This document explains resilience in the context of disaster and climate change, giving nine examples of case studies from Action Contre la Faim (ACF) resiliency projects around the world. The document is comprised of six sections: (i) section one defines resilience and the effects of shocks and stresses; (ii) section two explains ACF's target groups for resilience (individuals, households, and communities); (iii) section three explains how to measure resilience and the characteristics of disaster resilient communities; (iv) section four offers three strategies to operationalize resilience to ...Published by: ACF ; 2013
This document explains resilience in the context of disaster and climate change, giving nine examples of case studies from Action Contre la Faim (ACF) resiliency projects around the world. The document is comprised of six sections: (i) section one defines resilience and the effects of shocks and stresses; (ii) section two explains ACF's target groups for resilience (individuals, households, and communities); (iii) section three explains how to measure resilience and the characteristics of disaster resilient communities; (iv) section four offers three strategies to operationalize resilience to disaster and climate change; (v) section five encourages advocacy for resilience, outlining key messages on advocacy; (vi) section six contains nice case studies from ACF on resilience building. The case studies are based on ACF's two-pronged approach: to address the urgent needs of those affected by disasters and to build an adaptive strategy through disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in order to protect lives and livelihoods from shocks and stresses.
Language(s): English; Other Languages: French
Format: Digital (Free)FAO, 2013This framework explains the Disaster Risk Reduction for Food and Nutrition Security Framework Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) which has been undertaken with the goal of enhancing the resilience of livelihoods against threats and emergencies to ensure the food and nutrition security of vulnerable farmers, fishers, herders, foresters and other at risk groups. The framework presents four thematic pillars which mirror the priorities outlined in the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA): (i) enable the environment, emphasizing good governance and effective ...Published by: FAO ; 2013
This framework explains the Disaster Risk Reduction for Food and Nutrition Security Framework Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) which has been undertaken with the goal of enhancing the resilience of livelihoods against threats and emergencies to ensure the food and nutrition security of vulnerable farmers, fishers, herders, foresters and other at risk groups. The framework presents four thematic pillars which mirror the priorities outlined in the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA): (i) enable the environment, emphasizing good governance and effective policy making; (ii) watch to safeguard, emphasizing early warning systems; (iii) apply prevention and mitigation measures, emphasizing resilient approaches in agriculture; and (iv) prepare to respond, emphasizing capacity development for response and recovery efforts.
Format: Digital (Free)
ISBN (or other code): 978-92-5-107624-8Utrecht University, 2013This report explores the need for a shift in flood risk management strategies (FRMSs), such as risk prevention, flood defense, mitigation, preparation and recovery, in order to create a more resilient Europe, and the governance challenges which such a shift in FRMSs may pose to society. The aim of this report is to identify questions for further research.
This report is the second in a series of four which were compiled by the STAR-FLOOD project.Published by: Utrecht University ; 2013
This report explores the need for a shift in flood risk management strategies (FRMSs), such as risk prevention, flood defense, mitigation, preparation and recovery, in order to create a more resilient Europe, and the governance challenges which such a shift in FRMSs may pose to society. The aim of this report is to identify questions for further research.
This report is the second in a series of four which were compiled by the STAR-FLOOD project.
Format: Digital (Free)There are several ways of promoting women’s economic participation while also counteracting climate change. One approach in the field of climate mitigation is the promotion of renewable energies that can help avoid greenhouse gas emissions. It is observed that less attention is paid to the potential that lies in the combination of climate mitigation/ adaptation and the economic empowerment of rural women; yet mitigation or adaptation activities offer opportunities to advance the economic empowerment of women. In particular, this applies to work that is already being undertaken by women or acti ...
