World Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; Tenth Seminar for Homogenization and Quality Control in Climatological Databases and Fifth Conference on Spatial Interpolation Techniques in Climatology and Meteorology (Budapest, Hungary, 12-14 October 2020, Online) - WMO, 2021In this paper we try to summarize the main topics of homogenization, quality control and spatial interpolation.
Tenth Seminar for Homogenization and Quality Control in Climatological Databases and Fifth Conference on Spatial Interpolation Techniques in Climatology and Meteorology
World Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; Tenth Seminar for Homogenization and Quality Control in Climatological Databases and Fifth Conference on Spatial Interpolation Techniques in Climatology and Meteorology (Budapest, Hungary, 12-14 October 2020, Online)Published by: WMO ; 2021
In this paper we try to summarize the main topics of homogenization, quality control and spatial interpolation.
Format: Digital (Free)Published by: BMO ; 2020 (Издание 2019 г.)
Collection(s) and Series: BMO- No. 1238
Language(s): Russian; Other Languages: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Spanish
Format: Digital (Free)
ISBN (or other code): 978-92-63-41238-6Published by: WMO ; 2019 (2019 edition)
Collection(s) and Series: WMO- No. 1238
Language(s): English; Other Languages: Arabic, French, Russian, Chinese, Spanish
Format: Digital (Free)
ISBN (or other code): 978-92-63-11238-5本手册就高质量气候数据集的开发、提供、交换和维护提供了指导和要求。手册中介绍的标准和推荐规范旨在确保可用于气候评估、监测、应用和相关服务的数据可持续地满足关于质量、治理、可访问性和可用性的最低要求。Published by: 世界气象组织 (WMO) ; 2019 (2019年版)
Collection(s) and Series: OMM- No. 1238
Language(s): Chinese; Other Languages: English, Spanish, Russian, Arabic, French
Format: Digital (Free)En el presente Manual se proporcionan directrices y requisitos sobre la creación, el suministro, el intercambio y el mantenimiento de conjuntos de datos climáticos de alta calidad. Las normas y prácticas recomendadas que se describen tienen por objeto garantizar que los datos que se proporcionan para la evaluación, la vigilancia, las aplicaciones y los servicios relacionados con el clima cumplan de forma sostenible un conjunto mínimo de requisitos con respecto a la calidad, la gobernanza, la accesibilidad y la facilidad de uso.Published by: OMM ; 2019 (Edición 2019)
En el presente Manual se proporcionan directrices y requisitos sobre la creación, el suministro, el intercambio y el mantenimiento de conjuntos de datos climáticos de alta calidad. Las normas y prácticas recomendadas que se describen tienen por objeto garantizar que los datos que se proporcionan para la evaluación, la vigilancia, las aplicaciones y los servicios relacionados con el clima cumplan de forma sostenible un conjunto mínimo de requisitos con respecto a la calidad, la gobernanza, la accesibilidad y la facilidad de uso.
Collection(s) and Series: OMM- No. 1238
Language(s): Spanish; Other Languages: English, French, Russian, Arabic, Chinese
Format: Digital (Free)Le présent manuel contient des indications et des exigences relatives à l'élaboration, la fourniture, l'échange et l’actualisation de jeux de données climatologiques de haute qualité. Les normes et pratiques recommandées qu'il décrit visent à garantir que les données mises à disposition pour l'évaluation et la surveillance du climat ainsi que pour les applications et les services connexes répondent de manière durable à un ensemble minimal d'exigences en matière de qualité, de gouvernance, d'accessibilité et d’exploitabilité.PermalinkThis lesson was developed by meteorologist, Dr. Mick Pope, with sponsorship from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BoM). The lesson is a somewhat broad-brush review of the overall forecast process, but with specific application of the forecast funnel approach as used by Australia's Bureau of Meteorology (BoM). The forecast process components include decision support and communication, use of numerical weather prediction, and applying the forecast funnel approach. The forecast funnel is described in detail, along with the forecaster time pyramid, and it is applied using a BoM forecast polic ...PermalinkNWP is one of the most important forecasting tools in our toolbox. Yet identifying when/where it isn’t capturing reality is difficult. In the short-term forecasting range, it is important as a forecaster to identify when/where NWP output isn’t matching reality. Then you can make appropriate changes to the forecast output. To find those mismatches anywhere in the world, one of the best tools is satellite imagery. In this lesson, we will focus on a few cases using satellite imagery to help identify mismatched features/processes between the satellite imagery and the NWP. Anyone trying to add valu ...PermalinkThe Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) aboard the GOES-R series satellites provides continuous lightning detection from space, giving forecasters a unique tool to monitor developing thunderstorms. This 45 minute lesson introduces learners to the benefits of using GLM gridded products, primarily Flash Extent Density (FED). Learners will explore several North American convective events and use Flash Extent Density, in combination with other satellite and radar data, to diagnose convective initiation, storm intensification, and areal extent of lightning activity. Helpful hints to keep in mind w ...PermalinkThe Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) defined that the suitability is a function of crop climate requirements and land characteristics and it is a measure of how will the qualities of land unit matches the requirements of a particular form of land use. The aim of this research is to improve maize production in the lowlands of Lesotho, this is one of the agro-ecological zones with the most arable land and good soils so it is best to determine the suitability of each crop across this region. This will be achieved by quantitatively and qualitatively looking at the climate conditions require ...PermalinkThe National Weather Service National Blend of Models (NBM) was updated to version 3.0 on 27 July 2017. Changes include: Eight new components for the contiguous U.S. (CONUS) and Alaska, including four deterministic models, two ensemble systems, and two post-processed statistical components Five new components for Hawaii and Puerto Rico Expanded forecast domains for the CONUS and Alaska A “Time of Day” (ToD), rather than NWP model, initial time concept Hourly NBM forecasts, with short, day 2-4, and extended forecasts Updated NBM guidance available 50-60 minutes after hourly run time New weather ...PermalinkThis listing of multilingual training materials for the GOES-R series includes both foundational lessons and quick guides developed by various partners at the request of the U.S. National Weather Service and NESDIS. The selections included here represent materials translated to Spanish and Portuguese. Training contributors include COMET, RAMMB/CIRA, CIMSS, and SPoRT. Translation contributors/reviewers include the Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (SMN) in Argentina and the University of São Paulo in Brazil.PermalinkThe Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) flies aboard the GOES-R series satellites and provides lightning detection data at a quality and resolution not previously available from space. The GLM's continuous lightning monitoring capability is a valuable asset to detecting and monitoring developing thunderstorms 24 hours a day. This 30 minute lesson introduces learners to the benefits of using Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) observations in assessing convection. Learners will explore a severe weather event near Buenos Aires, Argentina, and practice using GLM observations to determine initia ...PermalinkThis restructuring of the Organization will enhance proactive regional engagement and capacity development. In our response to the growing global demand for weather, climate and water expertise, the reform provisions assure that no Member is left behind.Permalinkإن إعادة ھیكلة المنظمة ( WMO ) المشار إلیھا أعلاه ستعزز المشاركة الإقلیمیة الاستباقیة وبناء القدرات. وعملاً على تلبیة الطلب العالمي المتنامي على الخبرة المتخصصة في مجالات الطقس والمناخ والماء، تكفل أحكام الإصلاح ألا یتخلف أي عضو عن الركب.Permalinkإن إعادة ھیكلة المنظمة ( WMO ) المشار إلیھا أعلاه ستعزز المشاركة الإقلیمیة الاستباقیة وبناء القدرات. وعملاً على تلبیة الطلب العالمي المتنامي على الخبرة المتخصصة في مجالات الطقس والمناخ والماء، تكفل أحكام الإصلاح ألا یتخلف أي عضو عن الركب.Permalink
Permalinkإن إعادة ھیكلة المنظمة ( WMO ) المشار إلیھا أعلاه ستعزز المشاركة الإقلیمیة الاستباقیة وبناء القدرات. وعملاً على تلبیة الطلب العالمي المتنامي على الخبرة المتخصصة في مجالات الطقس والمناخ والماء، تكفل أحكام الإصلاح ألا یتخلف أي عضو عن الركب.PermalinkPermalinkPermalink
