land and ocean surface properties and ...PermalinkThis lesson provides information on climatology—what it is, the factors that create an area's climate, and the sources and uses of climate information. Focused specifically on tropical Pacific islands, the content covers the key features influencing climate in that region and includes examples for four locations distributed across the tropical Pacific Ocean, both north and south of the equator. The lesson provides a basic introduction to tropical climatology intended for a wide range of users, from meteorology technicians, forecasters, and scientists, to those in industries or sectors influenc ...PermalinkThis brief lesson provides an overview of the AHI on Himawari and highlights its differences from the GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). It discusses AHI’s improved capabilities in spectral coverage, spatial resolution, and imaging interval over the MTSAT-2 imager; the differences in spectral coverage and scan strategy between AHI and ABI and the impact on products; and how AHI data and products benefit forecasters in Alaska, Pacific Region, and CONUS. Note that the lesson complements COMET’s GOES-R ABI lesson, which should be taken before going through this lesson.PermalinkThis video explains the difference between the U.S. survey foot (sFT) and the international survey foot (iFT) and the importance of this distinction when working with map projections. It will be helpful to surveyors, planners and anyone who needs to convert map coordinates from meters to feet. This resource is hosted on COMET's YouTube Channel.PermalinkGood rainfall draws many people to settle across the eastern Africa highlands for farming and other businesses. However, factors such as steep terrain, logging, livestock grazing, agriculture, and construction, have increased erosion and contributed to less stable slopes. These factors can lead to devastating landslides and mudslides, especially during episodes of very heavy rain. Forecasting and monitoring heavy rainfall is challenging, especially in mountainous regions that have few surface observations. This make satellite data critical for meteorologists and hydrologists forecasting for th ...PermalinkThe Climate Data Guide provides concise and reliable information on the strengths and limitations of the key observational data sets, tools and methods used to evaluate Earth system models and to understand the climate system. Citable expert commentaries are authored by experienced data users and developers, enabling scientists to multiply the impacts of their work and the diverse user community to access and understand the essential data. This resource is made available courtesy of NCAR's Climate and Global Dynamics Division and is not produced, owned or hosted by UCAR/COMET.PermalinkThis lesson provides a basic introduction to celestial navigation for navigators, sailors, and others interested in the topic. It begins with the relationship between celestial coordinates and Earth coordinates and examines key celestial navigation parameters—geographic position, sextant altitude, observed altitude, azimuth, and computed altitude—that can be used to identify to a ship's position. A U.S. Navy navigator demonstrates the main celestial sights performed over the course of a day, including the morning three-star fix, morning Sun line, Local Apparent Noon Sun line, afternoon Sun lin ...PermalinkAimed at scientists, engineers, modelers and other technical users of GIS/mapping applications, this lesson provides a basic understanding of different vertical datums, how they are defined, some of their strengths and weaknesses and how to choose the appropriate datum for a given application. The lesson starts with basic definitions of height and vertical datums and guidance on choosing and working with the appropriate datum for a given situation. It then provides a conceptual introduction to ellipsoidal, geopotential and tidal datums including appropriate uses, examples and pros and cons.PermalinkHigh swell events can develop far from the coast under cyclonic conditions, and take several days to travel to land. If early warnings are not issued, they can take an area by surprise and have a devastating impact. This lesson aims to improve the ability of marine forecasters to forecast extreme marine events related to high swells. It does so by providing background information on winds and waves, and presenting a process for monitoring and forecasting high swell events using a variety of data. These include ASCAT scatterometer wind data and the ECMWF Extreme Forecast Index (EFI) product, wh ...PermalinkThis chapter examines vertical transport of heat, moisture, momentum, trace gases, and aerosols, including the role of tropical deep convection and turbulence. Diurnal and seasonal variations in surface fluxes and boundary layer depth are examined. The boundary layer is compared over the ocean, humid, and dry tropics, including its role in dispersing chemicals and aerosols. Boundary layer clouds are examined in terms of their connection to sub-cloud layer properties. Comparisons are made between heat and moisture transport under a variety of convective modes such as mesoscale convective system ...PermalinkThis lesson introduces forecasters to the physical processes and impacts of tropical cyclone storm surge. It provides an overview of the factors that affect storm surge, how it is measured, and the limitations associated with storm surge data. This online lesson is part of the Tropical Cyclone Storm Surge: Forecasting and Communication course.PermalinkThis lesson covers the topics of geodesy, datums, map projections, and map coordinate systems. Geodesy addresses the shape of the earth: the topographic surface, geoid, and best-fit ellipsoid. Datums addresses the position and orientation or the best-fit ellipsoid and the resulting coordinates. Map projections addresses the different ways to project an ellipsoidal datum onto a flat surface. Each projection has unique properties and each has pros and cons. Coordinate systems addresses the different ways that a rectangular coordinate system can be superposed on latitude-longitude graticule.PermalinkThis case study lesson demonstrates the use of scatterometer wind and, to a lesser extent, altimeter significant