Approaches to Economic Empowerment of Rural Women for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation: Implications for Policy: In Journal of Agricultural Extension, Vol. 17 (1), June 2013
There are several ways of promoting women’s economic participation while also counteracting climate change. One approach in the field of climate mitigation is the promotion of renewable energies that can help avoid greenhouse gas emissions. It is observed that less attention is paid to the potential that lies in the combination of climate mitigation/ adaptation and the economic empowerment of rural women; yet mitigation or adaptation activities offer opportunities to advance the economic empowerment of women. In particular, this applies to work that is already being undertaken by women or activities in which women could assume a leading role. The study recommends that measures to promote the economic participation of women can be integrated into climate change initiatives. In order for rural women to play an economic role, an institutional, legal and political framework is required that enables and/or makes it easier for rural women to hold their own in the market. Concrete project measures at the local level should therefore be combined with advisory services at the political level, with a view to initiating structural reform.
Format: Digital (Free)This paper highlights evidence of disaster risk governance at national and local levels in Indonesia. Drawing upon the strength of social network approach, it specifically analyzes and presents the network of actors in disaster risk reduction policy reform in Indonesia where civil society plays vital roles. Two case studies are provided to exemplify the roles of civil society at local level. The paper concludes that disaster reduction policy reform at different levels in Indonesia have been equally coproduced by civil society, local governments, national government and international actors.
Published by: IRGSC ; 2013
What are the roles of civil society in governing disaster reduction? Case study from national and local levels in Indonesia
This paper highlights evidence of disaster risk governance at national and local levels in Indonesia. Drawing upon the strength of social network approach, it specifically analyzes and presents the network of actors in disaster risk reduction policy reform in Indonesia where civil society plays vital roles. Two case studies are provided to exemplify the roles of civil society at local level. The paper concludes that disaster reduction policy reform at different levels in Indonesia have been equally coproduced by civil society, local governments, national government and international actors.
Format: Digital (Free)IFRC, 2013The report summarises the inaugural Red Cross National Disaster Resilience Roundtable, held in Melbourne in September 2012, and which brought together 43 researchers, policy makers, peak bodies, not for profit organisations and community members, representing both emergency management and the community sector, to explore the application of social capital to disaster resilience. It considers social capital as a type of capital, like financial and human capital, that can be invested in and drawn upon; and it examines in more detail the application of social capital as a concept, to further under ...PermalinkIFRC, 2013This short pamphlet sets out some preliminary findings from a 2-year comparative study of legislation for disaster risk reduction in 26 countries.PermalinkOver five years from 2008 to 2012, around 144 million people were forced from their homes in 125 countries. In 2012, an estimated 32.4 million people in 82 countries were newly displaced by disasters associated with natural hazards triggered by climate- and weather-related events (98 per cent of all displacement in 2012; 83 per cent over five years), with flood disasters in India and Nigeria accounting for 41 per cent of global displacement in 2012. In India, monsoon floods displaced 6.9 million and in Nigeria 6.1 million people were newly displaced. The Global Estimates report determines that ...PermalinkPermalinkBulletin, Vol. 61(1). WMO, 2012People from Ethiopia, Nepal, Kiribati, Brazil, Nunavut and Bangladesh – their common link: they share the same planet and civilization.PermalinkAn important component of the submission of the ACCESS coupled model data to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) is publishing a comprehensive set of the CMIP5 requested data and ensuring the data meets the stringent CMIP5 format and quality requirements. CMIP5 specifies a standard for model output where each parameter is stored in a single NetCDF file and includes additional meta-data. These requirements are designed to make analysis of the data as straight forward as possible. This document describes the ACCESS Post-Processor (APP), and how it is used. The APP has been ...PermalinkSpace