PermalinkPermalinkPermalinkТакая реструктуризация Организации расширит региональное участие и развитие потенциала в упредительном режиме. В целях реагирования на растущий спрос на экспертные знания в области погоды, климата и воды положения о реформе обеспечивают, чтобы ни один Член не остался без внимания.PermalinkLa reestructuración de la Organización mejorará su participación activa a nivel regional y el desarrollo de capacidad. En nuestra respuesta a la necesidad creciente de conocimientos técnicos sobre el tiempo, el clima y el agua, las disposiciones de la reforma velan por que ninguno de los Miembros de la OMM se quede atrás.PermalinkCette restructuration permettra à l’Organisation de s’engager plus résolument sur le front régional et de développer les capacités des Régions. En s’attachant à répondre par cette réforme à la demande mondiale de savoir-faire dans les domaines du temps du climat et de l’eau, l’OMM veillera à n’oublier aucun de ses Membres.PermalinkIn this paper we try to summarize the main topics of homogenization, quality control and spatial interpolation.PermalinkIn this webinar recording Scott Rudlosky and Geoffrey Stano discuss and demonstrate the capabilities of the GOES-R/16 Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) in both operational and research applications. You will learn how the GLM, the first lightning mapper in geostationary orbit, differs from land-based lightning detection. The presenters summarize important processes known as lightning events, group, flashes, and lightning jumps and show products that illustrate the location and areal extent of lightning, and its evolution in cloud systems. With this information you should be able to integrat ...PermalinkIn this webinar recording Dr. Emily Berndt and Dr. Michael Folmer discuss the capabilities of the GOES-R/16 Red-Green-Blue (RGB) composites. Multispectral or RGB composites are qualitative, false color images designed to enhance specific features in the atmosphere that are important to forecasters, aviators, mariners, and emergency response officials. RGB composites have been enthusiastically integrated into forecast operations because of their ability to highlight the presence and evolution of important forecast phenomena. This presentation details the development of RGB composites and provid ...PermalinkThis case-study lesson provides an opportunity to apply the information in the ASMET lesson “Satellite-Derived Climatology Products for Monitoring Convection Over West and Central Africa” to a case that occurred over West and Central Africa in June 2014. It demonstrates how to integrate climatology information with satellite, global instability indices (GII), and NWP data when convection is forecast to occur.PermalinkThis lesson offers users of climate information a demonstration of the utility of the Local Climate Analysis Tool (LCAT) for water resources applications. The training follows a NOAA Climate Resilience Toolkit case study in Tampa, Florida, and illustrates how LCAT analyses can be used to inform the steps to climate resilience outlined in the Toolkit. This text-based, interactive lesson will be accessible to anyone using LCAT for water resources decision-making, though will be most useful to those with some familiarity with drought/water resources questions and information needs. Some backgroun ...PermalinkThe National Weather Service (NWS) has developed the INSITE tool (INtegrated Support for Impacted air-Traffic Environments) to improve NWS convective impact forecasts by providing functionality that enables forecasters to include more precise impact areas in aviation convective weather forecast products. The tool lets forecasters identify potential constraints to the National Airspace System by combining forecast weather and air-traffic data. Improved convective weather forecast products can reduce delays in air-traffic and increase efficiency in the National Airspace System (NAS). In this 45- ...PermalinkIn this webinar recording, Dr. Dan Lindsey presents GOES-16/GOES-R 30-second and 1-minute rapid scan imagery to demonstrate unprecedented views of convection, wildfire, storm intensification, and other quickly-evolving features. GOES-16 rapid scan also enables cloud and feature tracking in and around tropical cyclones. The webinar includes examples of how rapid scan sectors may be prioritized and selected by the National Weather Service. Instructions about how to obtain and use archived data are also provided. This is a recorded webinar presented by an instructor at his home institution. Audio ...PermalinkGOES-16, the first satellite in the GOES-R series, launched in November 2016 and now provides 16 multispectral bands of satellite data, including CONUS scans every five minutes, with 0.5 kilometer visible imagery resolution and 2.0 km longwave infrared resolution. This lesson harnesses GOES-16’s increased temporal and spatial resolutions to identify convective development and intensity signatures on traditional longwave IR and visible band imagery, and compares the experience to using legacy GOES products. The lesson is geared toward early-career forecasters, those forecasters wanting more exp ...PermalinkThis lesson provides an overview of Earth’s atmosphere, its vertical structure, the fundamental forces acting on air, and how the atmosphere's composition affects the colors we see in the sky. The lesson also includes information about how Earth receives energy from the Sun as solar and infrared radiation, and the mechanisms for transferring heat around the globe. Learners will be introduced to the components of Earth’s water cycle, and also briefly explore the main types of systems used to observe the atmosphere.PermalinkThis scenario-based lesson examines how the limitations of high-resolution NWP forecasts affect their analyses and forecasts of winter and severe weather, and how best to use the output in light of the limitations. The lesson is structured around a case that occurred in Texas in December 2015 when winter weather and severe weather hit Amarillo and Dallas-Ft. Worth, respectively. As users go through the case, they learn how spin-up time, errors in initial conditions, and deficiencies in the modeling of mesoscale phenomena can impact high-resolution forecasts in the NAM nest and HRRR models.PermalinkThe EPS Products Reference Guide provides information about nine commonly used ensemble prediction system (EPS) products. Each has a description, tips for interpreting and using it effectively, a list of its strengths and weaknesses, and practice exercises. The Guide is meant to be used as reference material and does not have a quiz.PermalinkThis publication responds to the recommendations made in the review of the future roles and operation of RTCs, which was carried out by the Executive Council Panel of Experts on Education and Training from 2012 to 2014. The review and recommendations were approved by the WMO Executive Council at its sixty-sixth session in 2014. The review underlined the importance and usefulness of the RTCs to WMO Members. However, it also noted that, for Members to get even more value from such centres, the criteria for designation and reconfirmation of RTCs needed to be improved and that Directors of RTCs wo ...PermalinkClimate-related displacement is already a global reality. Every year, the lives of millions of people are affected when they are displaced by the impacts of weather and climate hazards. Some of the largest disasters make the international headlines, but most disasters do not even make the national news. Yet, for poor and vulnerable families struggling to survive, even a small weather-related event can make an enormous impact on their lives. The Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC) has estimated that between 2008 and 2014, an annual average of at least 22.5 million people were displac ...PermalinkThe purpose of this publication is to provide the reader with a broad overview of the main information technology security (ITS) components and procedures. It is not meant to be an extensive security course, as such information is widely available in the information technology (IT) industry. It is aimed at high-level managers, system managers and technicians who wish to have an introduction to ITS. It should act as an aid to understanding the basic concepts and principles of ITS, and help the reader to direct further study in this ever-widening field of computer science.PermalinkThe Satellite Foundational Course for GOES-R (SatFC-G) is a series of nearly 40 lessons designed specifically for National Weather Service (NWS) forecasters and decision makers to prepare for the U.S.’ next-generation geostationary environmental satellites. The course is intended to help learners develop or improve their understanding of the capabilities, value, and anticipated benefits from the GOES-R suite of instruments. These instruments and imagery offer improved monitoring of meteorological, environmental, climatological, and space weather phenomena and related hazards. The course will a ...PermalinkThe TsunamiReady® program began in 2001 to promote tsunami hazard preparedness and improve public safety before, during, and after tsunami emergencies. In 2015, the National Weather Service updated the TsunamiReady Guidelines based directly on emergency management principles and with input from the social sciences. This training provides an overview of the 2015 guidelines, which are focused on mitigation, preparedness, and response. The training will equip community officials and others interested in becoming TsunamiReady with strategies for streamlining their implementation of the guidelines. ...PermalinkThis module introduces aviation forecasters to a conceptual framework for analyzing, diagnosing and predicting convective cessation and resulting conditions near airports. Users will first learn about five main environments with respect to convection, and three patterns in which these environments are commonly arranged. Next, users are immersed into an adjustable-time case simulator to practice applying the convective environment frameworks to their forecast process, while periodically amending TAFs and responding to warning, storm report and caller interruptions. Finally, a case summary ties ...PermalinkClimate outlooks provide probability-based information about expected rainfall and temperatures at timescales of months or longer. This lesson demonstrates how monthly and seasonal outlooks issued by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology can be combined with other information for use in decision-making by persons in climate-sensitive sectors. The lesson explains the main drivers affecting Australia's climate—ENSO, Indian Ocean Dipole, Southern Annular Mode, and the subtropical ridge—and explores how the status of the climate drivers can affect the outlook maps as well as confidence in the outlo ...PermalinkAimed at surveyors and GIS professionals who use geodetic-quality GNSS equipment to determine positions for land planning, coastal monitoring and other purposes, this video covers best practices for reducing errors in the areas of: 1. location and environment, 2. equipment setup and 3. observation times and accuracy checks. This resource is hosted on COMET's YouTube Channel.PermalinkProduced in collaboration between NOAA’s National Geodetic Survey (NGS) and