wave height products in marine forecasting. A brief introduction to cold fronts and their impact on weather and sea state conditions sets the stage for the main part of the lesson, the case study. The case follows the passage of a cold front over the South Atlantic Ocean on 23 and 24 November 2013 when the Polarstern research vessel was transiting the area. Learners use ASCAT wind and Jason significant wave height data to help determine current conditions and evaluate GFS and WAVEWA ...PermalinkThe SATURN (SATellite User Readiness Navigator) developed jointly by WMO and meteorological satellite operators provides unified access to information that helps users to prepare for the new generation of meteorological satellites to be launched in the 2015-2020 timeframe. Next-generation geostationary satellites are being launched by JMA, NOAA, CMA, KMA, ROSHYDROMET and EUMETSAT, with unprecedented capabilities for severe weather monitoring, nowcasting and short range forecasting, and for a number of other application areas. However, the new systems also pose unprecedented challenges to users ...PermalinkThis lesson describes model parameterizations of surface, PBL, and free atmospheric processes. It specifically addresses how models treat these processes, how such processes can potentially interact with each other, and how they can influence forecasts of sensible weather elements. Topics covered include: soil moisture processes, radiative processes involving clouds, and turbulent processes in the PBL and free atmosphere.PermalinkShips operating in areas with ice are expected to report conditions as part of standard weather reporting procedures. This lesson is aimed at those tasked with this responsibility, be they official or informal observers. The lesson begins with background information on ice, addressing such topics as where it is found, how it develops, and how to observe and report it. This sets the stage for the lesson’s scenarios, which simulate the experience of being an ice observer in four situations: on the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Healy operating in the Arctic Ocean, on a container ship transiting the Nor ...PermalinkBoth the processes of convection and of rainfall formation are typically subgrid scale, and require parameterisation. This lesson examines two types of precipitation parameterisation used by models: Convective parameterisation Microphysics The lesson also discusses how to identify when these parameterisations are not performing well and steps to address the issues that arise.PermalinkThis module helps forecasters provide decision support services during hazardous materials emergencies. Topics covered include: Types of weather data inputs required for short-range dispersion models typically used by emergency managers Types of inputs required to run the web version of the HYSPLIT model with the ALOHA source term, which is now available to NWS forecasters The types and scales of events that are appropriate and inappropriate for modeling by HYSPLIT Key uncertainties that can cause misleading dispersion model forecasts The processes and limitations of CAMEO/ALOHA and HYSPLIT Ho ...PermalinkThis lesson provides an overview of the primary influences of watershed and channel sedimentation. In a short narrated portion of the lesson, we explore a section of the Rio Grande watershed and channel in New Mexico using Google Earth imagery, river profiles, and graphic animations. We highlight features of the upland catchments, the river channel, and the Elephant Butte Reservoir. We then demonstrate how environmental factors (climate, geography, land use changes, reservoirs) impact the supply and movement of sediments for the Rio Grande and other rivers. The focus is on the three primary pr ...PermalinkThis lesson introduces forecasters to the probabilistic storm surge guidance used by the National Weather Service to assess local surge threats and impacts. It will provide practice in determining the chance that critical surge thresholds may be reached or exceeded and when this is most likely to occur. Developing an appropriate message for decision-makers and the public that includes potential surge values, threats, and impacts information is also explored. We strongly recommend reviewing the “Introduction to Tropical Cyclone Storm Surge”, “Forecasting Tropical Cyclone Storm Surge”, and “Stor ...PermalinkThis lesson introduces the processes of model data assimilation. It also discusses the impacts of errors in the data assimilation on model forecasts and how a human forecaster can compensate for them.PermalinkFlood events are known for their profound capacity to positively or negatively affect humans. Floods improve overall human well-being by providing services such as groundwater recharge, surface-water replenishment, soil-fertility enhancement and a general increase in the value of social–ecological systems. Equally, however, flood events pose a series of diverse health threats, ranging from contaminated water sources to decreased agricultural productivity, especially when communities are vulnerable and lack the capacity to effectively respond to, and recover from, the adverse effects of floods. ...PermalinkCommunication is the imparting or exchange of information between individuals or groups through a common system of symbols, signs or behaviour (Merriam-Webster, 2013a; Oxford Dictionaries, 2013). In recent decades, different conceptual models have been developed to explain the process of human communication. One of the best representations of the flow of information in flood communication is the Interactional Communication Model proposed by Schramm (Schramm, 1954).PermalinkIt is not enough to assert—to an elected official, a regulator, a donor organization or the taxpayer—that one’s organization is doing an effective job of flood management. One also has to be able to provide a credible answer to the question: “How do you know?” 2 There is a multiplicity of flood management activities that can be pursued by a plethora of government jurisdictions, government agencies, NGOs, private and volunteer groups— independently, in cooperation, in competition. These activities may include: constructing flood prevention infrastructure; rebuilding houses, buildings and infras ...PermalinkPermalinkPermalink