Weather Impacts on Aviation examines the effects of solar flares, coronal mass ejections, and other solar phenomena on aviation operations. The lesson builds on background science knowledge taught in the course prerequisite, Space Weather Basics, 2nd Edition. The content gives aviation forecasters and others an overview of the information and products available from NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center and provides practice interpreting and using those products for decision support during space weather events.PermalinkThe module reviews the fundamental steps for writing a Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (TAF) using guidelines and recommendations developed by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). This module outlines effective forecast methodologies to develop TAFs that represent the expected conditions that aviation customers can use to make operational decisions and minimize unnecessary costs. The module walks users through the process of analysis of satellite, surface, and observational data to create a TAF forecast for an airport in the Caribbea ...PermalinkThe international science community has identified a set of Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) that should be monitored for measuring the climate system, how it is changing, and its likely impact on future climate. Environmental satellites play an important role in this effort. They are uniquely positioned to provide broad, spatially consistent, and continuous global sampling of many of the ECVs. This module explores the benefits of monitoring the climate system with satellites. We begin by reviewing how satellites observe key atmospheric elements and features that are found in a variety of cl ...PermalinkThis one-hour online learning module provides an overview of the key concepts, benefits and principles of an effective quality management system (QMS) based on the ISO 9001:2008 quality management standard. It also introduces guidelines for the successful implementation of a QMS in aviation weather service agencies. Although primarily aimed at management personnel responsible for implementing, monitoring, and updating QMS processes, it also provides a basic introduction to QMS suitable for all agency staff. The first part of this module provides a general overview, introduces key concepts and ...PermalinkThis publication provides children and youth in Asia a platform to report on progress made towards "the need to protect women, children and other vulnerable groups from the disproportionate impacts of disaster and to empower them to promote resiliency within their communities and workplaces" (as recognized in the declaration adopted in Incheon by the Asia Ministerial Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction in 2010) from their own point of view. Previous surveys conducted with children globally show that their views on local governance for disaster risk reduction often tend to be less positive th ...PermalinkThe primary conviction of this report is driven by a concern that people’s exposure and vulnerability, experienced individually and collectively, continue to be twin challenges for the Asia-Pacific region. Faced with growing economic losses and increasingly vulnerable populations, this report has analyzed the drivers of risks and the strategies that are in place to deal with the growing risks.
The report has pursued three primary questions that all dedicated collaborators in the region need to join, “How do they and the people with whom they work understand the disaster risks in ...PermalinkUNESCO, 2012This collection of papers, presented at the symposium ‘Climate change, water stress, conflict and migration’ held on 21 September 2011 in the Netherlands, highlight how climate change, water stress and other environmental problems threaten human security. For example, the paper by Muniruzzaman ilustrates how water ignores political and community boundaries, and how decisions in one place can significantly affect water use elsewhere. India’s plans to build more dams could, for instance, have devastating affects for Pakistan’s agricultural productivity which is highly dependent on water supply f ...PermalinkITU, 2012The ICT industry is at the forefront of the efforts to tackle climate change and meet resource efficiency challenges with the potential to reduce global CO2 emissions by 15% by 2020 (relative to 1990 levels). A key for the realisation of this strategy is the development of green ICT standards, which has been the focus of the second Green Standards Week (Paris, 17 – 21 September).Permalink
This Knowledge Centre on Cities and Climate Change (in short: K4C) helps you to keep track of what is happening in the field of cities and climate change, by serving as a platform for sharing experiences and best practices, as well as facilitating exchange of innovative initiatives.