The COMET Program, this video explains the role of topo-bathy lidar products in NOAA’s mapping and charting program, and how these products provide a critical dataset for coastal resilience, coastal intelligence, and place-based conservation. Federal, state and local decision-makers, coastal zone managers, community planners as well as general and scientific users of mapping products will find this 4-minute video helpful for understanding the benefits of coastal elevation data produced by NGS. This resource is hosted o ...PermalinkThe World Weather Research Programme has been established in 1998 for addressing the growing societal impacts of a range of high-impact weather events, such as landfalling hurricanes and heavy rainfall. It served as an international umbrella beneath which many international and national research programs related to weather prediction can function more effectively. It initiated, endorsed, and facilitated projects that required an especially large critical mass of effort. [...]PermalinkA weather forecaster’s knowledge of climatology is important to the success of a forecast, especially where convection is involved. That’s particularly true over Central and West Africa where convection has a strong diurnal cycle and usually develops over particular geographic regions and during specific time intervals. The lesson describes satellite-derived cloud climatology products and several global instability indices, all of which can be integrated with other products to forecast convection. Although the lesson uses examples of climatology products from specific months, it makes the full ...PermalinkAimed at community planners, emergency managers, and other coastal zone decision-makers this video will explain how using geospatial information already available through NOAA, combined with strategic local investments in infrastructure can provide communities with the data needed to confidently plan for future sea-level changes. This resource is hosted on COMET's YouTube Channel.PermalinkThis lesson provides information on climatology—what it is, the factors that create an area's climate, and the sources and uses of climate information. Focused specifically on tropical Pacific islands, the content covers the key features influencing climate in that region and includes examples for four locations distributed across the tropical Pacific Ocean, both north and south of the equator. The lesson provides a basic introduction to tropical climatology intended for a wide range of users, from meteorology technicians, forecasters, and scientists, to those in industries or sectors influenc ...PermalinkThis video explains the difference between the U.S. survey foot (sFT) and the international survey foot (iFT) and the importance of this distinction when working with map projections. It will be helpful to surveyors, planners and anyone who needs to convert map coordinates from meters to feet. This resource is hosted on COMET's YouTube Channel.PermalinkGood rainfall draws many people to settle across the eastern Africa highlands for farming and other businesses. However, factors such as steep terrain, logging, livestock grazing, agriculture, and construction, have increased erosion and contributed to less stable slopes. These factors can lead to devastating landslides and mudslides, especially during episodes of very heavy rain. Forecasting and monitoring heavy rainfall is challenging, especially in mountainous regions that have few surface observations. This make satellite data critical for meteorologists and hydrologists forecasting for th ...PermalinkThis module helps forecasters provide decision support services during hazardous materials emergencies. Topics covered include: Types of weather data inputs required for short-range dispersion models typically used by emergency managers Types of inputs required to run the web version of the HYSPLIT model with the ALOHA source term, which is now available to NWS forecasters The types and scales of events that are appropriate and inappropriate for modeling by HYSPLIT Key uncertainties that can cause misleading dispersion model forecasts The processes and limitations of CAMEO/ALOHA and HYSPLIT Ho ...PermalinkThis lesson provides an overview of the primary influences of watershed and channel sedimentation. In a short narrated portion of the lesson, we explore a section of the Rio Grande watershed and channel in New Mexico using Google Earth imagery, river profiles, and graphic animations. We highlight features of the upland catchments, the river channel, and the Elephant Butte Reservoir. We then demonstrate how environmental factors (climate, geography, land use changes, reservoirs) impact the supply and movement of sediments for the Rio Grande and other rivers. The focus is on the three primary pr ...PermalinkIt is not enough to assert—to an elected official, a regulator, a donor organization or the taxpayer—that one’s organization is doing an effective job of flood management. One also has to be able to provide a credible answer to the question: “How do you know?” 2 There is a multiplicity of flood management activities that can be pursued by a plethora of government jurisdictions, government agencies, NGOs, private and volunteer groups— independently, in cooperation, in competition. These activities may include: constructing flood prevention infrastructure; rebuilding houses, buildings and infras ...PermalinkThis national assessment brings together existing evidence on the migration, environment and climate change nexus in Papua New Guinea (PNG).
The report provides a review of environmental migration materialised in local realities and compiles data from a wide variety of sources, including government policy documents, academic research, working papers and other publications and research carried out by national and international organizations, NGOs and research institutions.
An overview of PNG’s exposure to environmental and climatic changes is provided, as well as t ...PermalinkThe Policy Brief is primarily aimed at a human rights audience, and intends to both inform human rights policymakers and provide guidance on how international human rights law, institutions and mechanisms might contribute to more effective, just and sustainable policy responses (at the international and national levels) to climate change and crossborder displacement.
It reflects primary and secondary research; the outcome of a meeting during the 25th session of the Human Rights Council (the Council) on the ‘human rights implications of displacement in the context of disasters’ o ...PermalinkWharton Risk Management and Decision Processes Center (Risk Center) ; Zurich Insurance Group Limited - Zurich Insurance Group Limited, 2015This white paper explores the lessons learned from Katrina and how the recovery in New Orleans inspired the creation of new methods of building resilience. The paper identifies a number of critical areas to keep stakeholders aligned, including prioritizing flooding as the paramount risk, devoting more resources to preventive measures rather than post-event disaster relief, and overcoming current infrastructure vulnerabilities. The paper also offers first steps and tactics to help assess and address communities at risk, and ways to improve the affordability of risk-based disaster insurance.PermalinkDrawing from research in rural north-western Benin, this policy brief looks at the effect of migration on the in-land fisheries subsector.
It emphasizes the need for effective participation of all stakeholders in the management of natural resources to improve livelihoods in the region facing population growth and climate variability.
The brief highlights that migration – internal and international – is an important feature of the social lives of people across West Africa. While movements within the subregion are generally due to complex and multi-causal factors, n ...PermalinkMalawi - government, 2015The PDNA report indicates that the Malawi 2015 floods affected 1,101,364 people, displaced 230,000 and killed 106 people. The assessment focuses on medium to long term reconstruction and provides the guiding principles for recovery, including assessment of the damage, losses, and recovery and reconstruction strategies for each sector are provided in detailed sector.PermalinkInternal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC); Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) - Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre, 2015This annual report draws on information from a wide range of sources, including governments, UN and international organisations, NGOs and media, to provide up-to-date figures and analysis on displacement caused by disasters associated with rapid-onset geophysical and weather-related hazards such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods and storms. The report, the sixth of its kind, aims to equip governments, local authorities, civil society organisations and international and regional institutions with evidence relevant to these key post-2015 agenda.Permalink
This study covers national laws and policies directly related to climate change mitigation and adaptation, across 99 countries.
It looks at those passed before 1 January 2015 and covers 33 developed and 66 developing countries; 32 Annex-I and 67 non-Annex-I countries. Taken together, the study countries produce 93 per cent of world emissions, including 46 of the world’s top 50 emitters. They are home to 90 per cent of the world’s forests.
The definition of climate and climate-related laws used in the study reflects the relevance of climate policy f ...PermalinkSciaccaluga Giovanni; International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) - IFRC, 2015The book offers a critique of the dominant trends in thinking about adaptation and climate change, particularly social dimensions.
It presents a framework for making sense of choices around resilience (stability), transition (incremental social change and the exercising of existing rights) and transformation (new rights claims and changes in political regimes).
The resilience– transition–transformation framework is supported by three detailed case study chapters. These also illustrate the diversity of contexts in which adaption is unfolding, from organisations to ...PermalinkThe paper provides a review of natural disasters and their impacts in Asia and the Pacific by disaster type, sub region and level of development. The first section looks at the occurrence of natural disaster events. This is followed by an analysis of fatalities and economic loss in sections two and three respectively. The short-term consequences of natural disasters on the economy are also mentioned. The final section briefly discusses aspects regarding exposure and vulnerability of countries in Asia and the Pacific.PermalinkЦелью данной публикации является содействовать единообразному пониманию основных требований к квалификации лиц, которым в соответствии с определением ВМО может быть присвоена квалификация метеоролога или техника-метеоролога, и при этом оказать помощь национальным метеорологическим и гидрологическим службам (НМГС) в создании их соответствующих систем классификации персонала и разработке учебных программ, которые бы в полной мере соответствовали международным стандартам.PermalinkLa presente publicación tiene como objeto facilitar un entendimiento común de las cualificaciones básicas requeridas de las personas que deben ser consideradas, bien sea meteorólogos o técnicos en meteorología tal como los define la OMM y, a su vez, asistir a los Servicios Meteorológicos e Hidrológicos Nacionales (SMHN) en establecer sus sistemas de clasificación del personal y programas de formación profesional respectivos, a fin de cumplir satisfactoriamente con las normas internacionales.PermalinkLe Guide a pour objet de favoriser une interprétation commune des aptitudes de base exigées de celles et ceux qui veulent être reconnus comme météorologistes ou techniciens en météorologie selon la définition de l’Organisation météorologique mondiale (OMM), tout en aidant les Services météorologiques et hydrologiques nationaux (SMHN) à concevoir des systèmes de classification du personnel ainsi que des programmes de formation professionnelle qui satisfassent aux normes internationales.PermalinkThe purpose of this publication is to facilitate a common understanding of the basic qualifications required of individuals who are to be recognized either as Meteorologists or as Meteorological Technicians, as defined by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), while assisting National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) in establishing their respective personnel classification systems and training programmes to satisfactorily meet international standards.Permalinkالمنظمة العالمية للأرصاد - المنظمة العالمية للأرصاد, 2015 (طبعة 2015; مجموعة مطبوعات المنظمة-No. 1083)الهدف من هذا المطبوع هو تيسير التوصل إلى فهم مشترك للمؤهلات الأساسية اللازمة للأفراد المعترف بهم كأخصائيي أرصاد جوية أو فنيي أرصاد جوية، حسب تعريف المنظمة العالمية للأرصاد الجوية ) WMO (، وأيضاً مساعدة المرافق الوطنية للأرصاد الجوية والهيدرولوجيا ) NMHSs ( على إنشاء نظم لتصنيف العاملين، وكذلك إنشاء برامجها التدريبية للوفاء بالمعايير الدولية على نحو مرضٍ.Permalink本出版物的目的是便于读者对WMO规定的被承认为气象学家或气象技术员的个人具备所要求的基 本资质有一种共同的认识，与此同时还有助于国家气象和水文部门(NMHS)建立各自的人员分类体系和 培训计划，以便令人满意地达到各项国际标准。PermalinkThis report analyses evidence linking community forest rights with healthier forests and lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from deforestation and forest degradation.
It makes the case for strengthening the rights of indigenous and local communities over their forests as a policy tool for mitigating climate change. The report argues that when Indigenous Peoples and local communities have no or weak legal rights, their forests tend to be vulnerable to deforestation and thus become the source of carbon dioxide emissions. Legal forest rights for communities and government protection of t ...PermalinkIntroduction to Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay (AMDAR) provides national meteorological services worldwide, airlines, and aviation organizations with information about the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) aircraft-based observing system. The audience includes meteorological service managers and providers, observational development groups, the aviation industry, and others interested in benefiting from an aircraft-based observing system in their region. The content includes interviews with several experts to provide examples of AMDAR use for both meteorological and aviation applicati ...PermalinkThis brief video focuses on the importance of both precision and accuracy in geodetic surveying and the difference between them. Produced in collaboration between NOAA’s National Geodetic Survey and The COMET Program, this video is aimed at surveying professionals, planners, policy-makers and others who use mapping products. The video emphasizes that the accuracy of survey measurements should always be verified by relating measurements to a known reference system such as the National Spatial Reference System in the United States. This resource is hosted on COMET's YouTube Channel.PermalinkThis series of short videos, produced in collaboration between NOAA’s National Geodetic Survey and The COMET Program, provides an introduction to geodetic datums for anyone who uses mapping products or other geo-spatial tools. 1. What are Geodetic Datums? (4:36) In this video we explain the basic concepts behind geodetic datums, where they are used, and why it is important to know about and use the correct datums. 2. How Were Geodetic Datums Established? (3:12) In this video, we explore the history of geodetic datums in the United States, and how they were established at a national level to as ...PermalinkIntroduction to Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay (AMDAR) provides national meteorological services worldwide, airlines, and aviation organizations with information about the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) aircraft-based observing system. The audience includes meteorological service managers and providers, observational development groups, the aviation industry, and others interested in benefiting from an aircraft-based observing system in their region. The content includes interviews with several experts to provide examples of AMDAR use for both meteorological and aviation applications. Additional details about the systems and requirements for implementing AMDAR are also included.Permalink2014Background: The amount and distribution of rainfall and temperature influences household food availability, thus increasing the risk of child under nutrition. However, few studies examined the local spatial variability and the impact of temperature and rainfall on child under nutrition at a smaller scale (resolution). We conducted this study to evaluate the effect of weather variables on child under nutrition and the variations in effects across the three agro ecologies of Ethiopia.
Methods: A longitudinal panel study was conducted. We used crop productions (cereals and oilseeds), lives ...PermalinkThis document addresses the need for coordinated approaches to prevent, manage and respond to the enormous challenge of disaster-induced internal displacement. It is an essential contribution to the knowledge of the scale and impacts of rapid-onset disasters.
It provides a solid evidence base for understanding global patterns and trends in displacement, and to inform frameworks for the achievement of post-2015 goals on disaster risk reduction and sustainable development. It also underscores the need for climate change adaptation plans and donor commitments that give due attenti ...PermalinkThe Atlas of Mortality and Economic Losses from Weather, Climate and Water Extremes (1970–2012) seeks to raise awareness of these and other challenges to collecting and analysing disaster risk information. It presents a worldwide analysis of extreme weather, climate and water events, drawing on the Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT), compiled by the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED). The Atlas compares the reported impacts of meteorological, climatic and hydrological extremes (as categorized by CRED) on people and economies at both global and regional levels.PermalinkThis paper documents a significant impact of climate variation on urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa, primarily in more arid countries. By lowering farm incomes, reduced moisture availability encourages migration to nearby cities, while wetter conditions slow migration. The paper also provides evidence for rural-urban income links. In countries with a larger industrial base, reduced moisture shrinks the agricultural sector and raises total incomes in nearby cities. However, if local cities are entirely dependent on servicing agriculture so their fortunes move with those of agriculture, reduced ...PermalinkThis topic guide focuses on resilience to natural hazards, with emphasis on humanitarian action, in fragile and conflict-afflicted states as well as in other contexts. Although some principles are common to both contexts, there remains a high level of uncertainty about how to build resilience in adverse political economies. The document is a useful guide for policymakers and practitioners synthesizing the evidence, approaches and lessons that emerge from the literature.PermalinkThis report aims to contribute to a future comprehensive quantitative depiction of potential climate change impacts in Switzerland, from which the impacted community can draw upon to inform and support stakeholders and policymakers. The report compiles quantitative information from multiple fields, based on common climate scenarios. It is thus an effort toward building a set of quantitative scenarios of climate change impacts in Switzerland, in analogy to the CH2011 climate scenarios.PermalinkБюллетень, Том 61 (1). BMO, 2013Это жители Эфиопии, Непала, Кирибати, Бразилии, канадской территории Нунавут и Бангладеш. Их связывает то, что они живут на одной планете и принадлежат к одной цивилизации. У каждого из них свой неповторимый образ жизни, основанный на опыте существования в разных климатических зонах планеты, будь то экваториальная, полузасушливая, муссонная, горная, океаническая или полярная зона.PermalinkThe Australian Community Climate and Earth-System Simulator (ACCESS) is a new coupled ocean and atmosphere climate modelling system being developed at the Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research (CAWCR). ACCESS uses the UK Met Office Unified Model (Met UM, Davies et al. 2005) as its atmospheric component, which is coupled with the GFDL Ocean Model version 4.1 (MOM4p1, Griffies et al. 2009) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory Sea Ice Model version 4.1 (CICE4, Hunke and Lipscomb 2010), using the numerical coupler OASIS3.25 (Valcke 2006). The development of ACCESS has followed ...PermalinkHowes Michael; National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility (NCCARF) - Griffith University, 2013This report investigates impacts of climate change, population growth, and urban coastal development on Australian environment, economy, and society, particularly in relation to bushfire and flood. The report aims to develop the foundations for a nationally consistent approach to disaster risk management and climate change adaptation that would be supported by a set of appropriate reforms to governing institutions and tools.