K4C provides you with access to hundreds of publications and reports and a world map provides you with an overview of cities, countries and regions for which good practice examples and documents are available. Moreover, through K4C you can get in touch directly with institutions and communities that are prom ...PermalinkMIDIMAR, 2012This document identifies all areas prone to floods and landslides in Rwanda for effective prevention, mitigation and preparedness planning mechanisms. It is intended to: (i) identify and map all areas prone to floods and landslides; (ii) increase knowledge on areas at risk in the country for effective Disaster Risk Reduction in Rwanda; (iii) create scientifically driven explanations on the main causes of vulnerability caused by floods and landslides; and (iv) help the local community to understand the natural phenomena/hazards that they are exposed to and raise their awareness for disaster ris ...PermalinkThis study explores how far social justice is considered in local adaptations to climate change impacts across the UK. It was undertaken just as the UK Government increased its commitment to the adaptation agenda – at the same time as public-sector funding cuts reduced the scope and scale of climate change activities at the local level. Its findings are relevant for all bodies operating at this level whose climate change adaptation activities impact on vulnerable communities. The study provides a wealth of insights into how social justice can be incorporated into adaptation planning. It was in ...PermalinkHayden Jacqueline; Cologon Kathy; Asia-Pacific Regional Network for Early Childhood (ARNEC); et al. - ARNEC, 2012This guidebook provides background information on Early Childhood Development (ECD) and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), and sets out processes for assessing the capacity and needs at community levels to further identify future steps to improve ECD in DRR. Furthermore, it addresses the vulnerability faced by children and the efforts to mitigate underlying causes of these vulnerabilities. Beyond national and international, policy and political issues, DRR occurs within communities and at the programme level. DRR processes and activities have the potential to address the special needs of young chi ...PermalinkThis study investigates the choice of occupational focus versus diversification between household members in rural Bangladesh as an autonomous and proactive adaptation strategy against ex ante local rainfall variability risks. The analysis combines nationally representative household level survey data with historical climate variability information at the Upazila level. The authors note that flood prone Upazilas may face reduced risks from local rainfall variability as compared with non-flood prone Upazilas. They find that two members of the same household are less likely to be self-employed i ...PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO); Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC); et al. - WMO, 2012The demand for information on global climate has never been greater.Many regions in the world are clearly impacted by changes in climate, and those changes need to be managed now.It took years of work by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), assessing the climate science literature, and by the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), advancing the state of climate science, to raise the awareness that observations of climate need to be available on a global scale to underpin decisions.The year 2012 marks the 20th anniversary of the system dedicated to providing the observational ...PermalinkThis study aims to understand the extent to which refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) have perceived, experienced and responded to climatic variability and long-term negative climatic change in the east and Horn of Africa. The report is based on discussions with 150 IDPs and refugees from Ethiopia and Uganda, many of whom were farmers and pastoralists from Eritrea, Somalia and eastern Sudan. Key findings include: many of the refugees interviewed had perceived discernible shifts in weather in their home countries over the past 10 to 15 years; where movement away from homelands was ...PermalinkThis study presents global estimates for the number of people newly displaced in 2011 by disasters induced by both weather-related and geophysical hazards, and makes comparisons with findings from 2008, 2009 and 2010. It provides evidence of the scale and location of displacement associated with natural hazard-induced disasters, and is aimed to serve as a contribution to the knowledge required to inform policy and practice, as well as to prevent and prepare for future events.
The study observes that a relatively small number of large and mega-disasters have been responsible for ...PermalinkWHO, 2012The report, Our Planet, Our Health, Our Future
Human health and the Rio Conventions: biological diversity, climate change and desertification, reviews the scientific evidence for the linkages between health and biodiversity, climate change and desertification, the representation of health in the corresponding Rio Conventions, and the opportunities for more integrated and effective policy.PermalinkUNHCR, 2012This chapter examines the international response to the displacement linked to climate change and natural disasters. It begins by describing the displacement challenges linked to the effects of climate change and natural disasters, and then describes a potential normative gap in the protection of people displaced across borders owing to these phenomena. It concludes that protection gaps need to be addressed by the international community, and that solidarity will be tested by the impacts of climate change.PermalinkAs a follow-up to a first paper A preliminary analysis of flood and storm disaster data in Viet Nam, this Quang Binh case study provides a more in-depth disaster profile of one particular province in Viet Nam, including specific temporal and spatial distribution patterns while using district aggregated data. It also looks deeper into the relationship between disasters and poverty through analysis of various indicators: number of deaths, impact on housing and agricultural produce, poverty rate and the percentage of poor households.
The first part of this paper examines the disas ...PermalinkBroadband commission, 2012The purpose of the report is to raise awareness about the pivotal role that ICT and broadband can play in helping to create the low-carbon economy of the future, and it identifies best practices, expresses the views of leaders and outlines clear recommendations for policymakers.