This is the final report of a research project entitled "The Right Tool for the Job: Achieving climate change adaptation outcomes through improved disaster ...PermalinkThe hazards associated with convective systems present some of the most dangerous conditions encountered by aircraft and pose many challenges to aviation operations. When convection is forecast to develop, aviation forecasters are required to issue a series of warning messages and other meteorological aeronautical products to various members of the aviation community. This lesson teaches these forecasters how to produce the products, doing so in the context of a case study in which learners assume the role of aeronautical forecaster on duty at the airport in Niamey, Niger on a night when conve ...PermalinkThis lesson provides an overview of meteorological and environmental RGB products, namely, how they are constructed and how to use them. The first half provides background information on the RGB development process and the rapid evolution of RGB products as newer geostationary and polar-orbiting satellite imagers incorporate additional spectral channels. The second half of the lesson, the Applications section, focuses on the formulation and uses of RGB products; providing examples, interpretation exercises, satellite specific information, and other background information for many of the common ...PermalinkWriting TAFs for Ceilings and Visibility, Africa Edition outlines the processes for developing an effective Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (TAF) that meets International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) guidelines. Geared specifically to forecasters in Africa, the lesson includes a case study for an event impacting Cape Town International Airport to provide practice applying the processes to real-life forecast situations.PermalinkThis module applies concepts covered in the module, Fog: Its Processes and Impacts to Aviation. It examines the fog processes at a tropical location: Guyana. A basic overview of the main fog types is provided, and then a detailed analysis is done for a representative fog event at the Cheddi Jagan International Airport in Guyana. Conclusions are made about fog processes in Guyana which can then be applied to forecasting for aviation impacts.PermalinkThis three-hour lesson describes the impacts of weather on aviation operations and highlights the role of the National Weather Service (NWS) in supporting the Federal Aviation Administration's air traffic management organization. The lesson contains an Introduction (40 min), several cases (10-20 min each) focused on various weather phenomena, and a detailed case (35 min) allowing forecasters to follow the planning for and evolution of an event. The content emphasizes best practices for aviation forecasters, including identifying and communicating the threat, understanding partners' needs, and ...PermalinkMesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs) occur globally and can account for significant percentages of the annual precipitation in some locations. MCSs are responsible for flooding as well as damaging surface winds in some instances. Thus, it is important for forecasters to understand when, where, and how MCSs develop and maintain themselves. This module covers all modes of MCSs with a strong focus on the tropics and the different aspects that brings to MCS development, maintenance, and structure. It describes conceptual models of MCSs and the dynamical and physical processes that influence their e ...PermalinkFlood Maps are tools to visualize flood information for decision makers and the general public. These maps form the basis for developing flood risk scenarios based on land use, various environmental and climate conditions and including social and economic conditions. Flood maps in their various formats and scales are the basis for the planning and implementation of development alternatives. In addition to the general objective of a flood map, special uses require specific information including maps that depict exposure to floods of various recurrence periods, flood risks, vulnerability and res ...PermalinkHow can countries prepare to manage the impact of climate-change induced natural disasters? How can countries ensure that they have the governmental institutions required to manage the challenge of adaptation to climate change? In this paper, a range of economic and institutional measures are tested for their potential effects on natural disaster resilience and the quality of environmental governance. The findings suggest an important role is played by social and political institutions in determining the success of adaptation and response to natural disasters, in particular in the degree to wh ...PermalinkThe anticipated changes in water availability, temperature rise, soil degradation and the suggested increase in extreme weather events are likely to greatly affect agriculture in India. This paper aims to develop the vulnerability profile of agricultural systems of the Indian states to the changing climate scenarios. It develops two sub indices: Bio-Physical vulnerability index and Socio-Economic vulnerability index to develop the final overall vulnerability index.
The contribution of agriculture to India’s GDP has been declining over recent years, but agriculture still provides employm ...PermalinkFitzgibbon Catherine; Crosskey Alexandra; Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) ; et al. - FAO, 2013This technical brief argues that disaster risk reduction (DRR) interventions should not only focus on addressing the hazards that causes disasters but should also encompass actions that reduce vulnerability to disaster risk and build local capacity to cope. It identifies good practice in DRR interventions and illustrates how risk-reduction considerations can be systematically incorporated into all development and humanitarian policies and programming.PermalinkThis report provides illustrative examples of the variety of work on climate change adaptation that is underway in the United States and insight into the resultant gaps and opportunities available for advancing this essential aspect of sustainability. The report focuses on four areas of activity: agriculture, natural resources, human communities, and policy.PermalinkUN/ISDR, 2013This post-2015 framework for disaster risk reduction background paper is being developed based on five sub-regional studies conducted by UNISDR on this issues of vulnerability with specific reference to gender in the Asia Pacific Region, and the consultations conducted by the Stakeholder Group on Gender and Women’s Issues, UNISDR Asia Partnership (IAP).
The paper was reviewed by the Asia Pacific Regional Coordination Mechanism Thematic Working Group on Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (RCM TWG-GEEW), and shared with the UN Gender Group in the Pacific and the Pacific ...PermalinkThis document explains resilience in the context of disaster and climate change, giving nine examples of case studies from Action Contre la Faim (ACF) resiliency projects around the world. The document is comprised of six sections: (i) section one defines resilience and the effects of shocks and stresses; (ii) section two explains ACF's target groups for resilience (individuals, households, and communities); (iii) section three explains how to measure resilience and the characteristics of disaster resilient communities; (iv) section four offers three strategies to operationalize resilience to ...PermalinkFAO, 2013This framework explains the Disaster Risk Reduction for Food and Nutrition Security Framework Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) which has been undertaken with the goal of enhancing the resilience of livelihoods against threats and emergencies to ensure the food and nutrition security of vulnerable farmers, fishers, herders, foresters and other at risk groups. The framework presents four thematic pillars which mirror the priorities outlined in the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA): (i) enable the environment, emphasizing good governance and effective ...PermalinkUtrecht University, 2013This report explores the need for a shift in flood risk management strategies (FRMSs), such as risk prevention, flood defense, mitigation, preparation and recovery, in order to create a more resilient Europe, and the governance challenges which such a shift in FRMSs may pose to society. The aim of this report is to identify questions for further research.
This report is the second in a series of four which were compiled by the STAR-FLOOD project.PermalinkThere are several ways of promoting women’s economic participation while also counteracting climate change. One approach in the field of climate mitigation is the promotion of renewable energies that can help avoid greenhouse gas emissions. It is observed that less attention is paid to the potential that lies in the combination of climate mitigation/ adaptation and the economic empowerment of rural women; yet mitigation or adaptation activities offer opportunities to advance the economic empowerment of women. In particular, this applies to work that is already being undertaken by women or acti ...PermalinkThis paper highlights evidence of disaster risk governance at national and local levels in Indonesia. Drawing upon the strength of social network approach, it specifically analyzes and presents the network of actors in disaster risk reduction policy reform in Indonesia where civil society plays vital roles. Two case studies are provided to exemplify the roles of civil society at local level. The paper concludes that disaster reduction policy reform at different levels in Indonesia have been equally coproduced by civil society, local governments, national government and international actors.