It emphasizes the kind of transformative solutions that are enabled by broadband and provides practical examples of how broadband can be used to help societies reduce greenhouse gas emissions, mitigate and adapt to the effects of climate change, and promote resource efficiency. The report concludes with ...PermalinkADB, 2012Climate change will increase the frequency of extreme weather events, making more geographic places inhospitable to human habitation and secure livelihoods. This report presents a detailed picture of the potential impacts of climate change on migration in Asia and the Pacific. It draws upon a wealth of research to provide policy makers with informed analysis of an emerging phenomenon requiring urgent attention by governments and the international community. The report also suggests that climate-induced migration should be seen not only as a threat to human well-being but also as a potential to ...PermalinkThis paper examines the effect of multilateral energy technology initiatives, so called "Implementing Agreements", on international research collaboration in seven important climate change mitigation technologies. The analysis is conducted using patent data on 33 OECD countries during the period 1970- 2009. We find that co-invention is significantly affected by the membership in the Implementing Agreement. Extending adherence to other countries would increase co-invention by about 90% in the case of wind and fuel cells, and even more in the case of biofuels, solar PV and CCS. Given the urgency ...PermalinkUNEP, 2012The guidebook is structured in eight chapters. First, the guidebook introduces the main concepts to be used. Four generic categories are defined: consumer goods, capital goods, public goods and non-market goods. These categories are used throughout the book to ease the identification of generic barriers and measures. Thereafter, guidance is provided on how to identify and analyse barriers to the transfer and diffusion of climate technologies.PermalinkOrganización Meteorológica Mundial (OMM); Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura (UNESCO); Comisión Oceanográfica Intergubernamental (COI); et al. - OMM, 2012PermalinkOrganisation météorologique mondiale (OMM); Organisation des Nations Unies pour l'Education, la Science et et la Culture (UNESCO); Commission Océanographique Intergouvernementale (COI); et al. - OMM, 2012PermalinkEl doctor Salinger, ex presidente de la Comisión de Meteorología Agrícola de la OMM (2006-2010), esboza los retos de la Comisión por lo que respecta a contribuir a la seguridad alimentaria, desarrollando así el papel que ha desempeñado durante los últimos 60 años.PermalinkBulletin, Vol. 60 (1). WMO, 2011PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Ten Hoeve J.E.; Remer L.A.; Jacobson M.Z. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Aerosol, cloud, water vapor, and temperature profile data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are utilized to examine the impact of aerosols on clouds during the Amazonian biomass burning season in Rondônia, Brazil. It is found that increasing background column water vapor (CWV) throughout this transition season between the Amazon dry and wet seasons likely exerts a strong effect on cloud properties. As a result, proper analysis of aerosol-cloud relationships requires that data be stratified by CWV to account better for the influence of background meteorological vari ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Xing J.; Wang S.X.; Chatani S.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants in China influence not only local and regional environments but also the global atmospheric environment; therefore, it is important to understand how China's air pollutant emissions will change and how they will affect regional air quality in the future. Emission scenarios in 2020 were projected using forecasts of energy consumption and emission control strategies based on emissions in 2005, and on recent development plans for key industries in China. We developed four emission scenarios: REF (current control legislations and implementation status), ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Fiedler V.; Arnold F.; Ludmann S.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Airborne measurements of trace gases and aerosol particles have been made in two aged biomass burning (BB) plumes over the East Atlantic (Gulf of Guinea). The plumes originated from BB in the Southern-Hemisphere African savanna belt. On the day of our measurements (13 August 2006), the plumes had ages of about 10 days and were respectively located in the middle troposphere (MT) at 3900–5500 m altitude and in the upper troposphere (UT) at 10 800–11 200 m. Probably, the MT plume was lifted by dry convection and the UT plume was lifted by wet convection. In the more polluted MT-plume, numerous me ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Gilardoni S.; Vignati E.; Marmer E.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011The quantification of sources of carbonaceous aerosol is important to understand their atmospheric concentrations and regulating processes and to study possible effects on climate and air quality, in addition to develop mitigation strategies.
In the framework of the European Integrated Project on Aerosol Cloud Climate Interactions (EUCAARI) fine (DpPermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Heue K.-P.; Brenninkmeijer C.A.M.; Baker A.K.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011The ash cloud of the Eyjafjallajökull (also referred to as: Eyjafjalla (e.g. Schumann et al., 2011), Eyjafjöll or Eyjafjoll (e.g. Ansmann et al., 2010)) volcano on Iceland caused closure of large parts of European airspace in April and May 2010. For the validation and improvement of the European volcanic ash forecast models several research flights were performed. Also the CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) flying laboratory, which routinely measures at cruise altitude (≈11 km) performed three dedicated measurements flights ...Permalinkis an issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences. The Royal Society, 2011PermalinkPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 369. N° 1934. Thornton Philip K.; Jones Peter G.; Ericksen Polly J.; et al. - The Royal Society, 2011Agricultural development in sub-Saharan Africa faces daunting challenges, which climate change and increasing climate variability will compound in vulnerable areas. The impacts of a changing climate on agricultural production in a world that warms by 4°C or more are likely to be severe in places. The livelihoods of many croppers and livestock keepers in Africa are associated with diversity of options. The changes in crop and livestock production that are likely to result in a 4°C+ world will diminish the options available to most smallholders. In such a world, current crop and livestock variet ...PermalinkPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 369. N° 1934. Anderson Kevin; Bows Alice - The Royal Society, 2011The Copenhagen Accord reiterates the international community’s commitment to ‘hold the increase in global temperature below 2 degrees Celsius’. Yet its preferred focus on global emission peak dates and longer-term reduction targets, without recourse to cumulative emission budgets, belies seriously the scale and scope of mitigation necessary to meet such a commitment. Moreover, the pivotal importance of emissions from non-Annex 1 nations in shaping available space for Annex 1 emission pathways received, and continues to receive, little attention. Building on previous studies, this paper uses a ...PermalinkPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 369. N° 1934. Zelazowski Przemyslaw; Malhi Yadvinder; Huntingford Chris; et al. - The Royal Society, 2011The future of tropical forests has become one of the iconic issues in climate-change science. A number of studies that have explored this subject have tended to focus on the output from one or a few climate models, which work at low spatial resolution, whereas society and conservation-relevant assessment of potential impacts requires a finer scale. This study focuses on the role of climate on the current and future distribution of humid tropical forests (HTFs). We first characterize their contemporary climatological niche using annual rainfall and maximum climatological water stress, which als ...PermalinkPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 369. N° 1934. Gemenne François - The Royal Society, 2011Massive population displacements are now regularly presented as one of the most dramatic possible consequences of climate change. Current forecasts and projections show that regions that would be affected by such population movements are low-lying islands, coastal and deltaic regions, as well as sub-Saharan Africa. Such estimates, however, are usually based on a 2°C temperature rise. In the event of a 4°C+ warming, not only is it likely that climate-induced population movements will be more considerable, but also their patterns could be significantly different, as people might react differentl ...PermalinkPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 369. N° 1934. Bowerman Niel H.A.; Frame David J.; Huntingford Chris; et al. - The Royal Society, 2011A number of recent studies have found a strong link between peak human-induced global warming and cumulative carbon emissions from the start of the industrial revolution, while the link to emissions over shorter periods or in the years 2020 or 2050 is generally weaker. However, cumulative targets appear to conflict with the concept of a ‘floor’ in emissions caused by sectors such as food production. Here, we show that the introduction of emissions floors does not reduce the importance of cumulative emissions, but may make some warming targets unachievable. For pathways that give a most likely ...PermalinkPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 369. N° 1934. New Mark; Liverman Diana; Schroder Heike; et al. - The Royal Society, 2011The 1992 UN Framework Convention on Climate Change commits signatories to preventing ‘dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system’, leaving unspecified the level of global warming that is dangerous. In the late 1990s, a limit of 2°C global warming above preindustrial temperature was proposed as a ‘guard rail’ below which most of the dangerous climate impacts could be avoided. The 2009 Copenhagen Accord recognized the scientific view ‘that the increase in global temperature should be below 2 degrees Celsius’ despite growing views that this might be too high. At the same time, t ...Permalink