PermalinkIFRC, 2013The report summarises the inaugural Red Cross National Disaster Resilience Roundtable, held in Melbourne in September 2012, and which brought together 43 researchers, policy makers, peak bodies, not for profit organisations and community members, representing both emergency management and the community sector, to explore the application of social capital to disaster resilience. It considers social capital as a type of capital, like financial and human capital, that can be invested in and drawn upon; and it examines in more detail the application of social capital as a concept, to further under ...PermalinkIFRC, 2013This short pamphlet sets out some preliminary findings from a 2-year comparative study of legislation for disaster risk reduction in 26 countries.PermalinkOver five years from 2008 to 2012, around 144 million people were forced from their homes in 125 countries. In 2012, an estimated 32.4 million people in 82 countries were newly displaced by disasters associated with natural hazards triggered by climate- and weather-related events (98 per cent of all displacement in 2012; 83 per cent over five years), with flood disasters in India and Nigeria accounting for 41 per cent of global displacement in 2012. In India, monsoon floods displaced 6.9 million and in Nigeria 6.1 million people were newly displaced. The Global Estimates report determines that ...PermalinkPermalinkBulletin, Vol. 61(1). WMO, 2012People from Ethiopia, Nepal, Kiribati, Brazil, Nunavut and Bangladesh – their common link: they share the same planet and civilization.PermalinkAn important component of the submission of the ACCESS coupled model data to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) is publishing a comprehensive set of the CMIP5 requested data and ensuring the data meets the stringent CMIP5 format and quality requirements. CMIP5 specifies a standard for model output where each parameter is stored in a single NetCDF file and includes additional meta-data. These requirements are designed to make analysis of the data as straight forward as possible. This document describes the ACCESS Post-Processor (APP), and how it is used. The APP has been ...PermalinkSpace Weather Impacts on Aviation examines the effects of solar flares, coronal mass ejections, and other solar phenomena on aviation operations. The lesson builds on background science knowledge taught in the course prerequisite, Space Weather Basics, 2nd Edition. The content gives aviation forecasters and others an overview of the information and products available from NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center and provides practice interpreting and using those products for decision support during space weather events.PermalinkThe module reviews the fundamental steps for writing a Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (TAF) using guidelines and recommendations developed by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). This module outlines effective forecast methodologies to develop TAFs that represent the expected conditions that aviation customers can use to make operational decisions and minimize unnecessary costs. The module walks users through the process of analysis of satellite, surface, and observational data to create a TAF forecast for an airport in the Caribbea ...PermalinkThe international science community has identified a set of Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) that should be monitored for measuring the climate system, how it is changing, and its likely impact on future climate. Environmental satellites play an important role in this effort. They are uniquely positioned to provide broad, spatially consistent, and continuous global sampling of many of the ECVs. This module explores the benefits of monitoring the climate system with satellites. We begin by reviewing how satellites observe key atmospheric elements and features that are found in a variety of cl ...PermalinkThis one-hour online learning module provides an overview of the key concepts, benefits and principles of an effective quality management system (QMS) based on the ISO 9001:2008 quality management standard. It also introduces guidelines for the successful implementation of a QMS in aviation weather service agencies. Although primarily aimed at management personnel responsible for implementing, monitoring, and updating QMS processes, it also provides a basic introduction to QMS suitable for all agency staff. The first part of this module provides a general overview, introduces key concepts and ...PermalinkThis publication provides children and youth in Asia a platform to report on progress made towards "the need to protect women, children and other vulnerable groups from the disproportionate impacts of disaster and to empower them to promote resiliency within their communities and workplaces" (as recognized in the declaration adopted in Incheon by the Asia Ministerial Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction in 2010) from their own point of view. Previous surveys conducted with children globally show that their views on local governance for disaster risk reduction often tend to be less positive th ...PermalinkThe primary conviction of this report is driven by a concern that people’s exposure and vulnerability, experienced individually and collectively, continue to be twin challenges for the Asia-Pacific region. Faced with growing economic losses and increasingly vulnerable populations, this report has analyzed the drivers of risks and the strategies that are in place to deal with the growing risks.
The report has pursued three primary questions that all dedicated collaborators in the region need to join, “How do they and the people with whom they work understand the disaster risks in ...PermalinkUNESCO, 2012This collection of papers, presented at the symposium ‘Climate change, water stress, conflict and migration’ held on 21 September 2011 in the Netherlands, highlight how climate change, water stress and other environmental problems threaten human security. For example, the paper by Muniruzzaman ilustrates how water ignores political and community boundaries, and how decisions in one place can significantly affect water use elsewhere. India’s plans to build more dams could, for instance, have devastating affects for Pakistan’s agricultural productivity which is highly dependent on water supply f ...PermalinkITU, 2012The ICT industry is at the forefront of the efforts to tackle climate change and meet resource efficiency challenges with the potential to reduce global CO2 emissions by 15% by 2020 (relative to 1990 levels). A key for the realisation of this strategy is the development of green ICT standards, which has been the focus of the second Green Standards Week (Paris, 17 – 21 September).Permalink
This Knowledge Centre on Cities and Climate Change (in short: K4C) helps you to keep track of what is happening in the field of cities and climate change, by serving as a platform for sharing experiences and best practices, as well as facilitating exchange of innovative initiatives.
K4C provides you with access to hundreds of publications and reports and a world map provides you with an overview of cities, countries and regions for which good practice examples and documents are available. Moreover, through K4C you can get in touch directly with institutions and communities that are prom ...PermalinkMIDIMAR, 2012This document identifies all areas prone to floods and landslides in Rwanda for effective prevention, mitigation and preparedness planning mechanisms. It is intended to: (i) identify and map all areas prone to floods and landslides; (ii) increase knowledge on areas at risk in the country for effective Disaster Risk Reduction in Rwanda; (iii) create scientifically driven explanations on the main causes of vulnerability caused by floods and landslides; and (iv) help the local community to understand the natural phenomena/hazards that they are exposed to and raise their awareness for disaster ris ...PermalinkThis study explores how far social justice is considered in local adaptations to climate change impacts across the UK. It was undertaken just as the UK Government increased its commitment to the adaptation agenda – at the same time as public-sector funding cuts reduced the scope and scale of climate change activities at the local level. Its findings are relevant for all bodies operating at this level whose climate change adaptation activities impact on vulnerable communities. The study provides a wealth of insights into how social justice can be incorporated into adaptation planning. It was in ...PermalinkHayden Jacqueline; Cologon Kathy; Asia-Pacific Regional Network for Early Childhood (ARNEC); et al. - ARNEC, 2012This guidebook provides background information on Early Childhood Development (ECD) and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), and sets out processes for assessing the capacity and needs at community levels to further identify future steps to improve ECD in DRR. Furthermore, it addresses the vulnerability faced by children and the efforts to mitigate underlying causes of these vulnerabilities. Beyond national and international, policy and political issues, DRR occurs within communities and at the programme level. DRR processes and activities have the potential to address the special needs of young chi ...PermalinkThis study investigates the choice of occupational focus versus diversification between household members in rural Bangladesh as an autonomous and proactive adaptation strategy against ex ante local rainfall variability risks. The analysis combines nationally representative household level survey data with historical climate variability information at the Upazila level. The authors note that flood prone Upazilas may face reduced risks from local rainfall variability as compared with non-flood prone Upazilas. They find that two members of the same household are less likely to be self-employed i ...PermalinkWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO); Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC); et al. - WMO, 2012The demand for information on global climate has never been greater.Many regions in the world are clearly impacted by changes in climate, and those changes need to be managed now.It took years of work by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), assessing the climate science literature, and by the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), advancing the state of climate science, to raise the awareness that observations of climate need to be available on a global scale to underpin decisions.The year 2012 marks the 20th anniversary of the system dedicated to providing the observational ...PermalinkThis study aims to understand the extent to which refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) have perceived, experienced and responded to climatic variability and long-term negative climatic change in the east and Horn of Africa. The report is based on discussions with 150 IDPs and refugees from Ethiopia and Uganda, many of whom were farmers and pastoralists from Eritrea, Somalia and eastern Sudan. Key findings include: many of the refugees interviewed had perceived discernible shifts in weather in their home countries over the past 10 to 15 years; where movement away from homelands was ...PermalinkThis study presents global estimates for the number of people newly displaced in 2011 by disasters induced by both weather-related and geophysical hazards, and makes comparisons with findings from 2008, 2009 and 2010. It provides evidence of the scale and location of displacement associated with natural hazard-induced disasters, and is aimed to serve as a contribution to the knowledge required to inform policy and practice, as well as to prevent and prepare for future events.
The study observes that a relatively small number of large and mega-disasters have been responsible for ...PermalinkWHO, 2012The report, Our Planet, Our Health, Our Future
Human health and the Rio Conventions: biological diversity, climate change and desertification, reviews the scientific evidence for the linkages between health and biodiversity, climate change and desertification, the representation of health in the corresponding Rio Conventions, and the opportunities for more integrated and effective policy.PermalinkUNHCR, 2012This chapter examines the international response to the displacement linked to climate change and natural disasters. It begins by describing the displacement challenges linked to the effects of climate change and natural disasters, and then describes a potential normative gap in the protection of people displaced across borders owing to these phenomena. It concludes that protection gaps need to be addressed by the international community, and that solidarity will be tested by the impacts of climate change.PermalinkAs a follow-up to a first paper A preliminary analysis of flood and storm disaster data in Viet Nam, this Quang Binh case study provides a more in-depth disaster profile of one particular province in Viet Nam, including specific temporal and spatial distribution patterns while using district aggregated data. It also looks deeper into the relationship between disasters and poverty through analysis of various indicators: number of deaths, impact on housing and agricultural produce, poverty rate and the percentage of poor households.
The first part of this paper examines the disas ...PermalinkBroadband commission, 2012The purpose of the report is to raise awareness about the pivotal role that ICT and broadband can play in helping to create the low-carbon economy of the future, and it identifies best practices, expresses the views of leaders and outlines clear recommendations for policymakers.
It emphasizes the kind of transformative solutions that are enabled by broadband and provides practical examples of how broadband can be used to help societies reduce greenhouse gas emissions, mitigate and adapt to the effects of climate change, and promote resource efficiency. The report concludes with ...PermalinkADB, 2012Climate change will increase the frequency of extreme weather events, making more geographic places inhospitable to human habitation and secure livelihoods. This report presents a detailed picture of the potential impacts of climate change on migration in Asia and the Pacific. It draws upon a wealth of research to provide policy makers with informed analysis of an emerging phenomenon requiring urgent attention by governments and the international community. The report also suggests that climate-induced migration should be seen not only as a threat to human well-being but also as a potential to ...PermalinkThis paper examines the effect of multilateral energy technology initiatives, so called "Implementing Agreements", on international research collaboration in seven important climate change mitigation technologies. The analysis is conducted using patent data on 33 OECD countries during the period 1970- 2009. We find that co-invention is significantly affected by the membership in the Implementing Agreement. Extending adherence to other countries would increase co-invention by about 90% in the case of wind and fuel cells, and even more in the case of biofuels, solar PV and CCS. Given the urgency ...PermalinkUNEP, 2012The guidebook is structured in eight chapters. First, the guidebook introduces the main concepts to be used. Four generic categories are defined: consumer goods, capital goods, public goods and non-market goods. These categories are used throughout the book to ease the identification of generic barriers and measures. Thereafter, guidance is provided on how to identify and analyse barriers to the transfer and diffusion of climate technologies.PermalinkOrganización Meteorológica Mundial (OMM); Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura (UNESCO); Comisión Oceanográfica Intergubernamental (COI); et al. - OMM, 2012PermalinkOrganisation météorologique mondiale (OMM); Organisation des Nations Unies pour l'Education, la Science et et la Culture (UNESCO); Commission Océanographique Intergouvernementale (COI); et al. - OMM, 2012PermalinkEl doctor Salinger, ex presidente de la Comisión de Meteorología Agrícola de la OMM (2006-2010), esboza los retos de la Comisión por lo que respecta a contribuir a la seguridad alimentaria, desarrollando así el papel que ha desempeñado durante los últimos 60 años.PermalinkBulletin, Vol. 60 (1). WMO, 2011PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Ten Hoeve J.E.; Remer L.A.; Jacobson M.Z. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Aerosol, cloud, water vapor, and temperature profile data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are utilized to examine the impact of aerosols on clouds during the Amazonian biomass burning season in Rondônia, Brazil. It is found that increasing background column water vapor (CWV) throughout this transition season between the Amazon dry and wet seasons likely exerts a strong effect on cloud properties. As a result, proper analysis of aerosol-cloud relationships requires that data be stratified by CWV to account better for the influence of background meteorological vari ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Xing J.; Wang S.X.; Chatani S.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants in China influence not only local and regional environments but also the global atmospheric environment; therefore, it is important to understand how China's air pollutant emissions will change and how they will affect regional air quality in the future. Emission scenarios in 2020 were projected using forecasts of energy consumption and emission control strategies based on emissions in 2005, and on recent development plans for key industries in China. We developed four emission scenarios: REF (current control legislations and implementation status), ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 7. Fiedler V.; Arnold F.; Ludmann S.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011Airborne measurements of trace gases and aerosol particles have been made in two aged biomass burning (BB) plumes over the East Atlantic (Gulf of Guinea). The plumes originated from BB in the Southern-Hemisphere African savanna belt. On the day of our measurements (13 August 2006), the plumes had ages of about 10 days and were respectively located in the middle troposphere (MT) at 3900–5500 m altitude and in the upper troposphere (UT) at 10 800–11 200 m. Probably, the MT plume was lifted by dry convection and the UT plume was lifted by wet convection. In the more polluted MT-plume, numerous me ...PermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Gilardoni S.; Vignati E.; Marmer E.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011The quantification of sources of carbonaceous aerosol is important to understand their atmospheric concentrations and regulating processes and to study possible effects on climate and air quality, in addition to develop mitigation strategies.
In the framework of the European Integrated Project on Aerosol Cloud Climate Interactions (EUCAARI) fine (DpPermalinkAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Vol. 11. N° 3. Heue K.-P.; Brenninkmeijer C.A.M.; Baker A.K.; et al. - Copernicus GmbH, 2011The ash cloud of the Eyjafjallajökull (also referred to as: Eyjafjalla (e.g. Schumann et al., 2011), Eyjafjöll or Eyjafjoll (e.g. Ansmann et al., 2010)) volcano on Iceland caused closure of large parts of European airspace in April and May 2010. For the validation and improvement of the European volcanic ash forecast models several research flights were performed. Also the CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) flying laboratory, which routinely measures at cruise altitude (≈11 km) performed three dedicated measurements flights ...Permalinkis an issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences. The Royal Society, 2011PermalinkPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 369. N° 1934. Thornton Philip K.; Jones Peter G.; Ericksen Polly J.; et al. - The Royal Society, 2011Agricultural development in sub-Saharan Africa faces daunting challenges, which climate change and increasing climate variability will compound in vulnerable areas. The impacts of a changing climate on agricultural production in a world that warms by 4°C or more are likely to be severe in places. The livelihoods of many croppers and livestock keepers in Africa are associated with diversity of options. The changes in crop and livestock production that are likely to result in a 4°C+ world will diminish the options available to most smallholders. In such a world, current crop and livestock variet ...PermalinkPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 369. N° 1934. Anderson Kevin; Bows Alice - The Royal Society, 2011The Copenhagen Accord reiterates the international community’s commitment to ‘hold the increase in global temperature below 2 degrees Celsius’. Yet its preferred focus on global emission peak dates and longer-term reduction targets, without recourse to cumulative emission budgets, belies seriously the scale and scope of mitigation necessary to meet such a commitment. Moreover, the pivotal importance of emissions from non-Annex 1 nations in shaping available space for Annex 1 emission pathways received, and continues to receive, little attention. Building on previous studies, this paper uses a ...PermalinkPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 369. N° 1934. Zelazowski Przemyslaw; Malhi Yadvinder; Huntingford Chris; et al. - The Royal Society, 2011The future of tropical forests has become one of the iconic issues in climate-change science. A number of studies that have explored this subject have tended to focus on the output from one or a few climate models, which work at low spatial resolution, whereas society and conservation-relevant assessment of potential impacts requires a finer scale. This study focuses on the role of climate on the current and future distribution of humid tropical forests (HTFs). We first characterize their contemporary climatological niche using annual rainfall and maximum climatological water stress, which als ...PermalinkPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 369. N° 1934. Gemenne François - The Royal Society, 2011Massive population displacements are now regularly presented as one of the most dramatic possible consequences of climate change. Current forecasts and projections show that regions that would be affected by such population movements are low-lying islands, coastal and deltaic regions, as well as sub-Saharan Africa. Such estimates, however, are usually based on a 2°C temperature rise. In the event of a 4°C+ warming, not only is it likely that climate-induced population movements will be more considerable, but also their patterns could be significantly different, as people might react differentl ...PermalinkPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 369. N° 1934. Bowerman Niel H.A.; Frame David J.; Huntingford Chris; et al. - The Royal Society, 2011A number of recent studies have found a strong link between peak human-induced global warming and cumulative carbon emissions from the start of the industrial revolution, while the link to emissions over shorter periods or in the years 2020 or 2050 is generally weaker. However, cumulative targets appear to conflict with the concept of a ‘floor’ in emissions caused by sectors such as food production. Here, we show that the introduction of emissions floors does not reduce the importance of cumulative emissions, but may make some warming targets unachievable. For pathways that give a most likely ...PermalinkPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 369. N° 1934. New Mark; Liverman Diana; Schroder Heike; et al. - The Royal Society, 2011The 1992 UN Framework Convention on Climate Change commits signatories to preventing ‘dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system’, leaving unspecified the level of global warming that is dangerous. In the late 1990s, a limit of 2°C global warming above preindustrial temperature was proposed as a ‘guard rail’ below which most of the dangerous climate impacts could be avoided. The 2009 Copenhagen Accord recognized the scientific view ‘that the increase in global temperature should be below 2 degrees Celsius’ despite growing views that this might be too high. At the same time, t ...PermalinkPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 369. N° 1934. Sanderson M.G.; Hemming D.L.; Betts R.A. - The Royal Society, 2011Climate models vary widely in their projections of both global mean temperature rise and regional climate changes, but are there any systematic differences in regional changes associated with different levels of global climate sensitivity? This paper examines model projections of climate change over the twenty-first century from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report which used the A2 scenario from the IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios, assessing whether different regional responses can be seen in models categorized as ‘high-end’ (those projecting 4°C o ...PermalinkPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 369. N° 1934. Smith Mark Stafford; Horrocks Lisa; Harvey Alex; et al. - The Royal Society, 2011With weakening prospects of prompt mitigation, it is increasingly likely that the world will experience 4°C and more of global warming. In such a world, adaptation decisions that have long lead times or that have implications playing out over many decades become more uncertain and complex. Adapting to global warming of 4°C cannot be seen as a mere extrapolation of adaptation to 2°C; it will be a more substantial, continuous and transformative process. However, a variety of psychological, social and institutional barriers to adaptation are exacerbated by uncertainty and long timeframes, with th ...PermalinkPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 369. N° 1934. Nicholls Robert J.; Marinova Natasha; Lowe Jason A.; et al. - The Royal Society, 2011The range of future climate-induced sea-level rise remains highly uncertain with continued concern that large increases in the twenty-first century cannot be ruled out. The biggest source of uncertainty is the response of the large ice sheets of Greenland and west Antarctica. Based on our analysis, a pragmatic estimate of sea-level rise by 2100, for a temperature rise of 4°C or more over the same time frame, is between 0.5 m and 2 m—the probability of rises at the high end is judged to be very low, but of unquantifiable probability. However, if realized, an indicative analysis shows that the i ...PermalinkPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 369. N° 1934. Warren Rachel - The Royal Society, 2011The papers in this volume discuss projections of climate change impacts upon humans and ecosystems under a global mean temperature rise of 4°C above preindustrial levels. Like most studies, they are mainly single-sector or single-region-based assessments. Even the multi-sector or multi-region approaches generally consider impacts in sectors and regions independently, ignoring interactions. Extreme weather and adaptation processes are often poorly represented and losses of ecosystem services induced by climate change or human adaptation are generally omitted. This paper addresses this gap by re ...PermalinkPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 369. N° 1934. Fung Fai; Lopez Ana; New Mark - The Royal Society, 2011While the parties to the UNFCCC agreed in the December 2009 Copenhagen Accord that a 2°C global warming over pre-industrial levels should be avoided, current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions reductions from these same parties will lead to a 50 : 50 chance of warming greater than 3.5°C. Here, we evaluate the differences in impacts and adaptation issues for water resources in worlds corresponding to the policy objective (+2°C) and possible reality (+4°C). We simulate the differences in impacts on surface run-off and water resource availability using a global hydrological model driven by e ...PermalinkPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 369. N° 1934. Betts Richard A.; Collins Matthew; Hemming Deborah L.; et al. - The Royal Society, 2011The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) assessed a range of scenarios of future greenhouse-gas emissions without policies to specifically reduce emissions, and concluded that these would lead to an increase in global mean temperatures of between 1.6°C and 6.9°C by the end of the twenty-first century, relative to pre-industrial. While much political attention is focused on the potential for global warming of 2°C relative to pre-industrial, the AR4 projections clearly suggest that much greater levels of warming are possible by the end of the twenty-fir ...PermalinkForced displacement due to natural hazard-induced disasters is a large-scale, global phenomenon. This study focuses on quantifying peak levels of displacement, including those due to preventative actions taken before and after the onset of a disaster, as people are forced to flee their homes and lands.PermalinkPermalinkRaupach Mickael R.; Harman Ian N.; Canadell Josep G. - Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, 2011There are many different ways of quantifying the broad goal of "avoidance of dangerous human interference with the climate system", including targets for global temperature rise, radiative forcing, greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations, GHG emissions in particular years, and cumulative GHG emissions ("carbon budgets"). The purpose of this report is to provide relationships between these different statements of a climate goal. Broadly, the approach is to start from target for global temperature increase above preindustrial temperatures (such as two degrees Celsius or any other target, to be met w ...PermalinkEach model forecast tells a story about the weather events to unfold. As a forecaster, you employ diagnostics to understand and interpret that story, in order to modify it, blend it with other stories, and generate your own forecast. This lesson will help you sift through the abundance of model data so you can understand and interpret the model’s story. Other lessons cover evaluating the model’s story against observations and against your conceptual models of the evolving situation, blending the stories, and adjusting the forecast to add value over an objective forecast. The diagnostic approac ...PermalinkThe "SKYWARN® Spotter Convective Basics" module will guide users to a basic understanding of convective storms. Through three different scenarios, you will cover reporting and proper communication of local storm reports to the National Weather Service (NWS), personal safety during these events, and field identification of convective storm hazards. After completing the scenarios, you will be given the opportunity to practice identifying storm features from a spectrum of photos.PermalinkProvides a concise introduction to volcanic ash through the examples of the Mt. Pinatubo and Eyjafjallajökull eruptions. This is the introduction to a four-part series on Volcanic Ash.PermalinkThis module is the second in the four-part Volcanic Ash series. It provides information about the geological, and geophysical processes related to volcanic activity and volcanic ash in the atmosphere and on the ground. It discusses four types of volcanic eruptions and describes six major volcanic hazards: Tephra Pyroclastic flow Lahar Lava flow Volcanic gas TsunamiPermalinkThis brochure will facilitate an improved general understanding and perception of the role of the WMO Commission for Climatology (CCl), in particular in the context of the development of the new Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS), an initiative approved in 2009 by the third World Climate Conference (WCC-3).PermalinkThe groups and populations likely to be most harmed by climate change are the least responsible for causing it and have the least resources to cope with the consequences—this is the "double injustice". It forms the background to climate negotiations between governments representing countries of the North and the South, but it also occurs within nations across the world. In light of this phenomenon, what are the distributional implications of current, fairly ambitious, policies to decarbonize the economy? Based on research within rich countries of the Organisation for Economic Development and C ...PermalinkILO, 2011This discussion paper was prepared under the auspices of the United Nations Task Team on Social Dimensions of Climate Change, which is currently composed of 20 Agencies, including the International Labour Organization. The paper addresses the social dimensions of climate change from a sustainable, equitable development perspective. It aims to broaden and deepen policy-makers’ understanding of the benefits of addressing and incorporating the social dimensions of climate change into climate policies. In doing so, the paper identifies a number of knowledge gaps within the social, human and natura ...PermalinkILO, 2011This working paper is the joint effort of the Employment Intensive Investment Programme and the Green Jobs Programme. It explores the implications of climate change, its impacts on the world of work and the need for the work of the International Labour Office to adapt to it. It takes stock of the on-going work and identifies the needs for further development.Permalink‘BLOSSOM – Bridging long-term scenario and strategy analysis: organisation and methods’ summarises the results of a three-year project, that examined to what extent foresight studies underpinned environmental policies in 12 EU Member States. It shows several successful examples of how European countries are giving increasing attention to using long term approaches, such as scenario building, when formulating environmental policies.PermalinkThrough a wide variety of proxy records, including ice cores, tree rings, sediments, corals, rocks and fossils, among others, the modern science of paleoclimatology reveals that climate variability and change were present on our planet long before our ancestors. More recently, there are several references in our recorded history to unusual periods in some parts of the world, such as the Medieval Climatic Anomaly and the subsequent Little Ice Age, as well as exceptional events like the “year without a summer” of 1816, attributed to the colossal 1815 Mount Tambora eruption.PermalinkECLAC, 2005-[...], 2011The Yearbook covers demographic, social, economic issues; it also provides data on natural resources and environment.Permalink